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A. C. MADAN, M.A., 







There is probably no African language so widely known 
as the Swabili. It is understood along the coasts of 
Madagascar and Arabia, it is spoken by the Seedees in 
India, and is the trade language of a very large part of 
Central or Intertropical Africa. Zanzibar traders pene- 
trate sometimes even to the western side of the conti- 
nent, and they are in the constant habit of traversino- 
more than half of it with their supplies of Indian and 
European goods. Throughout this immense district 
any one really familiar with the Swahili language will 
generally be able to find some one who can understand 
him, and serve as an interpreter. 

This consideration makes it a point of the greatest 
importance to our Central African Mission that Swahili 
Bhould be thoroughly examined and well learnt. For 
if the members of the Mission can go forth from Zan- 
zibar, or, still better, can leave England already well 
acquainted with this language, and provided with 
books and translations adapted to their wants, the}' 
will carry with them a key that can unlock the secrets 
of an immense variety of strange dialects, whose very 
names are as yet unknown to us. For they will not 

iv fueface. 

onl}'" be able at once to communicate witb new tribes, 
but in mastering this really simple and far from 
difficult language tbey will have learnt how to set 
about learning and writing all others of the same class, 
since they agree with Swahili in all the chief respects 
in which it differs from our European tongues. 

The work, then, which is here begun is not to be 
regarded as though its utility were confined to the 
islands and the narrow strip of coast of which this 
language is the vernacukir, but much rather as the 
broad foundation on which our labours in the far inte- 
rior must for many years be built up. As there is no 
way by which those inner lands are so ordinarily or can 
be so easily reached as from Zanzibar and the coast 
dependent on it, so neither is there any way by which 
we can make ourselves so readily intelligible, or by 
'which the Gospel can be preached so soon or so well as 
by means of the language of Zanzibar and its dependen- 
cies, to which this work is intended as an introduction 
— a language which, through its Arabic relations, has 
a hold on revealed religion, and even on European 
thought, while, through its negro structure, it is 
exactly fitted to serve as an interpreter of that re- 
ligion and those thoughts to men who have not yet 
even heard of their existence. 

When Bishop Tozer arrived in Zanzibar at the end of 
August 1864, the only guides we had to the language 
were the grammar and vocabulary of Dr. Krapf, and his 
translation of part of the Book of Common Prayer. 
During Bishop Tozer's visit to Mombas in November, 
he made a copy of a revised vocabulary belonging to 


tlie Eev. J. Eebmann. However, although one cannot 
estimate too highly the diligence and linguistic ability 
displayed by Dr. Krapf and the patient sagacity of Mr. 
Eebmann, we soon found that, owing partly to the fact 
of their collections having been made in the dialect of 
Mombas, and still more to the confused and inexact 
style of spelling adopted unfortunately by both, their 
works were of scarcely any use to a mere beginner. 

I soon after procured copies of the manuscript voca- 
bularies collected by Mr. Witt and Mr. Schultz, then 
representing the firm of O'Swald and Co. in Zanzibar, 
and with such help as I could procure from any quarter, 
I began in July 1865 to print the first pages of my col- 
lections for a " Handbook of Swahili as Spoken in 
Zanzibar." When I had proceeded as far as page 33, I 
made the acquaintance of Hamis wa Tani and of his 
son Mohammed, both of them well acquainted with 
English and French, and of pure Swahili extraction. 
To the disinterested kindness of Mohammed, who, 
while confined to his house by sickness, allowed me to 
spend every Saturday morning in questioning him 
about his language, I owe all that is best in my know- 
ledge of African tongues. With his help and revision I 
completed the list of substantives, and found my way 
through the intricacies of the adjectives and pronouns. 
Of how much importance an accurate guide in these 
matters would be may be seen from the " Table of 
Concords," first printed in Zanzibar, in a form sug- 
gested by Bishop Tozer, and now reprinted as part 
of this volume. 

Mohammed's sickness increasing about the time that 


I had begun to print the conjugation of the verb, I was 
unable to continue my visits, and completed the " Col- 
lections " from Dr. Krapf, with the help of the voca- 
bulary collected by the late Baron von der Decken 
and Dr. Kersten, and of that collected by the Eev. 
Thomas Wakefield of the United Methodist Free 
Churches' Mission, both of which I was kindly allowed 
to copy. 

After Mohammed's partial recovery I continued my 
visits to him, and went through the verbs, making first 
a list of useful EngKsh verbs from a dictionary, and 
entering all the words contained in the collections of 
which I had copies. I thus checked and supplemented 
what others had already done, and obtained a tolerably 
complete insight into that branch of the vocabulary. 
Before I could get much beyond this, Mohammed was 
so far recovered as to be able to sail for Bombay. I 
have always much pleasure in acknowledging how 
much I owe to him. 

Meanwhile I had begun my collection of short tales 
in Swahili, the first of which were printed in Zanzibar 
with an interlinear version, under the title of " Speci- 
mens of Swahili," in March 1866, and reprinted in 
an early number of " Mission Life." I also began to 
use my Swahili to a practical purpose by making the 
collections for a handbook of the Shambala language, 
the first draft of which was completed in May 1866. 
These collections were made with a view to the mission 
since commenced in that country by the Rev. C. A. 
Alington ; they were revised by the help of another 
teacher, and printed in Zanzibar in the j^ear 1867. 


Finding the Swahili tales most valuable as well to 
myself as to those who were studying with me, I pro- 
ceeded to print a further collection, with the title 
" Hadithi za Kiunguja" in Swahili only. For the tales 
then printed I was mainly indebted to Hamis wa Kayi, 
a very intelligent young Swahili, who always compre- 
hended better what a foreigner wanted to know, ami 
explained more clearly what was difficult, than any one 
else I met with while in Zanzibar. 

At the same period I had begun and carried on from 
time to time the investigation of the Yao or Achowa 
language, one peculiarly interesting to us, as that of 
nearly all the released slaves under Bishop Mackenzie's 
charge, and as having now supplanted the Mang'anja 
in the country where our Mission was originally settled. 
From this study I first gained a definite notion of the 
wonderful effect the letter n has in African languages, 
and so came to understand the origin of several appa- 
rent irregularities in Swahili. 

I had begun even before Mohammed bin Khamis left 
Zanzibar to make some essays in translation, the best of 
which are embodied in a pamphlet printed in Zanzibar, 
with the title " Translations in Swahili : " it was com- 
pleted in January 1867. 

I was then getting help from many quarters, and on 
explaining to some of our native friends our wish to 
make a complete translation of the Bible into their 
language, one of them. Sheikh *Abd al 'Aziz, kindly 
volunteered to translate for me the Arabic Psalter into 
the best and purest Swahili. I found, before long, that 
not only did his numerous avocations prevent any rapid 

viii PREFACE. 

progress, but that his language was too learned to suit 
exactly our purpose in making the version ; it did not 
therefore proceed further than the Sixteenth Psalm. 1 
printed these as at once a memorial of his kindness 
and a specimen of what one of the most learned men 
in Zanzibar considers the most classical form of his 

I cannot but mention at the same time the name of 
Sheikh Mohammed bin Ali, a man of the greatest 
research, to whose kindness I was indebted for a copy, 
made by his own hand, of some very famous Swahili 
poetry, with an interlinear Arabic version ; he also 
revised for me a paraphrase of it in modern language, 
for which I was chiefly indebted (as for much other 
help) to Hassan bin Yusuf, whose interest in our doc- 
trines and teachings has always been most marked. 
The verses and translation are both printed in the 
" Swahili Tales." 

At the end of 1867 I printed a translation of Bishop 
Forbes' little primary catechism, chosen as being the 
shortest and clearest I could find to begin upon. 
Though very imperfect, I am glad to think that it 
has been found of use. 

When I had completed the Yao collections, I went on 
to the Nyamwezi language, as being that of the largest 
and most central tribe with which there is constant and 
tolerably safe communication. 

In November 1867 I lost, by the sadly sudden deaths 
of the Eev. G. E. Drayton and his wife, most useful 
helpers, who were beginning to be able to give me sub- 
stantial assistance. Their places were, however, well 


siippKed by the Bev. AV. and Mrs. Lea, wlio arrived 
opportunely just before the time of our bereavement. 
I was then engaged in preparing the translations of 
St. Matthew's Gospel and of the Psalms, as well as in 
beginning to put in order the materials for the present 
work. To Mr. Lea I was indebted, amongst other 
things, for the first version of the 119th Psalm, and to 
Mrs. Lea for the arrangement of the Swahili-Engiish 
Vocabulary. The last thing I printed in Zanzibar was 
a translation of the Easter and Advent Hymns, and of 
Adeste Fideles, which I had the pleasure of hearing 
the girls of the Mission Orphanage sing most sweetly 
to the old tunes just before I left. 

I ought also to mention that, having been often under 
great obligations to the French Eomanist Mission, I 
had the pleasure of printing for them a Catechism in 
French and Swahili, which was indirectly valuable to 
me as showing how the great truths we have in 
common were rendered by a perfectly independent 
student of the language. I know not how sufficiently 
to regret that the excellent compiler, Pere Etienne 
Baur, should have been content to use the jargon (for 
it is nothing better) commonly employed by Indians 
and Europeans, and should have adopted an ortho- 
graphy adapted only to a French pronunciation. 

Only three weeks before leaving I had the advan- 
tage of consulting two large manuscript dictionaries 
compiled by Dr. Krapf, and brought to Zanzibar by 
the Eev. E. L. Pennell. I was able to examine about 
half the Swahili-Engiish volume, with the assistance 
of Hamis wa Kayi, enough to enrich materially my 


previous collections, and to show how far even now 
1 fall short of my first predecessor in the work of 
examining and elucidating the languages of Eastern 
Africa. There remains for some future time or other 
hand * the examination of the rest of Dr. Krapf 's 
dictionary, as well as the collation of what will no 
doubt deserve to be the standard Swahili lexicon, on 
which the Eev. John Eebmann has been for nearly a 
quarter of a century labouring unweariedly. Even 
then there will remain many dialectic variations, and 
many old and poetical words and inflections, so that 
for many years one who loves such studies might find 
employment in this one language. 

Since my arrival in England, at the end of November 
1868, I have been able to superintend the printing of 
the Gospel of St. Matthew in Swahili, liberally under- 
taken by the Bible Society, of translations of the 
Church Catechism and of their Scriptural Eeading 
Lessons out of the Old Testament, kindly undertaken 
by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
For the Central African Mission I have carried through 
the press this work and the collection of Swahili 
Stories with an English version, published by Messrs. 
Bell and Sons, of which those previously printed at 
Zanzibar form a small part, and besides these a number 
of small pamphlets, including translations of the Books 
of Euth and Jonah, and some slight specimens of the 
Gindo, Zaramo, and Ngazidja languages. There remain 
the Psalms, which the Bible Society has promised to 
print for us, and the collections in the Yao and Nyam- 
wezi languages, all which I should like to get through 


the press in the course of this year. I wish there were 
a chance of the Eev. John Eebmann's Swahili version 
of St. Luke's Gospel, of which I have seen a large part, 
being printed at the same time. 

This handbook is arranged on the principle of sup- 
plying w^ith each portion of it such rules as are re- 
quired for the practical use of that portion. In the 
first part, after some introductory observations. Sub- 
stantives, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs have each 
a separate section, containing first the rules which 
govern their inflection and employment, and then an 
alphabetical list of the Swahili equivalents of our 
English words belonging to each part of speech. For 
the mere finding of words one general alphabet would 
perhaps have been more convenient ; but as the object 
of this work is not merely to tell what the Swahili 
words are, but also how to employ them correctly, it 
seems better so to group them as to bring the rules of 
grammar and the words which they control into as 
close a connection with one another as possible. The 
Editor has done what most readers would have had to 
do — sort out first the word and then the grammatical 
rules which must be observed in using it. The minor 
parts of speech are indexed together to avoid a multi- 
plicity of alphabets, except the Interjections, which 
cannot be said to have exact equivalents in any other 
language. The part ends with a section on the forma- 
tion of words, which may be of use where the other 
alphabets fail to give a satisfactory rendering, and 
may also be useful as a guide in turning Swahili into 
English, in the case of the many words which igno- 


ranee or some oversiglit in preparing tlie second part 
may have caused to be omitted. The rales and hints 
prefixed to the second part are intended to enable any- 
one who sees or hears a Swahili word to ascertain the 
material part of it, so as to be able to use the dictionary 
which follows. It is evident that there must be great 
difficulties at first in either using or arranging an 
alphabetical list of words which may begin with, in 
some cases, nine or ten different letters, according to 
the grammatical position they hold in each case. 
However, the difficulty is greater in appearance than 
in practice. 

The Appendices contain some curious or useful 
matter which could not well find a place in the body 
of the work. The first contains a specimen of a curious 
kind of enigmatical way of writing and speaking called 
Kinyume. The second gives a specimen of the forms 
used in letter- writing, both in prose and verse. The 
third is part of a Swahili tale, with all the prefixes 
separated and the grammatical forms explained, in- 
tended as a guide and introduction to the art of 
reading, and through that of writing the language. 
The fourth Appendix consists of a small collection of 
phrases, some of them such as are wanted in ordinary 
conversation, some of them useful in illustrating the 
idiom or peculiar constructions used by natives. This 
collection might have been very much increased had 
it not been carefully confined to phrases actually met 
with in conversation with persons reputed to speak 

FBEFACE. xiii 

The name of the language — Swahili — is beyond all 
doubt a modified form of the Arabic Sawahil, the plural 
of Sahil, a coast. The natives themselves jestingly 
derive it from Sawa Mia, which a Zanzibar interpreter 
would explain as " All same cheat." 

Little Stee'ping, May 1870. 

C ^- ) 


The First Edition having been at the last sold out 
with unexpected rapidity, I have not been able to add 
so much as I should have wished to this. The chief 
novelty is the omission of what I called the second 
class of Substantives, which proved to be only the most 
common instance of the general rule, that Substantives 
of any and every form denoting animate beings are 
constructed with Adjectives and Pronouns in the forms 
proper to the first class. Some words have been added 
to the Vocabularies and a few mistakes corrected. 

During the last four years the work of translation 
and collection has been going steadily forward, Swahili 
preaching has been going on, and some Elementary 
School-books printed in Zanzibar for our vernacular 
schools. The great work of evangelizing Africa seems 
to grow in magnitude the more one understands what 
is required for it ; but our hopes still grow with the 
growth of our knowledge. 

Edwabd StEEPwE, 

XiOndoTif January 1875. 


This Edition may be taken to represent substantially 
the final form whicli the Handbook assumed in the 
hands of its compiler, the late Bishop Steere. No 
estimate can be attempted here of his services to 
philology in general, and the student of African 
languages in particular, stiJl less of their bearing on 
the spread of Christianity in Central Africa. What- 
ever the relative purity of the dialects of Mombasa and 
Zanzibar, and however great the debt Bishop Steere 
undoubtedly owed to his distinguished predecessor in 
their study, Dr. Krapf, the broad fact remains that 
Bishop Steere took the language as he found it spoken 
in the capital city of the East Coast, reduced its rules 
to so lucid and popular a form as not only to make it 
accessible, but easy to all students, and finally made a 
great advance towards stereotyping its forms and ex- 
tending its use by embodying it in copious writings 
and translations. 

Some of the last hours of his life were apparently 
spent in preparing this Handbook for a new edition. 
Those who were familiar with the many cares and 
anxieties then pressing on him, will not be surprised 
that there were signs of haste and pressure in his 


xviii PREFACE, 

revision. With Part I., however, lie seems to have 
been satisfied. The corrections of the text were few 
and unimportant, and though the Lists of Words might 
have been largely added to, he seems to have preferred 
leaving them as ' they were, in view of the strictly 
practical purpose of the whole book. 

With Part II. (the Swahili-EngHsh Vocabulary, &c.) 
the case is rather different. With the aid of various 
members of the Mission, the Bishop had made some- 
what large collections in order to expand and complete 
it. Probably from the pressure of work before alluded 
to, he had only prepared a selection of them for this 
Edition. It has been thought better, however, to in- 
corporate all the words found in his notes and added 
with his approval. But it must be remembered that 
the Bishop never regarded Part II. as ranking as a 
Dictionary, even in embryo, but rather as a tolerably 
full list of words to serve as a useful companion to 
Part I. Even with this reservation, there remain 
many traces of imperfection in arrangement, spelling, 
and interpretation of words, which would doubtless 
have been removed if he had been allowed time to pass 
the whole list under revision finally. 

This final revision no one is in a position adequately 
to supply. Minor corrections and additions have been 
cautiously and sparingly made. One Appendix (No. Y.), 
likely to subserve the practical aim of the whole, has 
been added, with the Ven. Archdeacon Hodgson's ap- 
proval. There still remain among the Bishop's notes 
some miscellaneous specimens of Swahili verses, pro- 
verlis, riddles. <fcc., which mio-ht have formed another. 


It is thouglit best, however, to reserve them, and leave 
the whole book, as far as possible, as the Bishop left it. 
Subsequent editors may find something to add. They 
probably will not find much to alter. 

A. C. M. 

P.S. — Dr. Krapf 8 great Dictionary of the Swahili 
Language, in its printed form, was in the Bishop's 
hands too short a time to allow of his making any use 
of it for this Edition of the Handbook. 

Zanzibar, Chridmas^ 1882. 




Introduction 1 

The Alphabet 8 

Substantives : — 

Grammatical rules 16 

List of Substantives 24 

Adjectives : — 

Grammatical rules 83 

Irregular Adjectives 86 

Comparison of Adjectives 87 

Numerals 89 

List of Adjectives 94 

Pronouns : — 

Personal Pronouns 102 

Possessive Pronouns 109 

Eeflective Pronouns 112 

Demonstrative Pronouns 113 

Eelative Pronouns 117 

Interrogatives, &c. l'-2 

Verbs : — 

Conjugation 125 

Irregular Verbs 149 

Auxiliary Verbs 155 

Derivative Verbs ... 157 

List of Verbs ... 165 


Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions 

List of Adverbs, &c. 


Formation of Words ... 

Table of Noun Prefixes in nine languages 
Table of the Preposition -a in four languages 







Preliminary Observations , ,.. 239 

Swahili-English Vocabulary 245 

Appendices : — 

I. Specimens of Knyume 425 

II. Specimens of Swahili Correspondence 427 

III. Part of a Swahili Tale, with the Prefixes marked 

and explained 431 

IV. Usnful and Idiomatic Phrases 443 

V. On Money, Weights and measures in Zanzibar „, 455 



The Swaliili language is spoken by the mixed race 
of Arabs and Negroes who inhabit the Eastern Coast 
of Africa, especially in that part which lies between 
Lamoo and the neighbouring towns on the north, and 
Cape Delgado on the south. 

It is classified by Dr. Bleek as one of the Zangian 
genus of the middle branch of the Bantu languages. 
That is to say, it belongs to one of the subdivisions of 
that great family of Negro languages, which carries on 
the work of grammatical inflexion by means of changes 
at the beginning of the word, similar to that whereby 
in Kafir, umuntu, a man, becomes in the plural dbantu, 
people. All these languages divide their nouns into a 
number of classes, which are distinguished by theii 
first syllable, and bring their adjectives, pronouns, and 
verbs into relation with substantives by the use oi 
corresponding changes in their first syllables. None 
of these classes denote sex in any way. Dr. Bleek, in 
his comparative grammar of South African languages, 
enumerates eighteen prefixes which are found in one 
or other of the languages of this family ; but it must 


be remembered that he reckons by the form of the 
prefix only, so that the singular and plural forms of 
most words count as two, while the same form will 
sometimes answer to two or more forms in the other 
number. Dr. Block's arrangement is the most conve- 
nient for his purpose, which is the comparison of the 
formatives used in different languages ; but I have not 
followed it in this work, because I think that for practical 
purposes such a classification should be used as will 
enable the learner who sees or hears the noun in the 
singular at once to put it into the plural. Prefixes 
may be counted up separately ; but in practice we have 
to do with nouns, not with prefixes, and a noun cannot 
be put into a different class when it becomes plural 
or singular without great risk of confusion. Thus in 
Fredoux' Sechuana grammar, 4 and 6 are the plurals 
of 3, 10 and 6 are the plurals of 11, and 6 alone is the 
plural of 5 and 14. Can this be a olear arrangement ? 

I have very little doubt that Dr. Bleek is right in 
regarding these classes as substantially the same with 
the genders in most of the European languages, which 
are even now only sex-denoting to a veiy limited 
extent. There is a distinction in Swahili as to words 
which denote living heings, called by Dr. Krapf, not 
very happily, a masculine gender, though it has no 
relation to sex, but to life only. 

It is very puzzling to a beginner, accustomed to 
languages which change at the end, to find the be- 
ginnings of words so very uncertain. Thus he hears 
that ngema means good ; but when he begins to apply 


his knowledge he finds that natives use for the English 
word good, not only ngema, but micema, wema, mema^ 
njema, jenia, pema, cJiema, vyema, and hwema. Again, 
yangu means my, but he will hear also, wangu, zangu, 
changu, vyangu, langu, pangu, hwangu, and mwangu. It is 
necessary therefore to get at the very first a firm hold 
of the fact that in Swahili it is the end, and not the be- 
ginning of a word, which is its substantial and unchang- 
ing part. The beginning of the word when taken to 
pieces denotes its number, time, and agreements. 

The " Table of Concords " prefixed to the section on 
Adjectives, shows at one view the variables of the 
language ; and when that has been mastered, the diffi- 
culties for an English student will be over. The 
various forms will be explained, and the nicer distinc- 
tions mentioned in the grammatical parts of the book. 
In the preliminary observations prefixed to the second 
part will be found an account of all the changes which 
may occur at the end of a word, changes which in 
practice are very soon mastered, relating as they chiefly 
do to a few points in the conjugation of the verb. 

There is a broken kind of Swahili in use among 
foreigners, Indian as well as European, which serves 
for very many purposes, though it is of course utterly 
useless when one has to speak with exactness, or on 
subjects not immediately connected with the ordinary 
afiairs of life and commerce. Its rules may be briefly 
laid down as follows : — If you are in doubt about how 
to make a plural, prefix ma, or use nyingi, i.e. many. 
In conjugating the verb, always put the subject 

B 2 


before and the object after it, for the present tens© 
prefix na-, for the past wa-, for the future ta-. For rto 
or not^ use hakuna. It is wonderful how intelligible 
you can make yourself by these few rules ; but it is 
just as wonderful what absurd broken stuff can be 
made to do duty for English. 

Let any one, however, who really wishes to speak 
the language get the Table of Concords well into his 
head, by any means he finds best for the purpose, and 
he will have no need to resort to broken and incorrect 
ways of talking. 

Swahili, like all languages of the same family, is 
very rich in Verbs, and poor in Adjectives and Prepo- 
sitions. There is nothing corresponding to the English 
Article, the word when standing alone implying the 
indefinite article, while the definite article can in many 
cases be expressed by the use and arrangement of the 
Pronouns, but still must often be left unexpressed. 
Though the Verb is etymologically the most important 
part of speech, it is the Substantive which determines 
the form of all the variable syllables. The Substan- 
tive will therefore be first considered, and next the 
Adjective, which very closely resembles it. The Pro- 
nouns will come next, as it is by their help that the 
Verb is conjugated, then the Verb itself, and after that 
the minor parts of speech. Adverbs, Prepositions, Con- 
junctions, and, last of all, the Interjections. A sketch 
of the grammar of each part of speech, which aims at 
being sufficient for ordinary and practical purposes, is 
first given, and after that a list of words belonging to 


tliat part of speech, thus forming a combined grammar 
and English-Swahili dictionary. The second part con- 
sists of a Swahili-Engiish vocabulary, and so completes 
the work. 

The Swahili language has been hitherto but litclo 
written by those who speak it, and they know and use 
only the purely Arabic alphabet. There are copies of 
religious and secular verses, and possibly other works, 
composed in the old or poetical dialect, which is not 
now, and I believe never was, thoroughly understood 
by the mass of the people. The modem dialect is used 
in letters; but they have always a string of Arabic 
compliments at the beginning, and Arabic words and 
phrases freely interspersed throughout. 

Any one who tries to read a letter or a poem written 
in Arabic characters, will at once see why it is impos- 
sible to adopt them as the standard Swahili alphabet. 
It is absolutely necessary to have a good idea of what 
you are to read before you can read at all. The reason 
is that Swahili has five vowels, Arabic only three, and 
of Swahili consonants the Arabic supplies no means of 
writing ch, g, p, or v, nor can consecutive consonants be 
written without shocking Arabic notions of propriety. 
Thus the Swahili are driven to write the ba for p and 
for mh as well as for h ; the gJiain for g, ng, and ng\ as 
well as for gh ; the fa for v and mv, as well as for /; 
the ya for ny as well as for y ; the shin for ch as well as 
for sh ; and to omit altogether the n before cZ, y, y, and z. 
Initial vowels and consecutive vowels are only to be 
expressed by Jiemzas or 'ains. In. the first piece of 


written Swahili I ever possessed (the Story of tlie Ox 
and the Ass) the words ng^omhe and punda were written 
ghihe and huda. It will be easily seen how imperfect 
and ambiguous a means of writing Swahili the Arabic 
character must be. An instance occurred while I was 
in Zanzibar of a letter written from Kilwa with the 
account of a fight, in which it was said that one of 
the principal men, ameJciifa, had died, or amevuJca, had 
got away, and which it was no one could certainly 
tell ; the last two consonants were fa and qaf, with 
three dots over them. If two of the dots belonged 
to the first letter, the man was dead ; if two belonged 
to the next letter, he was alive : but the dots were 
so equally placed that no one could tell how to divide 
them. If the Arabic had possessed a v, there could 
have been no mistake. It would no doubt be possible 
to express Swahili sounds by using letters with addi- 
tional dots and affixing arbitrary sounds to the letters 
of prolongation, as is done in Persian and Hindi, but 
the result would puzzle a genuine Swahili and could 
never be quite satisfactory in any respect. 

There seems to be no difficulty in writing Swahili 
in Eoman characters, there being no sound which does 
not 80 nearly occur in some European language that 
the proper way of writing it can readily be fixed upon, 
and illustrated by an example. When this is the case 
there is no need to look for anything further. I think 
those who tiy to settle the alphabets of new languages 
are too apt to forget how essential simplicity is to a 
really good alphabet. If the Eoman alphabet can be 


made to distinguisli all the sounds used in that lan- 
guage, it does all for it that it does for any. To at- 
tempt to distinguish the sounds used in that language, 
from the sounds used in another, or to mark all the 
varieties of tone which occur in speaking, is always 
useless and embarrassing, and not one man in a thou- 
sand has sufficient accuracy of ear to do it properly. 
It is practically easier to learn to attach a new 
sound to a known letter, than to learn a new sound 
and a new letter too, especially when the new letter 
has to be printed and written, and the learner is en- 
tangled in a maze of italics and letters with a point 
below and a point above, or a line through them, or 
some Greek letter which has not the sound one gives it 
in Greek, or some new invention which will fit well 
neither into printing nor writing, and looks at its ease 
neither as a capital nor a small letter. It generally 
happens that the sounds of a language, though not 
identical with those of another, correspond with them 
sufficiently to make the corresponding letters appro- 
priate symbols. Thus an English and a French t are 
not identical; but which nation would or ought to 
submit always to put a dot somewhere about its t to 
show that it is not the t which it never will want to 
use, and never did, and could not pronounce, if it met 
with it ? Or, to take a stronger instance, ought Ger- 
mans, Englishmen, and Spaniards always to cross the 
tails of their y's, or print them in italics, or deform their 
books with new symbols, merely because they do not 
pronounce their /s as Frenchmen do theirs? 



The Vowels are to be pronounced as in Italian, the 
Consonants as in English. 

A = a in father, 

B = & in hare. 

Ch= cli in cherry. Italian c before i or e. 

J) = din do. D occurs very frequently in the Mombas dialect 

where j is used in that of Zanzibar. 
E = ai in chair. 
F = / in fine. German v. 
G = g in gate, never soft as in genius. 
H = hin hat. 
I = ee in feet. 
J = j ia joy. Sometimes more like dy or di in cordial. French 

di, German dj, Italian gi. 
K — hin kalendar. 

L = Z in long. L and r are generally treated as the same letter. 
M = m in man. 
N = w in no. 

O = o in hoy, more like au than the common English a. 
P = p in 'paint. 
K = r in raise. An English, not a Scotch, Irish, German, or 

French r. See L. 
S = 8 in Bun. German ss. It is never pronounced like a 2 or 

the English s in arise. S and sh are commonly used for 

one another indiscriminately. 
T = < in ten. T frequently occurs in the dialect of Mombas 

where ch is used in that of Zanzibar. 


U = 00 in tool. 

V = v in very. German lo. 

W = 10 in xoin. French ou. It is merely a u pronounced as a 

Y = j^ in yonder. German j. It is merely an i pronounced as a 

consonant. Y is frequently used in the Lamoo dialect 
where j occurs in that of Zanzibar. 
Z = 2 in zany. German s. Z frequently occurs in the dialect of 
Lamoo where v is used in that of Zanzibar. 

There are several sounds introdnced from the Arabic 
which do not occur in purely African words. 

Gh = the Arabic gliain ; it is a guttural g, resembling 
the Dutch g. It may be obtained by pro- 
nouncing a g (as nearly as it can be done) 
with the mouth wide open. Most Europeans 
imagine, the first time they hear it, that 
there is an r sound after the g, but this is a 

Kh = the Arabic TcTia ; it is a very rough form of the 
German ch, the Spanish j, or the Scotch ch in 
loch. It resembles the sound made in trying 
to raise something in the throat. It may 
always be replaced in SwahiK by a simple ^, 
but never by a h. 

Th = the four Arabic letters tlia, thai, ihod, and thah. 
The first of these is the English th in think, 
the second that in they. The third and fourth 
are thicker varieties of the second sound. In 
Swahili they may all be replaced by a z. No 
attempt is ever made to distinguish the last 
three letters; but as the first is generally 


marked in pronunciation, it is in the first 
part of this handbook marked by printing 
the th in italics wherever it is to be pro- 
nounced as in the English word tJiink. The 
sound of the English th in that occurs in 
some Swahili as a dialectic variation for z. 
In vulgar Swahili z is not merely put for 
the Arabic th, but th is also put for the 
Arabic z, as wathiri for waziri, a vizir. 

There are several compound consonantal sounds 
tv^iich require notice. 

Ch, a very common sound, representing what is 
sometimes a t and sometimes Jci — in other 
dialects. C is not required for any other 
sound, as it can be always represented by k 
when hard, and by s when soft. It would 
probably be an improvement always to write 
the ch sound by a simple c. 

Gn, see ng'. 

Kw represents the sound of qu in queer. 

M frequently stands for mu, in which cases it is pro- 
nounced with a half-suppressed u sound 
before it, and is even capable of bearing the 
accent of the word, as in mtu, a person, where 
the stress of voice is on the w, which has a 
dull nasal semivowel sound, not quite urn. 
Where m occurs before any consonant except 
b or w, it must have this semivowel sound. 


M, standing for mu, has generally its semi- 
vowel sound before u. Before a or e it 
becomes raw, and before o it frequently loses 
the u altogether, and is pronounced as a 
simple m. 

N has frequently a nasal semivowel sound, a half- 
suppressed i being suggested by it. N has 
always this semivowel sound where it is 
immediately followed by c7i, /, A, w, n, or s. 

Is'y has the sound of the Spanish w, the French and 
Italian gn, the Portuguese rih, and the English 
ni in companion, only a little thicker and 
more nasal. 

Ng' is a peculiar African sound, much resembling 
the -ng which occurs at the end of many 
English words. If we could divide longing 
thus, lo-nging, without at all altering the 
pronunciation, it would come very near 
the African sound, which is never a final, 
because all Swahili syllables must end in a 
vowel. Some prefer to write this sound gn-, 
as it resembles the sound given by Germans 
and others to those letters when they occur 
as initial letters in Greek. This sound must 
be distinguished from the common sound of 
ng-, in which the g distinctly passes on to 
the following vowel, as in the English word 
engage; in ng'- both sounds are heard, but 
neither passes on to the vowel. 

Sh is the Arabic shin, the English sh, the French ch. 


the German sch. Sh and s are commonly 
treated as identical. 

P, T, K, and possibly some other letters, have occa- 
sionally an explosive or aspirated sound, 
such as an Irishman will often give them. 
This explosive sound makes no change in 
the letter, but is an addition to it, probably 
always marking a suppressed n. Thus iipepo 
is a ivind, with both ^)'s smooth as in English ; 
but the plural, which should regularly be 
npejpo, is p'ej)o, with a strong explosive sound 
attached to the first letter. This explosive 
sound may be marked by an apostrophe ; it 
is, however, very seldom necessary to the 
Bense of a word, and is noticeably smoothed 
down or omitted by the more refined and 
Arabized Swahili. 

There are other niceties of pronunciation which a 
fine ear may distinguish; but as they are 
by no means essential, and are seldom noticed 
by the natives themselves, it is not worth 
while her© to examine them particularly. 

As a rule, the vowels are all pronounced distin'ctly, 
and do not form diphthongs. When, however, a for- 
mative particle ending in -a is placed before a word 
beginning with e- or i-, the two letters coalesce into a 
long e sound. It is not, however, even in such a case 
as this, always incorrect to pronounce the two vowels 
distinctly, though it is not usually done. The instances 


of and rules for this union of sound will be found 
where the several prefixes which give occasion to it 
are dealt with. 

When two vowels come together at the end of a 
word, they are often to the ear one syllable, and have 
the sound of a diphthong; they are really, however, 
two syllables of which the former bears the accent. 
This is at once apparent in the Merima dialect, in 
which an I is put between the vowels. Thus hufaa, to 
be of use, which sounds as if written hufd, is in the 
Merima dialect hufala. The shifting of the accent 
sometimes shows that the vowels are really separate. 
Thus a common fruit tree is called mzamharau, in which 
word the last two vowels apparently unite into a 
sound like that in the English word how ; but when -ni 
is added, making Mzambarauni, at the zamhardu tree — 
the name of one of the quarters of Zanzibar — the u is 
quite separated from the a, and the last two syllables 
are pronounced like the English -oony. 

It may be assumed in all cases in which two vowels 
come together that an I has been omitted between 
them, and will appear in some modification of the word 
or in its derivatives. 

The shifting of the accent above referred to takes 
place in obedience to the universal rule in Swahili, 
that the main accent of the word is always put upon 
the last syllable but one, a rule which often changes 
the sound of a word so materially as to baffle a beginner 
in his endeavour to seize and retain it. The syllable 
-ni is the chief disturber of accents ; and words which 


end in it may be always suspected of being plural 
imperatives if they are verbs, or of being in what is 
known as the locative case if they are nouns. There 
are only a very few words which end in -ni in their 
simple forms. 

The formation or division of syllables is so closely 
connected with the powers of the letters, that this wdll 
be a proper place to mention it. The rule is that all 
Swahili syllables end in a vowel, and that the vowel 
must be preceded only by a single consonant, or by 
one preceded by n or m, or followed by lo or y. 

There are a few half-assimilated Arabic words in 
which double consonants occur ; but there is a strong 
tendency in all such cases to drop one of the consonants 
and attach the other to the vowel which follows them. 

W can be placed after all the other consonants, 
simple and compound, except perhaps F 
and Y, 

Y can follow F, N, and V. 

These two letters are used in the formation of Verbs, 
-w- being the sign of the passive, and -y- being used to 
give a transitive meaning. In several cases -fy- stands 
for -py- ; -py- occurs in one word only, ^mpya, new. 

N can be placed before D, G, J, Y, and Z. 

M can be placed before B, and perhaps Ch and V. 

M in these instances represents an n- used as a sub- 
stantival and adjectival prefix. Used in this way, n 
before h becomes m ; before I or r it changes the Z or r 
into c?, making nd- instead of nl- or nr- ; before w it 
changes into wi, and the w becomes &, making mh- 


instead of nw-. It is curious that w can be made to 
follow n without any change, but that n cannot be put 
before w. Before k, p, and t, the n is dropped, and 
they become A;', jp\ and t' ; before the other letters ch, 
/", A, 7w, n, and s, it is merely dropped. 

The resulting syllables are not always easy of pro- 
nunciation to a European, as, for instance, nywa in hu- 
nywa, to drink, nor is it very easy to pronounce ngu oi 
nda ; but to a native such sounds present no difficulty, 
whilst he can scarcely pronounce such a word as hlack. 

Instances of the division of syllables will be found 
in the specimen of Kinyume, which forms Appendix I. 
Kinyume is made by taking the last syllable from the 
end of a word and putting it at the beginning, so that 
each instance is a specimen of the native idea as to 
what letters belong to the final syllable. Some Swahili 
are very ready at understanding and speaking this 
enigmatical dialect. 

At the head of each letter in the second part will 
be found some observations on its use and pronun- 



Swaliili nouns have two numbers, singular and plural, 
(v^hicli are distinguished by their initial letters. Upon 
the forms of the Substantives depend the forms of all 
Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs governing or governed 
by them. It is, therefore, necessary to divide them 
into so many classes as there are different forms either 
of Substantives or of dependent words, in order to be 
able to lay down rules for the correct formation of 
sentences. For this purpose Swahili Substantives may 
be conveniently divided into eight classes. 

I. Those beginning with Jf-, 'Jf-, Mu-, or Mw-, in 
the singular, and which denote living beings. They 
make their plural by changing M- &c. into Wa-. 

Mtu, a man ; watu, people. 

The singular prefix represents in all its forms the 
syllable Mu-, which is itself very rarely heard. Before 
a consonant it is almost always pronounced as a semi- 
vowel m, with the u sound before rather than after it. 
Before a and e the u becomes a consonant, and the 
prefix appears as mw-. Before o and u the u is very 


frequently dropped, and the m alone is heard. The 

pn^.fix is treated as a distinct syllable when followed 

by a consonant, but very rarely so when followed by 

a vowel. 

Mchawi, a wizard ; wacJiaivi, wizards. 

Mjusl, a lizard ; wajusi, lizards. 

Mwana, a son ; tcaana, sons. 

Mwoga, or moga, a coward ; waoga, cowards. 

Muumishi, or mumishij a cupper ; waumisM, cuppers. 

When the plural prefix wa- is placed before a word 
beginning with a-, the two a's run together, and are 
seldom distinguishable by the ear alone. When wa- is 
placed before a word beginning with e- or {-, the -a 
flows into the other vowel and produces a long e sound. 

Mwenzi, a companion ; u'enzi, companions. 
Mtvivi, a thief; ivevi, thieves. 

II. Substantives beginning with M-, 'M-, Mu-, or 

Mw-, which do not denote living or animate beings. 
They make their plural by changing M- &c. into Mi-. 
Mti, a tree ; miti, trees. 

The same observations apply to the singular prefix 
in this class as in Class I. 

Mfupa, a bone ; mifupa, bones. 
Mwanzo, a beginning ; mianzo, beginnings, 
Micemhe, a mango tree ; miembe, mango trees. 
Mioiba, a thorn ; miiba, or miba, thorns. 
Moto, a fire ; mioto, fires. 

The names of trees belong to this class. 

III. Those which do not change to form the plural. 

Nyumha, a house ; nyiimba, houses. 


The simple description of nouns of this class is that 
they begin with n, followed by some other consonant. 
It is probable that Ni- is the ground form of the prefix 
of this class, since it always appears as ny- before a 
vowel. The singular powers and antipathies of the 
letter n- very much affect the distinctness of this class 
of nouns. As n must be dropped before ch, f, h, k, p, «, 
or /, nouns beginning with those letters may belong to 
this class ;* and as n becomes m before 6, v, and i«, 
nouns beginning with mh or mv may belong to it. There 
is a further complication in Swahili, arising from the 
fact that foreign words, except only foreign names of 
persons and offices, whatever their first letters, are 
correctly placed in this class. The popular instinct, 
however, refuses this rule, and in the vulgar dialect 
classes foreign words according to their initial letters, 
regarding the first syllable as a mere prefix, and treat- 
ing it accordingly (see also p. 20). In some cases words 
are handled in this way even in polite Swahili ; thus the 
Arabic Kitahu, a book, is very often made plural by 
treating the hi- as a prefix, and saying Vitahu, for books. 

Kamba, a rope ; kamha, ropes. 
Mhegu, a seed ; mbegu, seeds. 
Nyumha, a house ; nyumba, houses. 
Meza, a table ; meza, tables. 
Bunduki, a gun ; hunduki, guns. 
Ndizi, a banana ; ndizi, bananas. 
Njia, a road ; njia, roads. 

• There is nothing to show whetlier nouns beginning with these 
letters belong to this class or to the fifth ; but it is always safest in 
cases of doubt to treat them as belonging to this class, unless some 
gpecial largeness is intended to be intimated concerning them. 


IV. Those which begin with Ki- before a consonant 
or Ch- before a vowel. They form their plural by- 
changing Ki- into Vi' and Ch- into Vy-. 

Kitu, a thing ; vitu, things. 
Chombo^ a vessel ; vyortibo, vessels. 

Substantives are made diminutives by being brought 
into this class. 

Mlinm, a mountain ; Kilima, a hill. 
Bweta, a box ; kibweta, a little box. 

If the word stripped of all prefixes is a monosyllable, 
y»- must first be prefixed. 

Mti. a tree ; hijiti, a shrub. 

Mwiho, a spoon ; kijiko, a little spoon. 

Words beginning with Ki- may be turned into 
diminutives by inserting -ji- after the prefix. 

Kitwa, a head ; kijiiica, a little head. 

Kiboko, a hippopotamus ; kijiboko, a little hippopotamus. 

In regard to animals, the use of the diminutive has 
a depreciating effect. 

Mbuzi, a goat ; hibuzi, a poor little goat 

V. Those which make their plural by prefixing two-. 

Kasha, a chest ; makasha, chests. 

Nouns are generally brought into this class by re- 
jecting all prefix in the singular. If, however, the 
word itself begins with a vowel, j- is prefixed ; if it be 
a monosyllable, ji- is prefixed. The J- oiji- is regularly 

C 2 


omitted in the plural, but may be retained to avoid 
ambiguity, where the regular word would have re- 
sembled one formed from another root. 

Jamho, an aifair ; mamho, affairs. 

Jicho, an eye ; macho, eyes. 

Jomho, a large vessel ; majombo, large vessels. 

If the word b^gin with i- or e-, the -a of the plural 
prefix coalesces with it and forms a long -e-; this 
distinguishes dissyllables with j- prefixed from mono- 
syllables with, ji- prefixed. 

Jino, a tooth ; meno (not mano), teeth. 

Foreign names of persons and offices belong to this 

Waziri, a vizir ; mawaziri, vizirs. 

In the vulgar dialect of Zanzibar all foreign words 
which have a first syllable that cannot be treated as a 
jDrefix, are made to belong to this class, and ma- is 
prefixed to form the plural (see p. 18). 

Anything which is to be marked as peculiarly large 
or important is so described by bringing the word into 
this class. 

MJvJio, a bag ; fulco, a very large bag. 

Mtu, a man ; jitu, a very large man. 

Nyumba, a house ; juniba, a large house. 

If a word is already in this class, it may be described 
as larger by prefixing ji-. 

Matanga, sails ; majitanga, great sails. 


Maji, water, JSIafuta, oil, and other nouns in that 
form are treated as plurals of this class. 

VI. Those which begin with Z7- in the singular. 
They make their plural by changing TJ- into Ny- before 
a vowel, or N- before a consonant. 

TJimho, a song; nyimho, songs. 

Udevu, a hair of the beard ; ndevu, hairs of the beard. 

This class is not a large one ; Dut the formation of 
its plural is full of apparent irregularities produced by 
the letter n. 

1. All nouns of this class, which are in the singular 
dissyllables only, retain the it- in the plural, and are 
treated as beginning with a vowel. 

Ufa, a crack ; nyufa, cracks. 
UsOf a face ; nyuso, faces. 

2. Words in which the U- is followed by d, g^j, or 2. 
take N- in place of U-. 

3. Words in which the U- is followed by I or r, take 
JV-, but change the Z or r into d, 

Ulimi, a tongue ; ndimi, tongues. 

4. Words in which the U- is followed by h, v, or ic, 

take n-, but change it into m-, and their first letter is 

always h. 

Uhau, a plank ; mhau, planks. 

Uwingu, a heaven ; mhingu^ the heavens. 

5. Words in which the U- is followed by Jc, jj or t. 


drop tlae TJ-, and give an explosive sound to tlie first 


TJyepo, a wind ; 'p^e'po^ winds. 

6. Words in which the U- is followed by ch, /, A, n, 
or s, merely drop the TJ-. 

U/unguo, a key ; fungtto, keys. 

Nouns of this class are so few in Swahili that it is 
scarcely worth while to notice these distinctions ; they 
are, however, important as explaining what would 
otherwise seem anomalies, and represent influences 
which have a much larger field in other African 

Abstract nouns generally belong to this class. 

VII. The one word Mahali, place or places, which 
requires special forms in all adjectives and pronouns. 

VIII. The Infinitives of Verbs used as Substantives. 
All Infinitives may be so used, and answer to the 
English Verbal Substantives in -ing, 

Kufa, to die = dying. 
Kwiba, to steal = stealing. 

All Substantives of both numbers may be put into 
what may be called the locative case by adding ni. 
This case has three great varieties of meaning, which 
are marked by difi'erences in all dependent pronouns. 

1. In, within, to or from within. 

2. At, by, near, 

3. To, from, at (of places far off). 


Nyumhani mwangu, in my house. 
Nyumhani pangu^ near my house. 
Nyumhani hicangu, to my house. 

Mtoni, by the river. 

Njiani, on the road. 

Vyomboni, in the vessela, 

Kiticani, on the head. 

Mhinguni, in heaven. 

KuanguJcanif in falling, 


The possessive case is expressed by the use of the 
Preposition -a, which see. The objective or accusative 
is the same as the subjective or nominative. 

In the following list of Substantives the plural form 
is given in all caseo in which, if commonly used, it is 
not the same as the singular. 




The letters in parentheses denote the several dialects : (A.) Kiamu, that of 
Lamoo ; (M.) Kimvita, that of Mombas ; (Mer.) Kimerima, that of the main- 
land opposite Zanzibar ; (N.) Kingozi, the poetical dialect ; (Ar.) Arabic, 

A what-is-it, a thing the name of 
which you do not know or can- 
not recall, dude, x>l. madude. 

Such-a-one, a person whose name is 
not known or is immaterial, 

Abasement, unenyekeo. 
Abhorrence, machukio. 
Ability, uwezo. 
Abridgment, muhtasari. 
Abscess, tumbasi, nasur. 
Abundance, wingi, ungi (M.), mari- 

Abyssinian, Habeshia, pi. Maba- 

Acceptance, ukubali. 
Accident, tukio, pi. matukio. 
Accounts, besabu. 

Account book, daftari. 
Accusation, matuvumu. 
Accusation (before a judge), msbta- 

ka, ])l- misbtaka. 
Ache, maumivu, ucbungu. 
Action, kitendo, pi. vitendo, amali. 
Addition (in arithmetic) ^ jumla. 

Address (of a letter), anwani. 
Adornment, kipambo, pi. vipambo, 

pambo, pi. mapambo. 
Adultery, zaai, uzini, uzinzi. 
Advantage (profit), fayida. 
Adversity, mateso, sbidda. 
Advice, sbauri, pi. mashuuri. 
Adze, slioka la bapa, sezo. 
Affair, jambo. 

Affairs, mambo, sbugbuli, uli- 
Affection, mapenzi, mapendo. 

Mutual affection, inapendana 
Affliction, teso, pi. mateso. 
Age, umri. 

Old age, uzee. 

Extreme old age, ukongwe. 

Equal in age, hirimu moja. 

Former ages, zamani za kale. 
Agent, wakili, pi. mawakili. 
Agreement, maagano, makatibu, 

mwafaka, mapatano, sbarti. 
Aim, ebababa. 
Air, bawa, hewa, upepo. 

For change of air, kubadili bawa. 
Almond, lozi, pi. malozi. 
Alms, sadaka. 



Aloes, subiri, shibiri. 

Aloes ivood, uudi. 

Altar, mathbah, inathab.iliu. 

Alum, shabbu. 

Ambergris, ambari. 

Amulet, talasimu, pi. matalasimu. 

Amusement, mazumgumzo, mao- 

Ancestors, babu, wazee. 
Anchor, nanga, baura. 
Ancle (see Anklets), kiwiko cha 

mguu, ito la guu (A.). 
Angel, malaika. 
Anger, hasira, gbathabu. 
Angle, pembe. 
Angoxa, Ngoje. 
Animal, nyama. 

The young of a domestic animal, 

A young she-animal that has not 
yet home, mtainba,^Z. mitamba. 

Native animals. See under their 
several names : — 

Buku, a very large hind of rat. 

Toi, a kind of wild goat. 

Buga (?). 

Ndezi (?). 

Xjiri (?). 
Anklets {see Ancle), mtali, pi. mitali, 

furungu, pi. mafurungu. 
Ansii-er, majibu, jawabu. 
Antelo'pes. See Gazelle. 

Bara, Heleohagus arundinaceus. 

Dondoro, Dyker's antelope. 

Koru, icater buck. 

Kuguni, haartebeest. 

Mpofu, pi. Wapofu, eland. 

Nyumbo, wildebeest. 


Antimony, wanja y^a. manga. 

Siafu, a large Thrown kind. 

Maji a moto, a yellow kind ivhich 
lives in trees. 

Wliite ants, mchwa. 

Ants in their flying stage, kiimbi- 

Anthill, kisugulu, pi. visugulu. 
Anus, mkunda, fupa. 
Anvil, fuawe. 
Ape, nyani. 

Apostle, mtume, pi. mitume. 
Appearance, umbo, pZ. maumbo. 
Arab, Mwarabu. pi. "Waarabu. 
Arab from Shelter, Mshihiri, pi. 

Arab from the Persian Gulf, Mslie- 
mali, pi. Washemali, Tende 
Arabia, Arabuni, Manga. 
Arabic, Kiarabu. 
Arbitrator, mpatanishi. 
Arch, tao, pi. matao. 
Areca nut, popoo. See Betd. 
Arithmetic, hesabu. 

Addition, jumla. 

Subtraction, baki. 

Multiplication, tharuba. 

Division, mkasama. 

Proportion, or division of profits. 
Arm, mkono, pi. mikono. [uirari. 

Under the arm, kwapani 
Armpit, kwapa, pi. makwapa. 

Perspiration of the armpit, 

Arrangements, madaraka. 
Arrival, kifiko, kikomo. 
Arrogance, gbururi. 
Arrow, mshale, pi. mishale, chembe, 

pi. vyembe (N.). 
Arrowroot, uwanga, kanji. 
Artery, vein or nerve^ mshipa, p}. 




Artifice, kitimbi, pi. vitinibi. 
Ascriptions of praise, ta;biih. 
Ashes, jifu, pi. inajifu, ivu, pL 

maivu (M.). 
Ass, punda. 
Assafcetida, mvuje. 
Assembly, jamaa, jumaa, makutano, 

Place of assembly, makusanyiko. 
Asthma, pumu. 

Astonishment, mataajabn, msnngao. 
Astrologer, mnajimu. pi. wanajimu. 
Astronomy, falaki, falak. 
Attachment, wambiso. 
Auction, mnada, pi. minada. 
Auctioneer, dalali. 
Auiit, sbangazi, pi. mashangazi. 
Authority, nguvu, mamluka, hu- 

Avarice, choyo, bakhili, tamaa. 
Aid, uiiia, pi. nyuma. 
Awning, chandalua. 
Axe, shoka, pi. mashoka. 


Baby, mtoto mchanga, kitoto 

kichanga, mabiika. 
Bach, maun go, mgongo. 

Bach of the head and nech, ki- 

Bachhone, uti wa maungo. 
Badness, ubaya, uovu. 
Bag, mfuko, j^^- mifuko, fuko, pi. 
mafuko, kifuko, pi. vifuko. 
Mkrba, pi. mikoba, a scrip. 
Kiljcgoshi, pi. vibogoshi, o small 

bag made of shin. 
Matting bags. 
Kikapu or Cldkapu, pi. vikapu. 
Kapu, pi. makapu, very large. 
Kanda, pjl. makanda, long and 
narrow, broadest at tht bottom. 

Junia, used for rice, &c., gunia. 
Kigunni, used for dates, sugar, 

Kifumbo, pi. vifumbo, very large 
used for cloves. 
Baggage, vyombo. 
Bail, lazima. 

Bait, chambo, pi. vyambo. 
Bahing place for pottery, &c., joko. 
Balances, niizani. 
Baldness, upaa. 
A shaved pla/ie on the head, kipaa, 
pi. vipaa. 
Ball, tufe. 

India-rubber hall, mpira, pi. 

Any small round thing, donge, pi. 
Ballast, farumi. 
Bamboo, 'mwanzi, pi. miwanzi. 
Bananas, ndizi. 

Banana tree, mgomba, pi. mi- 

Bunchlets of fruit, tana, pi. 

The fruit stalk, mkungu, pi. mi- 
Band {stripe), utepe, pi. tepe. 
Band (of soldiers, &c.), kikosi, pL 

Bandage, utambaa, pi. tambaa. 
Bangles. See Anklets. 
Bank (of earth, sand, &c.), fungu, 
pi. mafungu. 
Bank of a river, kando. 
The opposite bank, ng'ambo. 
Baobab. See Calabash. 
Barber, kinyozi, pi. vinyozi. 
Bargain, mwafaka, maafikano. 
Bargaining, ubazazi. 
Bark of a tree, gume {hard), ganda 



Barley, sliairi (Ar.). 

Barque (a ship), merikebu ya mili- 

ngote miwili na nuss. 
Barrel, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Basin, bakuli, pi. mabakulL 
A small hasin, kibaba. 
A brass hasin, tasa, pi. matasa. 
See Bawl. 
Basket. See Bag. 
Chikapu, pi. vikapn. 
Pakacha, pi. mapakacha, made 
of cocoa-nut leaves plaited to- 
Dohani, a very tall narrow hashet 
made of slips of wood supple- 
mented hy cocoa-nut leaves. 
Tunga, a round open hasket. 
Ungo, pi. maungo, or uteo, pi. 
teo (M.), a round flat basket 
used for sifting. 
Kiteo, pi. viteo, a very small one. 
Kunguto, pi. makunguto, a 

basket used as a colander. 
Jamanda, j9?. majamanda, a round 
basket of thick work, with a 
raised lid. 
Bat, popo. 

Batchelor, msijana (?). 
Bdth, birika, chakogea. 
Bath room, choo, pi. vyoo. See 

Public baths, bamami. 
Battle, mapigano. 
Battlements, menomeno. 
Bay, gbubba. 
Beach, pwani, mpwa (M.). 
Beads, ushanga, pi. s-baiiga. 

Kondavi, pi. makondavi, a large 

kind worn by women, 
(rosary), tasbiih. 
Beak, mdomo wa ndege. 
A parrot's beak, mbaDgo. 

Beam, mti, pi. miti, boriti, mbixnili, 

pi. mihimili. 
Beans, kuuude. 

Chooko, a very small green kind. 
Fiwe, grow on a climbing plant 

icith a white flotcer. 
Baazi, grow on a bush someihing 
like a laburnum. 
Beard, ndevu, madevu. 

One hair of the beard, udevn. 
TJie imperial, the tuft of hair on 
the lower lip, kinwa mcbuzi, 
kionda mtuzi (M.). 
Beast, nyama. 
Beauty, uzuri. 

A beauty, kizuri, pi. vizuri, baiba. 
Bed (for planting sweet potatoes), 

tuta, pi. matuta. 
Bedding, matandiko. 
Bedstead, Mtanda, pi. vitanda. 
The legs, tendegu, pi. matendegn. 
TJie side pieces, mfumbati, pi. 

The end pieces, kitakizo, pi. vita- 

The head, mchago. 
The space underneath^ mvungu 
Bee, nyuki. 
Beehive (a hollow piece of wood), 

mzinga, pi. mizinga. 
Beggar, mwombaji, pi. waombaji. 
Begging, maomvi. 
Beginning, mwanzo, pi. mianzo. 
Start in speaking or doing, fell, 
pi. mafeli. 
Behaviour, mwenendo. 

Good behaviour, kutenda vema. 
17? behaviour, kutenda vibaya. 
Bell, kengele. 

Njuga, a small bell worn as an 
ornament, a dog hell. 



Bellowing, kivumi, vumi. 
Bellows, mifuo, mivukuto. 
Belly, matumbo. 
Bend, pindo. 

The arm stiffened in a bent form, 
kigoslio cha mkono. 
Bemhatooha bay, Mjanga. 
Betel leaf, tambuu. It is chewed 
with areca nut, lime, and to- 
bacco folded up in it, and gives 
its name to the ichole. 
Beverage, kinywaji, pi. viny waji. 
Bhang, bangi. 

Biceps muscle, tafu ya mkono. 
Bier, jeneza, jenaiza. 
Bifurcation, panda. 
Bile, nyongo. 
Biliousness, safura (Ar.), marungu 

(M. . 
Bill. See Beak 
(account), hesabu, barua. 
Bill of sale, ankra. 
(chopper), raundu, pZ. miundu ; 
upamba, pi. pamba. 
Bird, ndege, nyuni (M.). 

Young of birds, kiuda, pi. ma- 

Birds of the air, ndege za anga. 
Bird of ill omen, korofi, mkorofi. 
Native birds. 
Pugi, a very small hind of dove. 
Korongo, crane. 
Mbango, a bird with a hoohed 

Ninga, a green dove. 
Zawaridi, a Java sparrow. 
Mbayuwayu, a swallow. 
Bundi, an oicl. 

Luanga — pungu — tendawala C?). 
Birth, uzazi, uvyazi, kizazi, kivyazi. 
Biscuit, biskwiti. 

A very thin kind, kaki. 

Bishop, askafu (Ar.). 

A chess bishop, khumi. 
Bit (a horse's), lijamu. 
Bitterness, uchungu, nkali. 
Blabber of secrets, payo, pi. mapayo. 
Blacksmith, mfua chuma, pi. wafua 

chuma, mhunzi (Mer.), pi 

Blackwood, sesemi. 
Bladder, kibofu, pi, vibofu. 
Blade, kengea. 

Blade of grass, uchipuka, pi. cbi- 

Blame, matuvunm. 
Blanket, bushuti. 
Blemish, ila, kipunguo. 
Blessing, baraka, mbaraka, pi. mi- 

Blindness, upofu (loss of sight), 

chongo (loss of one eye). 
Blinders (used for camels when 

grinding in mills), jamanda (of 

basket work), kidoto (of cloth). 
Blister, lengelenge, pi. malenge- 

A vesicular eruption of the skin. 
Block. See Pulley. [uwati. 

A block to dry skull caps ixpton, 

Blood, damn. 

Blood-vessel, msbipa, pi. misbipa. 
Blotch, waa, pi. mawaa. 
Blowing and bellowing noise (often 

made with a drum), vmni. 
Blue vitriol, mrututu. 
Board, ubau, pi. mbau. 

Piece of board, kibau, pi. vibau. 
Boat, masbua. 
Body, mwili, pi. miili. 

The human trunk, kiwiliwili. 

A dead body, mayiti. 

The body of soldiers, &c., jamiL 



Boil, jipn, pi. majipu- 

Bomb, kombora. 

Bombay, Mombee. 

Bone, mfupa, pi. mifupa, fapa, pi. 

mafupa {vtry large). 
Booh, chuo, pi. vyuo, kitabu, pi. 
A sacred book, msabafu, pi. misa- 

An account book, daftari. 
Booty, mateka, nyara. 
Border (boundary), mpaka, pi. mi- 
An edging icoven on to a piece of 
cloth, taraza. 
Bother, uthia, huja. 
Bottle, chupa, pi. machupa, tupa 
(M.), pi. matupa. 
A long-necked bottle for sprinkling 

scents, mrasbi, pi. mirashi. 
A little bottle, a phial, kitupa, pi. 
Bottom, chini. 
Bough, kitawi, pi. vitawi. 
Boundary, mpaka, pi. mipaka. 
Bow, upindi, pi. pindi, uta, pi. 

mata, or nyuta. 
Bowl {wooden), fua. See Basin. 
Bowsprit, mlingote wa maji. 
Box, bweta, pi. mabweta, ndusi, 
kisanduku, pi. visanduku. 
Small, kibweta, pi. vibweta. 
Large, kasba, pi. makasha, san- 

Small metal box, kijaluba, pi. 

Small, long-shaped metal box, often 
used to keep betel in, kijamanda, 
pi. vijamanda. 
Small paper box, kibumba, pi. 
Boy, kijana, pi vijana. 

Bracelet, kekee (flat). 

Kikuku, pi. vikuku (round). 
Kingaja, pi. vingaja (of beads). 
'BsiUSigiii(ornamented with points). 
Braid, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Brains, bongo, mabongo. 
Bran, chachu, makapi. 
Husks of rice, kumvi. 
Branch, tawi, pi. matawi, utanzu, 

pi. tanzu. 
Brand (apiece of wood partly burnt), 

kinga, pi. vinga. 
Brass, shaba, nuhas (Ar.). 
Brass wire, mazoka (?). 
Bravery, ushujaa, utha,hiti. 
Brawler, mgomvi, pi. wagomvi. 
Bread (loaf or cake), inkate. 
Breadth, upana. 
Break. See Crack, Notch. 
Breakfast, cbakula cha subui, 
kifungua kanwa, cba mslia 
Breaking loind (upward), kiungulia, 
pi. viungulia. 
(downward), ^QX£i}o2i., pi. majamba, 
Breast, kifua, kidari, mtima. 

Breasts, maziwa, sing. ziwa. 
Breath, pumzi, nafusi, roho. 
Bribe, rushwa. 
Bride, bibi harusi. 
Bridegroom, bwana barusi. 
Bridle, batamu (halter, reins, &c.\ 

lijamu (bit). 
Brink, ukingo, mzingo. 
Brook, kijito, pi. vijito. 
Broom, ufagio, pi. fagio. 
Brother, ndugu, ndugu mume, 
kaka (Kihadimu). 
Foster brother, ndiigii kunyonya. 
Brother-in-law, shemcgi. 



Husband's brother, mwamua. 
Wife's brother, wifi. 
Brow, kikomo cha uso, kipaji. 
Bruise, vilio la damu, alama ya 

Brush (see Broom), burushi. 
Brushwood, koko, makoko. 
Bubble, povu, ^l. mapovu. 
Bucket, ndoo. 
BucMer, ngao. 
Buffalo, nyati. 
Bug, kunguni. 
Building, jengo, pi. majengo. 
Building materials, majengo. 
Firm and good building, mtomo. 
Bull, fahali,!??. mafahali, ng'oinbe 

mume or ndume. 
Bullet, poopoo, risasi ya bunduki. 
Bulloch, maksai. 

Bunch, tawi, pi. matawi, kitawi, pi. 
vitawi, kichala, pi. vidiala. 
The bunch is said to be of the 
tree and not of the fruit. 
Tawi la mtende, a bunch of dates. 
Kichala cha mzabibu, a bunch of 
grapes. See Bananas. 
Bundle, peto, pi. mapeto, mzigo, pi. 
In a clothf bimdo, furushi, ki- 

Of straw, mwenge, pi. mienge. 
Of sticks, titi, pi. matiti. 
Buoy, chilezo, pi. vilezo, tnlezo, pi. 

Burden, mzigo, pi. mizigo. 
Burial-place, mazishi, maziko. 
Burier (i.e. a special friend), mzishi, 

pi. wazishi. 
Bush, kijiti, pi. vijiti. 

Bushes, koko, pi. makoko. 
BuHness, shughuli, kazi. 
Urgent business, amara. 

A complicated business, visa 

His business, amri yake. 
I have no business, &c., sina amri, 
Butter, siagi. 

Clarified butter (ghee), samlL 
Buttermilk, mtindi. 
Butterfly, kipepeo, pi. vipepeo. 
Buttocks, tako, pi. matako. 
Button, kifungo, pi. vifungo. 
Button loop, kitanzi, pi. vitanzi. 
Button by which the wooden clogs 
are held on, msuruake, pi. mi- 
Buyer, mnunuzi, pi. wanunuzi. 


Cabin (side), kipenu. 

Cable, amara. 

Caffre corn, mtama. 

Cage, kizimbi, pi. vizimbi, tundu, 

pi. matmidu. 
Cake, mkate, pi. mikate. 
Cake of mtama meal, mkate wa 

Cake of tobacco, mkate wa tu- 

Bumunda, pi. mabiimunda, a sort 

of dumpling or soft cake. 
Kitumbua, pi. vitumbua, a cake 

made like a fritter. 
Ladu, a round ball made of 

semsem seed, spice, and sugar. 
Kinyunya, pi. vinyunya, a little 
cake made to try the quality of 
the flour. 
Calabash, buyu, pi. mabuyu. 
Inner part of the calabash fruity 

Calabash used to draw water, 
kibuyu, vibuyu. 



Calabash tree or haohdb, mbuyu, 
pi. mibuyu. 

A pumpkin shell used to hold 
liquids, dundu, pi. madundu. 
CflZamtYy,masaibu, msiba,^}?. misiba. 
Calico. See Cloth. 

Fine, bafta. 
Calf, ndama, ndama wa ng'ombe. 
Call {calling), mwito, pi. ruiito. 

(a cry), ukelele, iikeini. 

Kikorombwe, a signal cry. 
Calm, shwali. 
Calumha root, kaomwa. 
Camel, ngamia. 
Camelopard, twiga. 
Camphor, karafumayiti, kafuri. 
Candle, tawafa, meshinaa. 
Candlestick, kinara, pi. vinara. 
Cannabis Indica, bangi. 
Cannon, mzinga, pi. iiiiziuga. 
Canoe, galawa (with outriggers , 
mtumbwi, pi. mitumbwi (with- 
out outriggers), hori, pi. mahori 
(with raised head and stern). 
Canter, mghad (of a horse). 

Thelth {of an ass). 
Cap, kofia. 

A cap block, faroma. 

A gun-cap, fataki. 
Capacity, kadri. 
Cape (headland), rasi. 
Captaiih, nakhotha, naoza, kapitani. 
Caravan, msafara, pi. misafara. 

Caravan porter, mpagazi, pi. wa- 
Carcase, mzoga, pi. mizoga. 
Cards (playing), kaiata. 
Cardamoms, iliki. 
Care, tunza, pi. matunza. 

(caution), hathari. 
Cargo, shehena. 
Carpenter, sermala, pi. masermala. 

Carpet, zulia. 
Carriage, gari, pi. magari. 
A gun carriage, gurudumo la 

Cartridge, kiass cha bunduki. 
Carving, naksh, nakishi. 
Case or paper box, kibumba, pi. 

Cashew nut, korosbo, pi. makorosho 
Immature nut, dunge. 
Cashew apple, bibo, pi. mabibo, 

kanju (M.), pi. makanju. 
Cashew nut tree, mbibo, pi. mibibo, 

mkanju (M.), pi. mikanju. 
Cask, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Casket, kijaiuanda, pi. vijamanda. 
Cassava, muhogo. 
A piece of the dried root, kopa, pi. 

Castle, geieza, ngome. 

A chess castle, fil (Ar. elephant). 
Castor oil, mafuta ya mbarikit, 

mafuta ya nyonyo (?), mafuta 

ya mbono (?). 
Castor oil plant, mbarika, pi. mi- 

barika, mbono (?), pi. mibouo. 
Cat, paka. 
Catamite, haniti, hawa, hawara, 

shoga (A.). 
Cattle, ng'ombe, nyaraa. 

Cattle fold, zizi, 2>l- mazizi. 
Caudle made on the occasion of a 

birth, of rice, sugar, and spice, 

and given to visitors, fuka. 
Caulking, khalfati. 
Cause, sababu, kisa, asili, maana. 
Cautery and the marks of it, pis' o. 
Caution, hathari. [_pl. mapisho. 
Cave, paaiigo, pi. mapaango. 
Censer, a small vessel to burn inrenfe 

in, chetezo, pi. vyetezo. mkebe, 

pi, mikebe. 



Centipede^ taandu. 
Certainty, yakini, kite. 
Chaff, kapi, pi. makapL 
(0/ rice), kumvi. 

(bran and crushed grains), wishwa. 
Chain, mkufu, pi. mikufu, mnyo- 

roro, pi. minyororo, silesile, 
Door chain, riza. 
Chair, kiti, pi. viti. 
Chalk, chaki. 

Chameleon, kinyonga, pi. vinyonga, 
Chance, nasibu. [lumbwi (?). 

Chandelier, thurea. 
Change or changing, geuzi, pi. 

Chapter, sura, bah. 
Character, sifa. 
Characters, herufu. 
Charcoal, makaa ya tniti. 
Charm (talisman), talasimu, pi. ma- 

Chatter, upiizi. 
Chatterer, mpuzi, pi, wapuzi. 
Cheat, ayari, mjanja, pi,, wajanja. 

A great cheat, patiala. 
Cheek (the part over the cheek-hone), 

kitefute, pi. vitefute. 
(The part over the teeth), chafu, 

pi. machafu, tavu (A.), pi. 
Cheese, jibini. [matavu. 

Che$s^ sataranji. 
Chest {of men), kifua, pi. vifua. 
(of animals or men), kidari. 
(a large box), kasha, pi. makasha, 

Chicken, faranga, pi, mafaranga, 

kifaranga, pi. vifaranga. 
Chief, mfalme, pi. wafalme, jumbe, 

pi. majumbe, munyi. 
Chieftainship, ujumbe. 
Child, mtoto, pi. watoto, kitoto, pl^ 

vitoto, rawana, pi. waana^ 

A child tvhich cuts its upper teeth 

first, and is therefore considered 

unlu'ky, kigego, pi. vigego. 
Childhood, utoto. 
Chimney, dohaan. 
Chin, kidevu, pi. videvu, kievu 

(A.), pi. vievu. 
Ornament hanging from the veil 

below the chin, jebu, pi. ma- 

Chisel, patasi, chembeu. 
Juba, a mortice cMsel. 
Uma, a small chisel. 
Choice, hiari, Myari, ikhtiari, na- 

Your choice, upendavyo (as you 

Cholera, tauni, wabba, kipindu- 

Church, kanisa, pi. makauisa. 
Cinders, makaa. 
Cinnabar, zangefuri. 
Cinnamon, mdalasini. 
Cipher (figure of nought), sifuru, 

Circle of a man's affairs, &c., uli- 

mwengu wake. 
Circumcision, tobara, kumbi 

(Mer.) (?). 
Circumference, kivimba, mzingo. 
Circumstances, mambo. 

A circumstance, jambo. 
Cistern, birika. 

Citron, balungi, pi. mabalungi. 
Civet, zabadi. 
Civet cat, I'ungo, ngawa (a larget 

animal than the fungo). 
Civilization, ungwana. 
Civilized people, wangwana. 
Clamp for burning lime, tanun. 
Clap of thunder, radi. 
Claret, divai. 



Class for study, darasa. 
Claw, ukucha, p?. kucha. 

(of a crab), gando, pi. magando. 
Clay (?), udongo. 
Clearness, weupe. 
ClerJi, karani. 
Clergyman, padre or padiri, pi. ma- 

padixi, khatibu. 
Cleverness, hekima. 
Climate, tabia. 
Clock, saa. 

Wliat o'clock is it ? Saa ngapi ? 
According to the native reckon- 
ing, noon and midnight are at 
the sixth hour, saa a sita; six 
o^clock is saa a f/ienashara. 
Clod, pumba, pi. mapumba. 
Cloth (icoollen), joho. 
{Cotton), nguo. 

(American sheeting), amerikano. 
(Blue calico), kauiki. 
Cloth of gold, zari. 
A loin cloth of about tico yards, 

shuka, doti. 
A loin cloth with a coloured border, 

kikoi, pi. vikoi. 
A turban doth, kitambi, pi. vi- 

A icoman's cloth, kisuto, pi. vi- 

A cloth twisted info a kind of rope 
used as a girdle, and to make 
the turbans nwrn by the Hindis, 
ukumbuu, pi. kumbuu. 
Clothes, nguo, miguo, mavazi, mavao. 
Cloud, wiugu, p)l- mawingu. 
Rain cloud, ghubari, pA. maghu- 

Broken scattered clouds, mavu- 
Cloreii, garofuu, karofuu. 
Fruit-stalks, kikonyo,pZ. vikonyo. 

Club, rungTi. 

Coals, niakaa. 

Coast, pwani. 

Coat, joho (a long open coat of 

broadcloth worn by the Arabs). 
Cob of Indian corn, gunzi, pi. ma- 

Cock,}ogoo,pl. majogoo, jogoi, jimbi. 
A young cockerel, not yet able to 

crow, pora. 
A cock's comb, upanga. 
A cock's wattles, ndefu. 
Cockles, kombe za pwani (?). 
Cockroach, mende, mukalalao (Ma- 

Cocoa-nut, nazi. 

Cocoa-nut tree, mnazi, pi. minazi. 
Heart of the groicing shoot, used as 

salad, &c., kichilema, sliaha. 
Cloth-like envelope of young leaves^ 

Leaf, kuti, pZ. makuti. 
Midrib of leaf, uchukuti, jfjZ. 

Leaflets, ukuti, pi. kuti. 
Leaf plaited for making fences, 

makuti ya kumba. 
Half leaf plaited together, makuti 

ya pande. 
Leaflets made up for thatching, 

makuti ya viungo. 
Fart of a leaf plaited into a 
basket, pakacha, pi. raapakaeha. 
Woody flower sheath, kuram. 
Bunch of nuts, tawi la mnazi. 
Floicer and first forming of nuts, 

upunga, pi. punga. 

Small nuts, kidaka, pi. vidaka. 

Half -grown nut, kitale, pi. vitale. 

Full-grown nut before the nutty 

part is formed, dafu, pi. 

madafu. In this stage the shell 



is perfectly full of the milk or 

juice (maji), and the nuts are 

often gathered for drinhing. 
Half -ripe nut, when the nutty part 

is formed and the milk begins to 

wabble in the shell, koroma, pi. 

Ripe nut, nazi. 
A nut which has grown fidl of a 

white spongy substance icithout 

any hollow or milk, joya, pi. 

A nut which has dried in the shell 

so as to rattle in it without 

f)eing spoilt, mbata. 
The fibrous case of the nut, cocoa- 

md fibre, makumbi. 
Cocoa-nut fibre thoroughly cleaned, 

A stick stuck in the ground to rip 

off the fibre, kifuo, pi. vifuo. 
The shell, kifuu, pi. vifuu, ki- 

fufu (M.). 
Instrument for so-aping the fresh 

nut for cooking, mbuzi ya ku- 

kunia nazi. 
Oily juice squeezed out of the 

scraped cocoa-nut, tui. 
A small bag to squeeze out the tui 

in, kifumbu, pi. vifumbu. 
The scraped nut after the tui has 

been pressed out, chicha. 
Copra,the nut dried and ready to be 

pressed in the oil mill, nazi kavu. 
Cocoa-nut oil, mafuta ya nazi. 
Coffee, kahawa, {plant) nibuni. 
Goff'ee berries, buni. 
Coffee pot, mdila, pi. midila. 
Coin (a coin), sarafu. See Dollar, 

Rupee, &c. 
Colander (in basket ivork), Ivunguto, 

pi. liiukunguto. 

Cold, baridi. 

Baricli and upepo are often used 
to mean wind or cold indiffer- 
Cold in the head, mafua. 
I have a cold in the head, siwezi 
Collar-bone, mtulinga,|)L mitulinga. 
Colour, rangi. 

Colours are generally described by 
reference to some known sub- 
stance : rangi ya kahawa, coffee 
colour, brown ; rangi ya majani, 
leaf colour, green; rangi ya 
makuti, colour of the dry cocoa- 
nut leaves, grey. 
Comb, kitana, pi. vitana, shannu, 
pi. mashanuu (a large wooden 
A cock's comb, upanga. 
Comfort, faraja. 
Comforter, mfariji, pi. wafariji. 
Coming (arrival), kifiko, pi. vifiko. 
{Mode of coming), majilio. 
Coming down or out from, mshuko, 
pi. mishuko. 
Command, amri. 

Commander, jemadari, pi. majema- 
dari, mkuu wa asikari. 
Second in command, akida. 
Commission, agizo, pi. maagizo. 
Comoro Islands, jMasiwa. 
Great Comoro, Ngazidja. 
Comoro men, Waugazidja. 
Johanna, Anzwaui. 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
Mohilla, Moalli. 
Companion, mwenzi, pi. wenzi. 
Company, jamaa. 
Compass (mariner's), dira. 
Completeness, itzima, ukamilifu, 



Compliments, salaamu. 
Composition (of a word), rakibyueo. 
Cmnposition for a murder, money 

paid to save ones life, dia. 
Concealment, maficho. 
Conclusion, mwisbo, hatima. 
Concubine, suria, pi. masuria. 

Born of a concubine, suriyama. 
Condition (state), hali, jawabu. 
(A thing necessarily implied)^ 

Confidence, matumaini 
Confidential servant, msiri, j??. wasiri. 
Conscience, tbamiri, moyo. 
Conspiracy, mapatano, mwafaka. 
Constipation, kufunga choo. 
Constitution, tabia. 
Contentment, urathi. 
Continent, merima. 
Co'atinuance, maisha. 
Contract, maagano, sharti. 
Conversation, mazumgumzo, mao- 

ngezi, usemi. 
Convert, mwongofu, pi. waongofu. 
Cooh, mpishi, pi. wapishi. 
Cooked grain, especially rice, wall. 
Cooking pot {metal), sufuria, pi. 

masufuxia, kisufmia, pi. visu- 

(earthen), nyungu, chungu, pi. 

vyungu. mkuRgu, pi. mikungii. 
(o pot to cook meat in ivith fat, to 

hraze meat in), kaango, pi. ma- 

kaango, ukaango, kikaango, pi. 

A pot lid, mkungu wa kufunikia. 
Three stones to set a pot on over 

the fire, mafiga, sing, figa, 

mafya, sing, jifya. 
Cross pieces put in to keep the 

meat from touching the bottom of 

the pot and burning, nyalio. 

Coolie, hamali, pi. mahamali 
Copal, sandarusi. 
Copper, sbaba, sufui'ia. 
Coral (red), marijani ya fetbaluka 
(marijani alone does not always 
mean the true red coral). 
Fresh coral for building, cut from 
below high-water mark, matii 
Cord, ugwe, ukambaa (M.), pi. 

kambaa, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Cork, kizibo, pi. vizibo. 
Corn, nafaka (formerly used as 
Muhindi, Indian corn. 
Mtama, millet (the most common 

Mwere, very small grains growing 
in an upright head something 
like the flower of the bulrush. 
Carrier, pembe. 

Corner of a cloth, tamvTia, uta- 
Corpse, mzoga, pi. mizoga, mayiti. 
Corpulence, unene. 
Corruption, uovu, kioza. 
Dalia, a yellow composition, 
Yasi, a yellow powder from India, 
Liwa, a fragrant wood from 

Cotton, pamba. 
Couch, kitanda, pi. vitanda. 
Cough, kikohozi. 
Council, baraza, diwani. 
Councillor, diwani, pi. madiwani. 
Counsel, shauri. 
Countenance, uso, pi. nyuso. 
Country, inclii, nti (M.). The narnea 

D 2 



of countries are made from the 
name of the people hy means of 
the prefix U-. 
Uuyika, the country of the Wa- 

Ugala, the country of the "Wagala. 
Uzungu, the country of the Wa- 

zungu, Europe. 
In the country, masliamba. 
A country dialect, lugha ya ki- 
Courage, us-hujaa, uthahit, moyo. 
Course (of a ship), majira. 
Courtesy, jamala, adabu. 
Courtyard (enclosure^ ua, pi. nyna, 
uanda or uanja. 
Court within a house, behewa,kati. 
Cousin, mjukuu, pi. wajukuu. 
Covenant, maagano, sharti. 
Cover (a lid), kifmiiko. 

A dish cover made of straw and 
often profusely ornamented^ 
A hooTc cover, jalada. 
Covetousness, tamaa, bakhili. 
Cow, ng'ombe mke, pi. ng'ombe 

Coward, mwoga, pi. waoga. 
Cowardice, uoga. 
Cowry, kauri, kete. 
Crah. kaa. 

Crack, ufa, pi. nyufa. 
Cramp, kiharusi. 

A cramp, gango, pi. magango. 
Crayfish, kamba. 
Cream, siagi. 
Creed, imani. 
Creek, hori. 

Crest, sbungi (used also for a icay 
of dressing the hair in two large 
Crew, baharia. 

Crime, taksiri. 

Crocodile, mamba, mbnlu (?). 

Crook, kota. 

Crookedness, kombo. 

A crooked thing, kikombo. 
Cross, msalaba, pi. misalaba. 
Cross roads, njia panda. 
Crossing place, kivuko, pi. vivuko. 
Croiv, kunguru. 

Crowbar, mtaimbo, pi. mitaimbo. 
Crowd, kundi, pi. makundi, ma- 
kutano, matangamano, umaati. 
Croicn, taji. 

Crown of the head, upaa, utosi. 
Crumbs, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 
Crutch for oars, kilete, pi. vilete. 
Cry, kilio, pi. vilio, ukelele, pi. 
kelele, ukemi. 
(^for help), yowe. 
( of joy), hoiboi, kigelegele. 
Cucximber, tango, pi. mataiigo. 
Cubit (from the tip of the middle 
finger to the point of the elbow), 
thiraa, mkono, pi. mikono. 
(Jrom the point of the elbow to the 
knuckles when the fist is closed)^ 
tbiraa konde. 
Cultivation, kilimo. 
Cultivator, mkulima, pi. wakulima. 
Cunning, cherevu, werevu. 
Cup, kikombe, pi. vikombe. 
Cupboard, sanduku. 
Cupper, mumishi, pi. wamnishi 
Cupping horn, chuku. 
Curiosity (rarity ^, kioja, pi. vioja, 

bedaya, tunu. 
Curlew, sululu, kipila. 
Current, mkondo wa maji. 
Curry, mcbuzi, mtuzi (M.). 
A small seed used in making it, 

An acid thing put into it, kiungo. 



Curse, laana, i^l. malaana. 
Curtain, pazia, pi. mapazia. 
Curve, kizingo. 
Cushion, mto, pi. mito. 

A large cushion, takla, pi. ma- 
Cuaturd apple, topetope, mstofele, 

konokono, matomoko. 
Custom, desturi, mathehebu, ada. 
Custom-house, fortha. 
Customs' duties, ashur. 
Cut, a short cut, njia ya kukata. 
Cutting (breaking off), kato, pi. 

Cuttle-fish, pweza. 

Arms of the cuttle-fish, mnyiriri, 
pi. minyiriri. 
Cutwater of a dhow, hanamu. 
Cypjher. See Cipjher. 
Cynibals, matoazi, sing. toazL 

Dagger, jambia (the curved dagger 
generally v:orn). 


Dance, mchezo, pi. michezo. 
Names of dances, guugu, msapata, 
hanzua, kitanga cha pepo, 

Dandy, malidadi. 

Mtongozi, pi. watongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up) to attract 

Danger, hatari, kbofu, kicho. 

Darkness, kiza, giza (these are only 
tico ivays of pronouncing the 
same word, hut the first is some- 
times treated as though the ki- 
were a prefix and it belonged to 
the fourth class, xchile the second 
is taken as belonging to the fifth ; 
it is jprobably, however, most 

correct to refer them both to the 

Dark saying, fumbo, pi. mafumbo, 

maneno ya fuinba. 
Darling, kipendi, ^Z. vipendi. 
Dates, tende. 

Date-tree, mtende, pi. mitende. 
Daughter, binti, mtoto mke, mwaua, 

Daughter-in-law, mkwe, pi. wa- 

Dawn, alfajiri, kucha. 
Day (of twenty-four hours, reckoned 

from sunset to sunset), sikn. 
(time of daylight), mchana, mtana 

All day, mchana kutwa. 
Day labourer, kibarua, pi. vibarua 

(so called from the ticket given 

to workpeople, which they give 

up again when paid). 
Daylight, mcliaua, mtaua (11.). 
Dazzle, kiwi. 
Deal (icood), sunobari. 
Death, kufa (dying), mauti, ufu, 

Debt, deni. 
Deceit, hila, madanganya, udanga- 

nifu, hadaa, uwongo. 
Deck, sitatia, dari. 
Deep ivater, kilindi, pi. vilindi. 

Great depths, lindo, pi. malindo. 
Defect, upuugufu, ila, kombo, ki- 

puDguo, pi. vipunguo. 
Deficiency, kipunguo, upungufu. 
Defilement, ujusi. 
Deliverance, wokovu. 
Demand in marriage, poso, pi. 

Dependant, mfuasi, pi. wafuasi. 
Depth, kweuda, chini, uketo. 
Derision, mzaha, thihaka. 



Design^ kusudi, jil. makusudi, nia. 
Descent, msliuko, jjL mishuko. 
Desert^ wangwa, jangwa, -pi. ma- 

Desolation, ukiwa. 
Destruction, kubaribika, kupotea. 
Destructiveness, Tibaribivu, upotevu. 
Detachment (of soldiers, &c.), kikosi, 

pi. vikosi. 
Device, bila, sbauri, pi. masbauri. 
Devil, sbetani, pi. mashetani. 
Devotee, mtaowa, pi. wataowa. 
Dew, umande. 

Dhow {native craft), chombo, pi. 
vyombo ; when very Zar^e, jombo, 
pi. majombo. 

Kinds of dhows : — 

Dau, p)^- madau, a small open 
vessel sharp at the stern,ivith a square 
matting sail. They belong to the 
original inhabitants of Zanzibar, 
ayid are chiefly employed in bringing 
fireicood to the town. 

Mtepe, pi. mitepe, a large open 
vessel sharp at the stern, with a large 
square matting sail ; the proio is 
made to resemble a camels head, and 
is ornamented with painting and 
little streamers. The planhs are 
sewn together. There is always a 
ichite pennon at the masthead. These 
vessels belong chiefly to Lamoo, and 
the country near it. 

Betela, the common dhow of Zan- 
zilmr : it has a square stern, ivith a 
low poop and a head much like those 
of European boats. 

Bagala, pZ. mabdgala, large dhows 
ivitli very high square sterns and tall 
poops, and long projecting prows. 
The Indian dhows are mostly of this 
class: tliey have very often a small 

second mast rising from the poop 
(mlingote wa kalmi). 

Gbangi, they resemble the Ba- 
galas except in not being so high in 
the poop or so long in the prow. 

Batili, a low vessel with a long 
projecting prow, a sharp stem, and 
high rudder-head. They have often 
a flying poop and a second mast. 
They belong to the piratical Arabs 
from the Persian Gulf. 

Bedeni, a dhow with a sharp stern 
and high rudder-head, and a per- 
pendicular cutwater ; there is often a 
piece of board attached to it, making 
a kind of head ; when this is absent 
the vessel is an Awesia. Beiens 
may easily be distinguished among 
other dhows by their masts being 
upright ; in all other dhows the masts 
incline forward. They belong to the 
coast of Arabia^ especially that on the 
Lidian Ocean. 

Dhow sail, duumi. 

Prow, gubeti. 

Poop, sbetri. 

Quarter galleries, makanadili. 

Joists of deck, darumeti. 

Chunam for bottom, debeni. 

Place for stoiving things likely to 
be soon wanted, feuli. 
Dialect, maneno, lugba. 

Dialects andlanguages are usually 
expressed by prefixing ki- to the 
name of the place or people. 

Kiunguja {for Maneno ya Kiu- 
nguja ;, the dialect of Zanzibar 

Kimvita, the dialect of Mombas 

Kiamu, the dialect of Lamoo 



Kigunya, the dialect of Siici, &c. 
Kiarabu, Arabic. 
Kigala, the Galla language. 
Kimasliamba, a country dialect. 
Kishenzi, the talk of some uncivil- 
ized nation. 
Kiungwana, a civilized language. 
Kizungu, the languages spoken by 
Diamond, almasi. 
Diarrhoea, tumbo la knenenda. 
Diet, maakuli. 
Difference, tofanti, sivimoja. 
Difficulty, shidda, ugumu, mashata. 
Dinner (mid-day), chakula cha 

Direction (bidding), fundisho, pi. 
mafundisbo, agizo, pi. maagizo. 
Dirt, t'aka. 

Disease, marathi, uweli, ugonjwa. 
Disfigurement, lemaa. 
Disgrace, aibu, ari, fetheba. 
Disgust, macbukio. 
Dish, sabani, kombe, pi. makombe, 
mkungu wa kulia, buugu, 
kitunga, pi. vitunga (the first 
is the usual word for European 
An earthen dish to bake cakes on^ 
Disorder (confusion), fujo. See 

Display, wonyesbo. 
Disposal, amri. 

To put at his disposal, knmwamria. 
Dispute, masbiudano, tofauti. 
Disquiet, fatbaa. 
Dissipation, asherati, washerati, 

Distortion (by disease), lemaa. 
Distress, sbidda, tbulli, utbia, msiba, 

District of a tovm, mta, pi. mita. 
For the districts of Zanzibar see 
Part II., p. 330. 
Disturbance (riot), fitina. 

(trouble), kero. 
Ditch, bandaki, sbimo, pi. masbimo. 
Divine service, ibada ya Muungu. 
Division (arithmetical), mkasama. 
Divorce, talaka. 
Dock for ships, gudi. 
Doctrine, elimu, ilm, matbhab. 
Document, kbati. 
Dog, mbwa. 

Very large, jibwa, pi. majibwa. 
Bize, a wild hunting dog. 
Mbwa wa koko, the houseless dogs 
outside Zanzibar. 
Doll, mtoto wa bandia. 
Dollar, reale, rea. 

Spanish Pillar dollar, reale ya 

Black dollars, reale ya Sham. 
American 20-dollar piece, reale ya 

French silver 5-franc piece, reale 

ya kifransa. 
For the parts of a dollar see in the 
section on Adjectives tinder 
Numerals— fractions, p. 93. 
Dome, zege. 

Dominion, mamlaka, hukumu. 
Donkey, punda. 

Donkey from the mainland, kio- 
ngwe, pi. viongwe. 
Door, ml&ngo, pi. milango (vidgarly^ 
mwaugo, pi. miango). 
Leaf of door, ubau, pi. mbau. 
Centre piece, mfaa. 
Door-keeper, mgoja miango. 
Door chain, riza. 

Door frame, top and bottom pieces, 
kizingiti, pi. viziugitL 



Side pieces, tnwimo, miimo. 
Outer heading, upapi. 
Dotage, mapiswa. 
Doubt, shaka, pi. mashaka, tashwi- 

shi, waswas. 
Dove, hua. See Pigeon & Birds. 
Dowry, paid hy the husband to the 

teife^s friends, mahari. 
Dragon-fly, kerini2:'ende. 
Dragon's blood, maziwa (or macho), 

ya watu wawili. 
Dream, nJoto. 
Dregs, chembe. 
Dress, nguo, mavazi, mavao, nvao. 

Slaves and, very poor men wear 
generally an nguo only, that is, a 
loin cloth of white or blue calico. 
Women wear a kisuto, or long cloth 
of blue, or printed, or coloured calico 
trrapped tightly round the body 
immediately under the arms, and on 
the head an ukaya, a piece of blue 
calico with two long ends ; it has a 
string passing under the chin, to ichich 
a silver ornament, jebu, is attached. 
Well-dressed men icear a loin cloth 
with a coloured border, kikoi, a long 
shirt-Wee garment in white calico, 
kanzu, a shawl, amazu, twisted 
round the waist, a icaistcoat, kisibao, 
and a long loose coat, jolio. On their 
Jihads they wear a red or white sJcidl- 
cap, kofia, and tivisted round it a 
turban, kilemba. Their feet are 
slipped into sandals, viatu. 

^Vomen wear trousers, soruali, a 
kanzu of coloured materials and a 
kona {cap) adorned with gold and 
spangles, or more commonly a silk 
hai^lcerchief, dusamali, folded and 
fastened on the head so as to hide the 
hair. Tliey also icear sometimes a 

kisibao {embroidered icaistcoat), and 
nearly always a mash, barakoa 
Wfien they go out they throw over all 
a large square of black silh, lebwani. 
On their feet they carry wooden clogs 
held by a button (msuruake) grasped 
between the toes. 
Dressing of calico, dondo. 
Drill, keke. The iron is called 

kekee ; the wood it is fixed in, 

msukano ; the handle in which it 

turns, jivu ; and the boio, uta. 
Drink, kinwa {or kiny wa), pi. vinwa, 

kinwaji, ^Z. vinwaji. 
Drinker, mnywa, pi. wanywa 
Dripping {fat cooked out of meat\ 

uto wa nyama. 
Drop, tone, pi. matone, kitone, pi. 

Droppings (dung), mavi. 
Dropsy, istiska. 

Drowsiness, leppe, leppe za uzingizi. 
Drum, ngoma. 

Chapuo, a small drum. 
Ktimbwaya, a drum upon feet. 
Msondo, a very tall drum, beaten 

on special occasions. 
The skin of a drum, or anything 

stretched like it very tightly, ki- 

wambo, pi. viwambo. 
Drunkard, mlevi, pi. walevi. 
Duck, bata, pi. niabata, 
Duryan, finessi la kizungu. 
Dust, vumbi, pi. (much dust) ma- 

Dust and sand on a road, tifutifu. 
Duties. See Customs. 

Duties of one's position, kiwango, 

pi. viwango. 
Dwarf, kibeti, pi. vibeti. 
Dicelling, makao, makazi, makani, 
Dye, laugL [masikaui. 



Mkasiri, o tree whose harh is used 
to dye fisMug-nets and lines 

Ungamo, a yellow dye used to dye 
Dysentery, tumbo la kuhara damu. 


Eagerness (excessive haste), pupa. 
Eagle (?) koho, firkomba, tai, pu- 
ngu, kipanga (all these tcords 
seem to denote some large bird of 
Ear, sikio, pi. masikio. 
Hole pierced in the lower lobe of 

the ear, ndewe. 
Ear ornaments, a large round 
ornament in the lower lobe, 
jassi, pi. majassi. 
Ornaments in the upper part of 
the ear, if dangling, kipuli, pi. 
vipuli ; if shaped like a stud, 
kipini, pi. vipini. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio. 
Ear of corn, suke, pi. masuke. 
See Bunch, Cob. 
Earnest money, arabuni, stakabathi. 
Earth, inchi, udongo. 

77te earth, inchi, ulimwengu, 
Ease, raba. [dunia. 

After pain, faraja. 
East u'ind, matlaa. 
Eaves, rachilizi, pi. micbilizi. 
Eavesdropper, dukizi (or duzi), pi. 

El)ony, mpingo. 
Echo, mwangwi. 
Edge (of a precipice), ukingo. 
(Of a piece of cloth), pindo, pi. 
Edging icoven into a piece of cloth, 

Efort, juhudi, bidii. 

Effudon 'of blood), vilio (la damu), 

pi. mavilio. 
Egg, yayi, pi mayayi. 

White of egg, ute wa yayi. 
Yolk of an egg, kiini cha yayi. 
Eggshell, ganda la yayi. 
Empty eggshell, kaka. 
Egypt, Misri, Masri, Massara. 
Elbow, kisigino, pi. visigino, kivi, 

pi. vivi. 
Elder, mzee, pi. wazee, sbeki, pi. 

Elegance, jamala. 
Elepliant, tembo, ndovu. 
Elephantiasis (leprosy), jethamu. 

{Barbadoes leg), teeude. 
Embarrassment, matata, uthia, ma- 

Embroidery, almaria. 
(stitching), darizi. 
(piping), kigwe, pi. vigwe, 
Embroilment, matata. 
Emetic, tapisbo,2>Z. matapisho, dawa 

la kutapika. 
Employment, kazi, utumwa. 
Emidation, bidii. 
Encampment (of a caravan), kituo, 

pi. vituo. 
Enclosure, uanja, ua, pi. nyua. 
Enclosure made by a fence of 
cocoa-nut leaves, ua wa nia- 
Enclosure made by a fence of 

mtama stalks, ua wa mabua. 
Enclosure with a stone fence, 
kitalu, pi. vitalu. 
End, mwisho, pi. miisho (finishing), 
hatima, kikomo, pi. vikomo 
(leaving off), 
of a journey, kifiko, pi. vifiko, 
of a piece of cloth, mialamu. 



End or corners of a turhan cloth, &c., 

tamvua, kishungi, pi. visliungi. 
Enemy, adui, pi. adui or maadui. 
Engagement, shugliuli, utumwa. 
Enigma, kitendawili, pi. vitenda- 

Enmity, wadui, adawa, khusuma. 
Entrails, matumbo. 
Entrance^ kuingia, pakuingilia, 

Envy, hasidi, kijicho, kijito (M.). 
Epilepsy, kifafa. 
Equal [in age), hirimu, marika. 
Equivalent, badala. 
Error, kosa, makosa. 
Eructation, kiungulia, pi. viungtilia. 
Escape, wokovu, kuokoka. 

(other course), buddi. 
Esteem, mapendo, maafikano. 
Estimate, maafikano. 
Eternity, milele. 
Eunuch, tawashi, maksai. 
Euphorbia, mtupa, pi. mitupa. 
Europe, Ulaya, Wilaya, Uznngu. 
European (or any one loearing a 

European dress), Mzuugu, pi. 

Eve, Hawa. 
Evening, jioni. 
Event {startling), shani. 
Evil, uovu. 

Exaltation, utukufu, athama. 
Example, njfano, pi. mifano. 
Excrement, mavi. 
Expense, gbarama. 
Extinguisher, mzima (a person), pi. 

wazima, kizima (a thing), pi. 

Eye, jiclio, pL macho, jito (M.), pi. 

Loss of an eye, chongo. 
Eyebrow, nyushi, nshi (A.). 

Eyelash or Eyelid, kope. 
A stye in the eye, chochea. 


Fable, ngano. 
Face, uso, pi. nyuso. 
Faeces, mavi. 
Faggot, tita, pi. matita. 
Faith, imani. 
Fall, maanguko. 
Falsehood, uwongo. 
Familiarity, mazoezo. 
Family, jaraaa, ndugu. 
Famine, njaa, ndaa (M.). 
Fan, upepeo pi. pepeo, pepeo, pi. 
mapepeo, kipepeo, pi. vipepeo. 
Fare, naiili. 
Fast, funga. 

Fasting month, Ramathani. 
Fat, sbaliamu, mafuta. 

A piece of fat^ kipande kilicho- 

Fat cooked out of meaty uto wa 
Fate, ajali. 
Father, baba. 

In speaking of one^s own father it 
is polite to call Mm bwana. 

Stepfather, baba wa kambo. 

Father-in-law, mkwe. pi. wakwe. 
Fathom, pima, pi. mapima. 
Fatigue, utufu, ulegevu. 
Failing, kinono, pi. vinono. 
Fault, batiya, kosa, pi. makosa. 
Favour, upendeleo. 

A favour, fathili. 
Favourite, kipendi, pi. vipendi, 

mpenzi, pi. wapenzi. 
Fear, khofu, uoga, kitisho, pL 

vitisbo, kicho, pi. vicho. 
Feast, karamu. 

Feast day, siku kuu. 



Feather, unyoa, pZ. nyoa, nyoa (or 
nyoja.% pi. manyoya. 
A toing feather, ubawa,pZ. mbawa. 

Feeder, mlishi, pi. walishi. 

Fellow-servant, mjoli, pi. wajoli. 

Fence, ua, pi. nyua. 

Stone fence, kitalu, ^Z. vitalu. 

Fenugreeli, watu. 

Ferry, kiviiko, p\. vivuko. 

Fetters, pingu. 

Fever, lioma. 

SicelUng of the glands of the groin 

followed by fever, mtoki. 
Dengue fever, kidinga popo. 

Field, koonde, pi. makoonde, mgu- 
nda (Yao). 

Field labourer, mtuliina, pi. watu- 

Fierceness, ukalL 

Fig, tini. 

Fig-tree, mtini, pi. mitini. 

Fight, mapigano. 

Figure of speech, mfano wa maneno. 

Filagree icorh, temsi. 

File, tupa. 

Fillet, utepe, pi. tepe. 

Filth, uchavu, janaba. 

Fin, pezi, pi. mapezi. 

Fine for a murder, dia. 

Fineness, uzuri. 

Finger, kidule, pi. vidole, kidole cha 
mkono, chanda {^l.),pl. yyanda. 

Fire, moto, pi. mioto. 

Pieces of wood to get fire by twist- 
ing, upekecho. 
Firewood, kuni, one piece, ukuni. 
A half-burnt piece of firewood, 

kinga, pi. vinga. 
Tlie act of pushing the icood further 
into the fire, or an instrument for 
doing so,kichocLeo,kitoteo (M.). 

Fireplace, jiko, pi. meko, meko, 

pi. mieko, hence Patchen, jikoni, 
Three stones to set a pot over the 
fire upon, jifya, pi. mafya, figa, 
pi. mafiga. Jifya is the icord 
most used in the town, figa that 
used in the country. 
Firefly, kimurimuri, pi. vimurimuri, 

kimetimeti, pi. vimetimeti. 
Firmament, anga (?). 
Firmness, usimeme, nthahiti, (in 

building) mtomo. 
Fish, samaki. 

Dagaa, very small, small fry. 
Njombo, barred with black and 

Taa, a very large fiat fish. 
Pono, a fish said to be nearly 

always asleep. 
Other hinds, Chafi, Chang^a, 
Chewa, Kungu, Mchiimbuluri!, 
jMkizo, Mwewe, Mzia, Nguni, 
Nguva, Panzi, Pungii. The 
varieties of fish are exceedingly 
Cliinusi, a kind of fish or evil 
spirit never seen, but which is 
supposed to seize men and hold 
them under water until they are 
Fish-trap, dema, lema, ema. 
Fish poison from a species of 
Euphorbia, utiipa. 
Fisherman, mvuvi, 2>l- wavuvi. 
Fist, konde, pi. makonde. 
Fits, kifufa. 
Flag, bandera. 
Flat (of a sword, &c.), bapa. 
Flatterer, msifu, pi. wasifu, msifu- 
Self-flatterer, mwajisifuni. 
Flattery, kusifu. 



Flavour^ lutlitha, taniu. 

Flax, katani, kitaui. 

Flea, kiroboto, 'pl. viroboto. 

Flesh, nyama. 

Fleshiness, mnofu. 

Flint gun, bunduki ya gumegume. 

Flood, gharika. 

Floor, chini. 

Chunammed floor, sakafu. 
Upper floor or roof, deri. 
Mower, ua, pl. maua. 
Flue, vumbi, pl. {much) mavumbi. 

A flue, dohaan. 
Flute, filimbi, pl. mafilimbi. 
Fly, iiizi, pl. mainzi. 
Foam, povu. 

Fog, umande, kungu, shemali. 
Fold (of cloth), upindo. 

Cattle-fold, zizi, pl. mazizi. 
Foliage, majani. 

Follower, mfuasi, pl. wafuasi, cho- 
kora, pl. raacliokora (a hanger- 
Folly, upumbafu. 
Fondness, mahaba. 
Food, chakula, mukuli (Ar.), kande 
Food saved from an evening meal 
to he eaten in the morning, wuli 
wa niwikuu, bariyo (A.). 
Bokoboko, a dish made of wheat 

and meat. 
Bumbwi, rice flour pounded up 

tcith cocoa-nut. 
Pilao, an Indian pillaw. 
Fool, mpumbafu, pl. wapumbafu. 
Foot, mguu, pl. miguu, guu, j:>Z. 
maguu, mjiguu, pl. mijiguu 
(large), kijiguu, jjZ. vijiguu 
Footprint, uayo, pl. nyayo. 

Footing — fo make him pay his foot^ 
ing, kumsliika bukali. 

Forbidden thing, haraniu, marufuku. 

Force, nguvu. 

Ford, kivuko, pl. vivuko. 

Forehead, paji la uso. 
Brow, kikomo cha uso. 

Foreigner, mgeni, pl. wageni, mja 
na maji, pl. waja na maji (from 
over seas). 

Forelock, panja. 

Foreskin, govi mbo. 

Forest, mwitu, msitu. 

Fork, kiuma, pl. viuma. 

Forking of a road, tree, &c., panda. 

Form {outward shape), umbo, pl. 

Fort, gereza, ngome, busuni. 

Fortune, bahati, nasibu. 

Fortune-teller{by means of diagrams), 
mpiga ramli, pl. wapiga ramli. 

Foster brother or sister, ndugu 

Foundation, msingi or msinji, pl. 

Fowls, k'uku. 

Fo.x, mbwelia. 

Fraud, hadaa, madanganya. 

Freedom {from, slavery) huru, {per- 
mission) ruksa, ruliusa. 

Freight, nauli. 

Friday, Jumaa. 

Friend, rafiki,jpL rafiki or marafiki, 
sahibu, jjZ. as'ljabu, ^ho>Ia 
{amongst women, and in Zanzi- 
bar only. See Catamite). 

Fright, khofu, woga. 
(a start), kituko. 

Fringe, matamvua. 

Frog, chula, pl. vyula. 

Fruit, tuiida, pl. matunda, zao, pl, 



Bungu, pi. mabungu, about the 
size of a medlar, with a thick 
russet skin. 
Mazu, a hind of banana. 
Zambarau, like a large damson. 
Chokoclioko, a red prickly skin, 
a large kernel, and white pidp. 
Kunazi, something like a sloe. 
Kitoria, pi. vitoria. — Koma, pi. 
makoma. — Fuu, pi. mafuu. 
— Mtofaa. 
Fruit which drops prematurely, 

pooza, pi. mapooza. 
Fruit-stalk, (of cloves) kikonyo, 
pi. vikonyo, (of bananas) mku- 
ngu, pi. mikungu. 
Frying-pan, (metal) tawa, pi. 
malawa, (earthen) kaango, pi. 
Fugitive, mkimbizi, pi. wakimbizi. 
Fume, azma, fukizo. 
Fun, mchezo, mzaha. 
Funeral, kuzikani. 
Furnace (for melting metal), kalibu. 
Furniture, pambo la nyumba, 

Gain, fayida. 
Gait, mwendo. 
Galago, komba. 
Galbanum, ubani. 
Gall, safura. 

Galla, Mgala, pi. "Wagala. 
Game, (produce of hunting) mawi- 
ndo, (amusement) mchezo, ma- 
B^to, played on a board with thirty- 

tico holes in it. 
Muliyandimu, a game in which 
one holds down his head, some 
other knocks it, and he guesses 
who struck him. 

Tiabu, played hy throwing up 
sticks, &c., and watching their 
Dama, played on a board like 

Tasa, a game of touch. 
Tinge, a game consisting in follow- 
ing the movements of a leader. 

Garden, bustani, sbaniba. 

Gate, mlango, pi. milango. 

Gate of Paradise, kilango cha 
jab a. 

Gazelle, paa. 

General, jemadari, pi. majemadari. 

Generation, kizazi, pi. vizazi. 

Generosity, ukarimu. 

Genius, Jini, pi. Majini. 

G^e7iiZe?na«,mng wana, jpZ. -wangwana. 

Gentleness, upole. 

Georgian woman, Jorjiya. 

Gettings, pato, pi. mapato. 

Ghee, samli. 

Ghost, kivuli, pi. vivuli. 

Ghoul, zimwi, pi. mazimwi. 

Giddiness, masua, mbasua, kizu- 

Gift, zawadi (a keepsake), tunu (a 
choice thing), basbishi (largess), 
ada (customary gift), kilemba 
(gift on the completion of a work 
or to the bride^s father)^ wapo. 

Ginger, tangawizi. 

Giraffe, twiga. 

Girder, mbimili, pi. mihimili. 

Girdle, msbipi, pi. mishipi, masombo 
(of cloth), maazrimu (a shawl), 
kibobwe, pi. vibobwe (a piece 
of cloth tied round the body 
during hard ivork). 

Girl, kijana, pi. vijana. 
Slave girl, kijakazi, pi. vijakazL 

Girth, kivimba. 



Gizzard, firi^si. 

Gladness, furaha. 
Glance, natliiri. 
Glare, anga. 
Glass, kioo. 

Looking-glass, kioo, pi. vioo. 

Drinking -glass, bilauri. 
Glitter, kimeta. 
Glory, sifa, fakhari, utukufu. 
Glue (or gum), embwe. 
Glutton, mlafi, pi. walafi. 
Goat, mbuzi. 

A strong he-goat, bebera (Ar.). 
Go-between, kijumbe, ^^Z. vijumbe. 
GOD, MUUNGU, pi miungu. 
Goitre, tezi. 
Gold, thaliabu. 
Goldsmith, mfua thahabu, pi. wafua 

Good luck, ghanima, jaha. 
Goodness, wema. 

Goods, mali ^possessions'), vyombo 

(utensils), bithaa (merchandise). 

Goose, bata la Bukini, pi. mabata 

ya Bukini. 
Gonorrhoea, kisunono. 
Gourd. See Pumpkin. 
Gouty jongo. 

Governor, wali, liwali, pi. maliwali. 
Government, serkali, daulati. 

An official, mtu wa serkali. 
Grain. See Corn. 

Cleaned grain, mchele. 

Cooked grain, wali. 

Grains of com, punje, chembe. 
Grandchild, mjukwi, pi. wajukuu. 

Great-grandcluld, kijukuu, pi. 
vijukuu, kitukuu, pi. vitukuu, 
kilembwe, pi. vilembwe. 

pi. viningina. 
Grandfather, babu. 

Grandmother, bibu 

Great- grandmother, mzaa bibi. 
Grammar, saruf. 
Grapes, zabibu. 
Gratitude, shukrani. 
Grass, nyasi, majani, nyika. 

grass cut for fodder, ukoka. 
Grasshopper, panzi, pi. mapanzi. 
Grave, kaburi, pi. makabm-i. 

In the grave, ajter death, ahera, 
Greatness, ukubwa, ukuii, utukufu. 
Greediness, choyo, rolio, tamaa. 
Greij hairs, mvi. 
Gridiron, uma wa kuokea nyama, 

pi. nyuma za kuokea nyama. 
Grief, sikitiko, kasarani, msiba, 
huzuni, hamu, simauzi. 

(for a loss), majonzi. 
Grime (on a pot), masizi. 
Grit (small stones), chaugarawi. 
Groom, mchunga, pi. wacbunga, 

mtunga (M.), pi. watunga. 
Ground, chini, inchi. 
Ground nuts, mjugu nyasa, (a hard 

round kind) mjugu mawe. 
Grudging person, hiaua. 
Gruel, uji. 

Guard, mlinzi, pi. walinzi. 
Guava, mpera, pi. mapera. 

Guava-tree, mpera, pi. mipera. 
Guest, mgeni, pi. wageni. 
Guide, rubani, kiongozi,pZ. viongozi, 

mkuu genzi. 
Guitar, kinanda, pi. vinanda 
Guinea fowl, kanga. 

(a crested kind), kororo. 
Gum (birdlime, &c.), ulimbo. 

Gum [of the teeth), ufizi, pi. fizi. 

Gum Arabic, haba, sumugh. 

Gum Amini or Copal, sandarusi. 
Gun, bunduki. 



FJirii (7«r?,biindiiki ya gmnegume. 

Gun-harrel, kasiba. 

Nipple, kifa, pi. vifa. 

Gun-cap, fataki. 

Gun-lock, mtambo, pi. mitambo. 

(cannon), mzinga, pi. mizinga. 

Gun-carriage, gurudumo la 
Gunpowder, baruti. 
GiU, tumbo, pi. matumbo. 


H. The guttural Arabic h, ha ngoe. 
The softer Arabic h, he mdawari. 
Habits, mazoezo, mathehebu. 
Hxmorrhoids, bawasir. 
Haft, mpini, pi. mipini, kipini, pi. 

Hair, nyele {or nwele), sing, unyele. 
(of the beard), ndevu, sing, udevu. 
(of the body, especially of the 

pubes), mavuzi, sing. vuzi. 
(of the eyebrow), nyushi, sing. 

(of the eyelash), kope, sing, ukope. 
(of the hand and arm), malaika, 

sing, laika. 
(of an animal), singa. 
Straight hair, nyele za singa. 
Woolly hair, nyele za kipilipili. 
Half, nusu. 

A half orange, cocoa-nut, c&c.kizio, 
pi. vizio. 
Halyards, henza. 

Ropes passing through the pulley 
of the halyards, jarari. 
Hammer, nyuudo. 

Hand (or arm and hand), mkono, 
pi. mikono. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cha 
mkono, pi. vitanga vya mikono. 
Front of the hand, kofi, pi. makofi. 

Inside of the fingers, kikofi, pi. 
Handful {that will lie on the hand), 
ukufi, p)l- kufi. 
(that which will lie on the two 

hands), chopa, pi. machopa. 
(that can be grasped in the hand), 
konzi, pi. makonzi. 
Handkerchief, leso. 
Focket handkerchief, leso ya ku- 
futia kamasi. 
Handle (like a knife-handle), mpini, 
pi. mipini, kipini, pi. vipini. 
(projecting like that of a sauce- 
pan), kono, mkono, pi. mikonct. 
(bowed like that of a bucket), 
utambo, pi. tambo. 
Handwriting, khati, mwandiko. 
Hanger-on, chokora, pi. machokora. 
Happiness, furaha, fiirahani, raha. 
Harbour, bandari, buudari. 
Hardness, ugnmu. 
Hare. See Rabbit. 
Harm, mathara. 
Harness, matandiko. 
Harp, kinubi, pi. vinubi. 
Harpoon, chusa, pi. vyusa. 
Harvest, mavuno. 
Haste, haraka, hima. 
Hat, chapeo. 

Hatchet, kishoka, pi. vishoka, kitoka 
(M.), pi. vitoka, upamba, pi. 
Hatred, machnkio, buothu. 
Hawk, mwewe. 
Haicker, dalali. 

Head, kitwa (or kichwa), pi. 
A little head, kijitwa, pi. vijitwa. 
Head of a ship, omo. 
Head winds, pepo za omo. 
Head cloth worn by ivomen. ukaya 



(of blue calico), dusamali (0/ 

Headship, ujumbe. 
Healing things, mapoza. 
Health, uzima, afia, hali {state). 
Heap, fungu, pi mafungu, 

. of stones, boma. pi. maboma. 
of wood and sticks, biwi, pi. 

mabiwi, kichaka, pi. vichaka. 
of earth, kisugulu, pi. visugiilu. 
(a raised bed), tuta, jjL matiita. 
Heart, moyo, pi. mioyo, or nyoyo, 

mtima, pi. mitima. 
Heat, moto, hari (sweat), harara 

(prickly heat). 
Heaven, mbingti, sing, uwingu, 

samawati (Ar.)- 
Heaviness {iveight), uzito. 

(sorrow), hamu. 
Hedge, ua, pi. nyua. 
Hedge made in the sea for taking 

fish, uzio, pi. nyuzio. 
Heel, kifundo (or kisigino) cha 

Heifer, mtaniba^ pi. mitamba. 
Heir, mrithi, pi. vfSinthi. 
Help, msaada. 
Hem, upindo. 

Hemp. See Cannabis Indica. 
Hempen rope, kamba ulayiti. 
Hen, k'uku. 

Laying hen, koo, pi. makoo. 
Hen, full grown, but that has not 

yet laid, t'embe. 
Henna, liina. 

Herd, kundi, pi. makundi. 
Herdsman, mchunga, pi. wachimga, 

mtunga (M.), pi. watunga. 
Hero, shujaa, pi. mashujaa, faliali, 

pi. mafahali. 
Heroism, ushujaa. 

Hesitation, msangao. 

(in speaking), kubabaika. 

Hickup, kwikwe. 

Hidden thing, fumbo, pi. mafumbo. 

Hide, ngozi. 

Hill, kilima, pi. vilima. 

A rocky hill, jabali, pi. maja- 

Hilt, kipini, pi. vipini. 

Hindrance, kizuizo, kizuio, kizuizi. 
It is said that Dr. Krapf, being 
on one occasion delayed from 
day to day, in obedience to 
superior orders, said to those 
who delayed him: — Keslio oa 
keslio ni madanganya, ao ni 
makatazanya. " To-morrow 
and to-morrow is deceiving or 
forbidding ;" to ichich they re- 
plied : — Si madanganya wala 
8i makatazanya, ni raazuiza- 
nya. " It is not deceiving, and 
it is not forbidding, it is delay- 

Hinge, patta, bawaba. 

Hip, nyonga (?), tokono (A.). 

Hippopotamus, kiboko, pi. vibf-ko,' 

Hire, taja, ijara, ujira. 

History, hadithi. 

Hoarseness, kupwewa na sanii. 

Hoe, jembe [or gembe), pi. ma- 

Hoeing-up time, mapalilo. 

Hold (of a ship), ngama. 

Hole, tundu, pi. matundu. 

(through anything), kipenyo, pi. 

(dibbled for seeds or plants), ko- 

rongo, pU makorongo. 
Hole to give light and air, mwa- 
ngaza, pi. miangaza. 



Hole in the lower lobe oj the ear, 
Holiness, utakatifu, matakatifu. 
Hollow (of a tree), mvungu. 
Hollowness, uvurungu. 
Home, kwangu, kwako, kwake, 
kwetu, kwenu, kwao, according 
to the person whose home it is. 
1 have some at home, iko kwaugu. 
Honey, asali ya nyuki. 
Honour, lieshima, ukarimu, utu- 

Hoof, ukwato, pi. kwato, kwata. 
Hook (fish-hook), doana. 

(used to steady work with), 
Hope, matumaini. 
Hordeolum, cliokea. 
Horn, pembe, pi. pembe or ma- 
An antelope's horn used as a 
trumpet, baragumu. See 

Musical Instruments. 
Horse, farasi, fras. 
Host (army or multitude), jeshi, pi. 
Host (entertainer), mwenyeji, pi. 
Hostility, wadui, adawa. 
Hour, saa. 
House, nyumba. 
(large), jumba, pi. majumba. 
(small), kijumba, pi. vijumba. 
Household of slaves, kijoli. 
Hum, mavumi. 
Humility, unenyekeo. 
Hump (of an ox), nundu. 

{of a humpback), kigongo. 
Hunger, iijaa, ndaa (M.). 
Hundred, mia. 

Two hundred, miteen. 
Hunter, mwinda, pi. wawinda. 

Hurry, haraka. 

Husband, mume, pi. waiime. 

Husk, ganda, pi. magauda. 

Husk and bran of rice, kumvi. 

Husk of the cocoa-nut, makumbi. 
Hut, kibanda, pi. vibanda. 
Hysena, fisi, pisi. 

Spotted hysena, kingubwa. 
Hydrocele, mshipa, pumbo, kito- 

nga (?) 
Hypocrite, mnafiki, pi. wanafiki. 


Ibo, Wibo. 

Idiot, hayawani. 

Idleness, uvivu. 

Idolater, kafiri. pi. makafiri. 

Ignorance, ujinga. 

Image, sanamu. 

Imperial. See Beard. 

Imprecation, apizo, pi. maapizo. 

Imprisonment, kifuugo. 

Incense, buhmi, ubani, uvumha, 

uudi. See Censer. 
Income, pato. 
Independence, iipweke. 
Indian (heathen), Banyani, pi. IMa- 

Indian {Maliommedan), Muhindi, 

pi. Waliiudi, 
Indian rubber, mpira. 
Indian corn, muhindi. See Maize. 
Infection, kuambukiza. 
Infidel, kafiri, pi. makafiri. 
Infirmity, uthaifu. 
Information, habari. 
Ingenuity, uyuzi, umaheli. 
Inheritance, \xr\th\. 
Inheritor, mxiihi, pi. warii/ii. 
Ink, vrino. 

Inkstand, kidau cha wino. 
Inlaid work, njumu. 



Innovation, mzuzi, pi. mizuzi. 
Innovator, mzushi, pi. wazushi. 
Insect, mdudu, jjI- wadudu. 

Paange, gadfly. 

Manyiga, hornet. 

Dudu vule, a boring hornet. 

Bunzi, pl. mabunzi, a stinging 


Vunja jimgo, a mantis. 
Boroshoa, a long-shaped black 

insect found in dust-heaps. 
Insolence (^self-sufficiency), kinaya. 
Instruction, mafundisho. 
Instruments (nautical), vipande vya 

Insult, tukano, pl. matukano. 
Intellect, akili {generally treated as 

a plural noun of Class III.). 
Intention, nia, kasidi. 
Interpretation, tafsiri. 
Interpreter, mkalimani, pl. wakali- 

mani, posoro. 
Intestines, matumbo. 

Small intestines, change. 
Interruption, kizuizo, pl. vizuizo. 
Intoxicating thing, kileo, pl. viko. 
Intoxication, kileo, kulewa. 
Intruder, kizushi, pl. vizushi, fisadi 

(one icho enters a house without 

laivful purpose). 
Invalid, mgonjvfa, pl. wagonjwa. 
Iron, chuma. 

A piece of iron, chuma, pl. vyuma. 
Iron bar, mtaimbo, pl. mitaimbo. 
Island, kisiwa, pl. vi&iwa. 
Itch, upele, pele. 
Itching, mnyeo. 
Jvory, pembe. 

a large tusk, buri. 


Jachal, mbwa wa luwitu. 

Jachfruit, finesi, 'pl. mafinesi, 

Jackfruit tret, mfinesi, pl. mi- 
Jar {for carrying waier), intungi, 
pl. mitungi. 

Jar (large), kasiki. 
Jasmine, jasmini. 
Jaiv, taya. 
Jealousy, uwivu. 

Jealous anger, gheiri. 

To weep for jealousy, kulia ngoa 
Jewel, johari. 
Jin, jini, pl. majini. 
Johanna, Anzwani. 
Joint, kiungo, pl. viungo. 

(in a cane), fundo, pl. mafundo. 

(piece between two joints in a 
cane), pingili. 
Joist, boriti. 
Joke, ubishi. 
Journey, safari, mwendo. 

Two days^ journey, mwendo wa 
siku mbili. 
Joy, furaha. 

Judge, kathi, pl. makathi, mwa- 
muzi, pl, waamuzi, mwamua, 
pl. waamua. 
Judgment, hukumn, maamuzi. 
Jug, kopo, pl. makopo. 
Juice, maji. 
Justice, haki. 


Ktel, mkuku, ntako ' Mer.). 
Kernel, kisa, pl. visa. 
Kettle, kanderinya. 
Key, ufanguo, pl. fungua 
Kick, teke, pl. mateke. 
Kidney, nso, figo (M.). 
Kind, namna, ginsi, aina. 

Kind, sort or style is expressed by 
ki. prefixed to the place, thing^ 



or people. Kihindi, the Indian 
sort. Kizimgu, the European 
Viatu vya Kihindi, shoes like 

those worn by the Indians. 
Viazi vya ELizungu, sweet potatoes 
oftheEuropean sort,i.e. potatoes. 
Mavazi ya kifaume, robes of the 
Mngly sort, royal robes. 
Kindness, wema. 

Ecery kindness, killa jambo la 

A kindness, fathili. 
Kindred, ndugu, jamaa. 

Utani, the belonging to a kindred 

Mtani, pi. watani, a person of a 
kindred race. 
King, mfalme, pi. wafalme, malki, 
CJcess king, shah. 
Kingdom, ufalme, ufalume, nfaume, 

milld, mulki. 
Kinsman, ndugu, jamaa. See 

Kiss, busu. 

Kitchen, jikoni, mekoni. 
Kite (bird), mwewe. 

(toy), tiara. 
Knee, gote, pi. magote, ondo, pi. 

maondo (A.). 
Knife, kisu, pi. visu. 
(large), jisu, pi. majisu. 
Kotama, a curved knife used in 

getting palm wine. 
Shembea, a kind of curved knife. 
Knight (chess), frasi. 
Knot, fundo, pi. mafundo. 
Knoicingness, ujuvi, ujuzi, werevu. 
Knowledge, maarifa, elimu, hekima. 
Koran, korani, furakanu, msahafu. 
It is divided into thirty juzuu, 

which together make a khitima 

Labour, kazi. 

Labour pains, utungu. 
Lac (100,000), lakki. 
Ladder, ngazi. 

Ladle made out of a cocoa-r? m/, kata, 
pi. makata (deep, used to dip 
up water with) ; upawa, pi. 
pawa (shallow, used for gravy, 
curry, &c.). 
Lady, bibi, mvrana mke wa kiu- 
Lady of the house, mwana. 
Ladylove, mchumba. 
Lake, ziwa la maji, pi. maziwa. 
Lamoo, Amu. 
Lamp, taa. 

Larnpstand, a piece of wood icith 

tico flat pieces projecting at 

right angles on which the lamp 

is placed, mwango, pi. miango. 

Lampwick, utambi, pi. tambi. 

Land, inchi, nti ''M.). 

Landing-place, diko, pi. madiko, 

liko, pi. maliko. 
Language, lugha, maneno. TJce 
language of a place or nation 
is expressed by the use of the 
prefix ki-. Maneno ya Kiu- 
nguja or Kiunguja,f7itJ languag( 
of Zanzibar. Kinyamwezi, the 
language of the Nyamwezi 
tribe. See Dialect. 
Filthy and insulting language, 
Languor, utepeteva. 
Lantern, fanusi, kandili, pi. ma- 
j kaudili. 

1 Lappet, kishungi,^?. vishungi. 

E 2 



Largess, takarima, Lashishi. | 

Lathe, keezo. 

Laugh, cheko,^Z. macheko, kicheko, 

pi. vicheko. 
Law, slieria, hukurnn. 
Lead, risasi, rusasi. 

{for sounding), bildi. 
Leader, kiongozi, pi. viongozi. 
Leaf {of a tree), jaui, pi. majani. 
(of a cocoa-nut tree^, kuti, pi. 

Leaf (of a hooh), ukurasa, pi. 
Lean-to, kipenn, pi. vipenu. 
Learning, elimu. 

A man of learning, mwana wa 
Leather, ngozi, ngovi. 
Leave, mksa, ruhusa. 

To tahe leave, kuaga. 
Leaven, chachu, kamira. 
Lee side, upande wa cliini. 
Leech, mruba, pi. miruba, mdudu 

afyonzaye damu. 
Lefthandedness, shoto. 
Leg (or foot), mgu.u,pl. miguu. 
(of a native bedstead), tendegu, 

pi. matendegu. 
Loss of the use of the legs, kitewe, 
Leg ring. See Anhlet. 
Legend, hadithi. 
Leisure (private time), faragha, 

Lemon, limao, pi. malimao. 
Length, mefu. 
Leopard, chui, tui (M.). 
Leprosy, ukoma, balanga, jethamu, 

Letter, -svaraka, pi. nyaraka, barua, 
Letter (of the alphabet), henifu. 

Lever, mvukuto, pi. mivukuto. 
Liar, mwongo, pi. wawongo. 
Liberality, ukarimu. 
Licentiousness, washerati. 
Licorice, sus. 
Lid, kifumko,pZ. vifuniko, kibia, pL 

vibia, mkungu wa kufunikia. 
Lie, wongo, u won go. 
Life, uzima (health), maisha (con- 
tinuance), roho (soul). 
Light, nuru, weupe, mwanga, pi. 
mianga, anga, pi. maanga 
Lighthole, mwangaza, pi. mia- 

Lights (of an animal), yavuyavu. 
Lightning, umeme. 
Like (similar thing), kifani, pL 

Likeness, mfano, pi. mifano, kifano 

pi. vifano, sanamu, sura. 
Lime, chokaa. 

Lime (fruit), dimu. 
Sweet lime, dimu tamu. 
Limit, mpaka, pi. mipaka (boun- 
dary), kinga (block), upoo 
(what cannot be surpassed). 
Line, mstari, pi. mistari (drawn), 
safu (roic), ugwe (cord), sliairi 
{line of verse). 
Linen, kitani. 
Lining of a kanzu round the throat, 

Lion, simba. 
Lip, mdomo, mlomo, or mwomo, pi. 

midomo, milomo, or miomo. 
Lip-ring, ndonya. 
Liquid, maji, kiowevu. 
Lisp, kitembe. 
Litter (carried by four men), 

Little pieces, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 



Liver, ini, pi. maini. 
Lizard, mjusi, pi. wajusi. 
Large water lizard, kenge. 
Kinds of lizards, mgurugum, pi. 

waguruguru — gorong'ondwa — 

kiuma mbuzi— mjumbakaka — 

Load; mzigo, pi. mizigo. 
Loaf, mkate, pi. mikate. 
Loan, maazimo, karatha. 
Lock, kitasa, pi. vitasa (60a; lock), 

komeo or gomeo (a native 

wooden lock), kufuli,^Z. maku- 

fuli {padlock). 
Locust, mzige, pi. wazige, nzige. 
Log, gogo, pi. magogo. 

(nautical), batli. 
Loin cloth, nguo, doti, kikoi, pi. 

vikoi (with a striped border). 
Loins, kiiino, pi. viuno. 
Longing, uchu, tamaa, hawa. 
Look, nathari. 

Looking-glass, kioo, pi. vioo. 
Loop, kitanzi, pi. vitanzi. 

Loops to haul up a boat by, 

Loss, hasara. 
Jjots, kura. 
Louse, chawa, tawa. 
Love, shauko, mapenzi, habba, 

mahabu, pendo, mapendo. 
Luck, bahati, nasibu. 

Messenger of ill luck, korofi. 
Lukewarmness, uvuguvugu. 
Lumbrici, change. 
Lump, fun go, pi. mafungo, fumba, 

pi. mafumba. 
Lump [as in flour), kidonge, pi. 

vidonge, vumbu, pi. mavumbu. 
Lump (of meat), chinyango. 
Lunacy, kichaa, soda. 
Lunatic, mwenyi kichaa. 

Lungs, pafu, pumu, yavuyavu (of 

an animal). 
Lust, hawa. 


Mace {spice), basbasi. 

Machine, samaui, mtambo, pi. mi- 

Madagascar, Buki, Bukini. 
Madness, wazimo, mahoka (country 

Magadoxa, IMkuchyo. 
Magic, uchawi (black magic). 

uganga (loliite magic). 
Maggot (funza). 
Magnesia (sulphate of), chumvi ya 

Maiden, mwana mwali. 
Maize (plant), muhiudi. 
half-groicn, matindi. 
(corn), mahindi. 
(corn cob), gunzi, 2)1. magunzi. 
(young cob), ngara. 
(parched corn), mbisi. 
Majesty, enzi, ezi. 
Malice, uovu. 
Man (person), mtu, pjl. watu. 

(male), mwanamume, pi. waa- 

(human being), mwana Adamii, 

bin Adamu (Ar.). 
A very large man, jitu, pi. majitu. 
A young man whose beard is 
beginning to appear, mvulana, 
pi. wavulana. 
Man of the world, mtu mwerevu. 
Mango, embe, embe (M.), pi. ma- 
embe. Embe za dodo, large 
Mango-tree, mwembe, pi. miembe. 
Mangouste, mchiro, pi. wachiro. 
Mangrove, mkoko, pi. mikoko. 



Manner, ginsi. 

An elegant manner, madaha. 
Manners, destuii, matliehebu. 

Good manners, adabu, tasfida. 
3/anfzs, vuDJa jungo. 
Manure, samadi. 
Manuscript, mwandiko, pi. mia- 

Mark, alama. 

Marks made hy dragging anything 

along, mkokoto, pi. mikokoto. 
Tribal mark, nemba. See Spot, 
Market, soko, pi, masoko. 
Marriage, ndoa, mikaba. 
(the ceremony), liarusi. 
(intermarriage), kuoana. 
Marrow, bongo. 
Martyr, shabidi, pi. mashabidi. 
Mask, barakoa. 
Mason, mwasbi, pi. waashi. 

Mason's trowel, mwiko, pi. miiko. 
Mass, the mass of, jamii ya. 
Mast, mlingote, pi. milingote, 
mgote, pi. migote. 
Small mizen-mast, mlingote wa 
kalmi or galmi. 
Master {of a house, or of slaves), 
Master {of a school), mwalimu, pi. 

Masters son, bwana mdogo. 
Master workman, fundi. 
One's own master, mweza mwe- 
Mat (coarse matting), jamvl, pi. 
Sleeping mat, mkeka, j^Z. mikeka. 
Sleeping mat made like a hag with 

one side open, fumba. 
Oval prayer mat, musala, pi. mi- 

Bound mat on which food is laid 

out, kitanga, pi. vitanga. 
Strips of palm leaf for plaiting 

fine mats, myaa, pi. miyaa. 
Strips of palm leaf for plaiting 

coarse mats, mwaa, pi. miwaa. 
Narrow strips ready to he seicn 
together to make coarse TnatSy 
sbupatu, pi. masbupatu. 
Strips for making fine mats, 

iikiri, pi. kiri. 
The thick edge of strips of 

matting, ng'ong'o. 
Busati, a sort of matting hrought 
from Muscat. 
Matchmaker, kijumbe, pi. vijumbe. 
Matches, viberiti. 
Matter (pus), usaba. 

A matter, jambo, jawabu. 
What is the matter ? Kuna nini? 
What is the matter with you? 
Una nini. 
Mattress, godoro, pi. magodoro. 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
Meal (food), cbakula. 

First meal after a fast, futarL 
Meal (flour), unga. 
Meaning, maana. 
Meanness, unyonge. 
Means, njia. 
Measles, cburuwa. 

Measure, kadri, kiasi, cbeo, kipimo. 
A measure, kipimo, pi. vipimo. 
Measuring rod, line, &c., chenezo, 

pi. vyenezo. 

See Cubit, Fathom, Span, Weight. 

The weights are used as measures 

for such a capacity as would 

contain that weight of millet 

Bleat, nyama. [ (mtama). 

Small pieces cooked on a skewer, 

msbakiki, pi. misbakiki. 



Pieces cool-'d on two parallel 

8ticJis, subana. 
Meatiness, mnofu. 
Meddler, pingamizi. 
Mediator {peace-ma'ker\,vcis,Q\ph\i\\d^, 

pi. waselehisha, msululiislia, 

pi. wasuluhisha, mpatanislii, 

pil. wapatanislii. 
Medicine, dawa, pi. dawa or madawa. 
(inedical knowledge), utabibu, 

Medicine man, mganga, pi. wa- 

Meehness, upole. 
Melancholy, huzuni, hamu. 
Memorandum (written), kliati. 
Memorial, kumbukumbu, uku- 

Memory, ukumbuka, ufahamiL 
Menstruation, heth. 
Mention, kumbukumbiL 
Merchandise, bithaa. 
Merchant, mfanyi biashara, pL vra.- 

fanyi biashara, tajiii, pi. ma- 

tajiri (a rich man)y taf/ibiii, 

bazazi (huckster). 
Mercury, zebakh. 
Mercy, rebema, huruma. 
Merit, ajara. 
Merka, Marika. 
Message, maneno, habaii. 
Messenger, mjumbe, pi. wajumbe, 

mtume, pi. watume, tume. 
Metal, madini 
Middle, kati. 

Middle of a piece of cloth, mjL 
Midge, usubi. 
Midnight, usiku saa a sita. kati ya 

usiku, usiku wa manane. 
Midwife, mzalisha, pi. wazalisha. 
Mildew, kawa. 
Milk, maziwa. 

Curdled milk, maziwa mabivu. 
Buttermilk, mtindi. 
Mill, diuu, pi. viuu. 
Steam mill, kinu cha moshi. 
Oil mill, kinu clia kushindikia. 
Hand mill, mawe ya kusagia 
{this last only is used for grind- 
ing corn. Kinu is properly a 
wooden mortar, and the common 
oil mills consist of a lever turned 
in a mortar by camels). 
Millipede, jongoo. 
Millet, mtama. 
fully formed hut unripe, mtama 

Millet stalks, mabua, sing. bua. 
kinds of millet, kibakuli, kipaje. 
3Iind, moyo (heart), akili (wits). 
Mine, madini. [nia (intention). 

Mint (herb), nana, fidina (?> 
Minute, dakika. 

Miracle, m.v,- ujiza., pi. miujiza, ajabu. 
Miscarriage, kuharibu mimba. 
Mischief, matbara, uharabu. 
Miser, bakhili, choyo. 
Misery, shidda, tbulli. 
Misfortune, msiba, pi. misiba, taabu. 
Missile, kimwondo, pi. zimwondo 
{used to mean shooting stars, 
because said to be cast at the 
Jins by the angels). 
Missionary, mpeekwa, pi. wa- 

Mist, kungu, umande, sbemali 
Mistake, kosa, makosa. 
Mistress (of slaves), bibi. 

{of the house), ^wana. It is 

reckoned good manners in 

Zanzibar to speak of one's own 

mother as mwana. 

Mistress (kept woman), kinyumba. 

Mistress ^sweetheart), mchumba. 



Mizen-mast, mlingote wa kalmi or 

Mockery, usimanga. 
Moderation, kadri, kiasL 
Modesty, haya. 
Moliilla, Moalli. 
Mole, fuko (?). 
Monibas, Mvita. 
Monday, Juma a tatu. 
Money, fetha. 
Monfia, Mafya. 
MonJcey, kima. 

Tumbili, a small light-coloured 

Ngedere, a small black monkey. 
Mbega, 'pl. wabega, a black 
monkey with long ivhite hair on 
the shoulders. 
Monsoon [northerly winds), musimi. 
Month, mwezi, pl. mie?!. 

The months of the Arab year are 
determined by the sight of the 
moon, or by the lapse of thirty 
full days. The months practi- 
cally begin from the end of the 
fasting month, and are called 
Mfunguo wa mosi, — wa pili, — 
wa tatu, — wa'nne, — wa tano, — 
wa sita, — wa saba, — wa uane, 
— wa kenda, Eajabu, Shaabani, 
Ramatbani. See Time. 
A month of less than thirty days, 

mwezi mpungufu. 
A m.onth of thirty full days, mwe- 
zi mwangamu. 
Monthly pay, mshaara. 
Moon, mwezi. 

Moonblindness, kiwi. 
Moonlight, bala mwezi. 
Morning, subui, assubui, ussubui. 

Morning air, umande. 
Morocco, Magharibi. 

Morsel, kidogo, pl. vidogo. 
Mortar for pounding and cleaning 
grain, &c., kinu, pl. vinu. 
Mortar for throwing shells, ko- 

Builder^s mortar, chokaa. 
Platters used as mortar boards, 
cliano, pl. vyano. 
Mosque, meskiti, moskiti, mesjid. 
Mosquito, imbu. 
Moth, noondo. 

Mother, mama. It is polite in Zan- 
zibar to speak of one^s own 
mother as mwana. 
Step-mother, mama wa kambo. 
Mother-in-law, mkwe, pl. w^akwe. 
Mould, kalibu. 

(mouldiness), ukungu, kawa. 
Mound (of earth), kisugulu, pl. vi- 
Mound {of stones), boma, pl. ma- 
Mountain, mlima, pl. milima. 
Mourning (grief), msiba. 

To make a formal mourning, 

kukaa matanga. 
To finish a formal mourning^ 

kuondoa matanga. 
To live very privately during 
mourning for a husband, ku- 
kalia eda. 
The feast with ivhich a mourning 
concludes, hitimu. 
3Ioustache, muomo, 2>l- miomo. 
Mouth, kinwa, pl. vinwa, kanwa, pl. 

Mucus (from the nose), kamasi. 

(from the vagina), utoko. 
Mud, tope ; much mud, matope. 

Muddiness in water, vumbi. 
Mule, nyumbu, bagliala. [riiba. 

Multiplication (arithmetical), tha- 



Multitude, makutaiio, kundi, pi. 
umkundi, jeshi, pi. majeshi, 
Mummy, mumyani. 
Mungoose, mcliiro, pi. wachiro. 
Murderer, muuwaji, pi. wauwaji. 
Muscle, tafu. 

Mushroom, kioga, pi. vioga. 
Music, ngoma. 

Musical Instruments. See Drum. 
Baragumu, a spiral antelope*s 

horn'used as a trumpet. 
Kayamba, a sort of rattle. 
Kinanda, pi. vinanda, a stringed 
instrument, used of European 
instruments generally. 
Kinubi, a harp. 
Matoazi, sing, toazi, cymbals. 
Mbui, a buffalo's horn played by 

Paanda, a trumpet. 
Upato, a plate of copper sounded 

by beating. 
Vugo, a large horn sounded by 

Zeze, a three-stringed lute. 
Zomari, a sort of clarionet. 
Musk, mesiki, meski. 
Mussel {shellfish), kijogoo, jpZ. vijo- 

goo, kome, pi. makome. 
Mustard, kharadali. 
Myriad, kikwi, pi. vikwi or zikwi. 
Myrrhf manemane. 

Nail {finger), l^kucha, pi. kucha. 

(iron), msomari, pi. misomari. 
Name, jina, pi. majina. 

What is your name ? Jina lako 
Namesake, somo, pi. masomo. 
Nape of the neck, ukosi, kikosi. 

Napkin, kitambaa, pi. vitambaa. 
Table napkin, kitambaa cha 
Narcotic, kileo, pi. vileo. 
Nation, taifa, pi. mataifa. 
Native, mzalia, pi. wazalia, kizao, 

pi. vizao, kivyao, pi. vivyao. 
Nature, asili, labia. 
Nautical instruments, vipande vya 

Navel, kitovu, pi. vitovu. 
Necessaries (especially as supplied 
by God^s providence), riziki, 
ziriki (M.). 
(usefid things), vifaa. 
Necessity, farathi, lazima, ukwasefu. 
Neck, shin go, pi. mashingo. See 

Back, Nape. 
Need, uhtaji, kutaka, matakwa. 
Needle, sindano. 
Neighbour, jirani. 
Neighbourhood, upande wa, ki- 

yambo (?). 
Nest, tundu, pi. matundu. 

(a laying place), kiota, pi. viota. 
Net, mshipi, p)l- mishipi. 

used to take gazelles, &c., wavu, 

pi. nyavu, chavu, p/. vyavu. 
Stake net, hedge made in the sea, 

uzio, pi. nyuzio. 
Bound casting net, kimia, pi. 

Seine made of European cordage, 

jarifa (or jarife), pi. majarifa. 
Seine made of cocoa-nut fibre, 

juya, pi. majuya. 
Fish trap made of basket work, 
Nettle, kiwavi, pi. viwavi (used also 
iV^ews, habari. [of sea-nettles). 

Night, usiku. 

All night, usiku kucha. 



Four whole nights, siku nne usiku 

Four days and mghts, siku nne 
mcliana na usiku. 
Nightmare, jinamisi. 
Nipple, chuchu ya ziwa, titi, 
bubu (A.). 
ef a gun, kifa, pi. vifa. 
Nohody, si mtu. 

There is nobody, hapana {or 
hakuna) mtu. 
Noise, sauti. 
of voices, kelele, pi. makelele, 

See Bellow, Hoar, Hum, Cry. 
Nonsense, upuzi, puo. 
Noon, athuuri, jua kitwani. 
Noose, tanzi, pi. nmtanzi. 
North, kibula, kaskazini. 

Northerly winds, kaskazi. 
Nose, pua, yl. pua or mapua. 

Nose ornament shaped like a stud, 

kipini, pi. vipini. 
Nose ring, azama. 
Nostril, tundu ya pua, 'mwauzi wa 

pua (?). 
Notch, a place where a triangular 

piece is hrolcen out, peugo. 
Note, barua, khati. 
Number, hesabu, kiwango. 
Nurce, yaya (dry nurse), 'mlezi, pi. 
walezi (of a child), muguzi, pi. 
wauguzi (of a sick person). 
Nut, kokwa, pi. makokwa. See 

Ground, Casheiv, cfcc. 
Nutmeg, kungumauga. 


Oar, kasia, pi. makasia. 

Oath, uapo, pi. nyapo, kiapo, pi. 

viapo, yamini. 
Obedience, mutia. 

Objections, makindano, makaiazo. 
Occupation, shughuli. 
(Esophagus, umio. 
Offering, sadaka (gift), thabihu 

(sacrifice), kafara (a sacrifice to 

avert calamity ; it is buried or 

thrown away). 
Officer, akida, mkuu wa asikari. 
Officiousness, futhuli, ufuthuli, 
Offspring, mzao, pi. wazao. [ujuvi. 
Oil, mafuta. 

Castor-oil, mafuta ya mt)arika. 
Semsem-oil, mafuta ya uta. 
Ointment, marliamu. 
Old age, uzee, ukongwe (extreme). 
Old person, mzee, pi. wazee, ki- 

kongwe, pi. vikongwe (ex- 
tremely old). 
Omelette, kiwanda, kimanda. 
Omen, fali. 
Omnipresence, eneo la Muungu (the 

spread of God). 
Onion, kitunguu, pi. vitunguu. 
Open place, kiwanja, pi. viwanja, 

wangwa, wanda. 
piece of waste ground in a town, 

Opinion, wasia. 
Opium, afyuni. 
Opportunity, nafasi. 
Ophthalmia, weli wa macho. 
Orange, chungwa, pi. machungwa, 

chungwa la kizungu, danzi la 

Bitter or wild oranges, danzi, pi. 

Mandarin oranges, kangaja. 
(a larger sort), cheuza, clienza za 

Order. See Command. 

{regularity, or a regular order), 




Ordeal, kiapn, pi. viapo. 
Origin, asili, cbimbuko, mwanzo. 
Ornament, pambo, jpl. mapambo, 
kipambo, pi. vipambo. 
Dalia, o yellow cosmetic. 
Ndonya, lip-ring worn by the 

Nyassa women. 
Sarafu, a small gold plate worn 

on the forehead. 
Sliangwi, an ornament worn 

between the shoulders. 
Urembo, black lines painted upon 

the face. 
Uzuri, cosmetic applications. 
Vidani, collars of gold or silver. 
See Anklets, Bracelets^ Ear^ Nose. 
Orphan, yatima. 
Os coccygis, kifundugm 
Ostrich, buni. 
Otto of roses, bal waradL 
Outlet, pakutokea. 
Outrigger (of canoes), matengo. 
Outskirts of a town, kiunga. 
Oven, tanuu, tanuru. 
Over-looker, msimamizi, pi. wasi- 
mamizi, mwangalizi, pi. waa- 
Owl, bundi 
Owner, mwenyewe. 
Ox, ng'ombe or gnombe, maksai. 
Oyster, cheza, kome (?), pi. ma- 
kome, kombe za pwaiii. 


Pace, mwendo. 

Package, packet, or parcel, robota, 

gora (of cloth), peto, pi. ma- 

Small packet, kipeto, pi. vipeto. 
Pad of grass, &c., used to carry a 

load on the head upon, generally 

twisted into a ring, kata. 

Pad used as a saddle for donkeys, 
Paddle, kafi, pi. makafi. 
Padlock, kufuli. 
Pail, udoo. 

Pain, maumivu, uchungu, kuuma. 
Paint, rangi. 

Pair, jozi, jura, jeuzi, jauzi. 
Palace, jumba. 
Palanquin, machera. 
Palate, kaaka, kaa ]a kinwa. 
Palisading, zizi, kizizi. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cha 
mkono, ^Z. vitanga vya mikono. 
A sail-maker's palm, dofra', pi. 
Palm-tree. See Cocoa-nut, Date. 
Leaf-stem of a palm-tree, upongoe, 

pi. pongoe. 
Mkoche, has an edible fruit. 
Mlala, hyphasne, branching palm. 
Mvuma, bo7-assus palm. 
Palm-oil tree, mchikiclii, pi. michi- 
its fruit, cbikicbi, pi macbikichi. 
the small nuts contained in the 
fruit, kichikichi, pi. vicLikichi. 
Palm-wine, tembo. 
Spirit made from palm-wine, 

Palm-wine syrup, asali ya tembo. 
Palmar abscess, kaka. 
Palpitation of the heart, kiherehere 

cba moyo. 
Panniers, shoi, shogL 
Pap, ubabwa. 
Papaw, papayi, pi. mapapayi. 

Papaw-tree, mpapayi, pi. mipa- 
Paper, karatasi. [payi. 

Parable, metbili, methali, mtano, 

pi. mifano. 
Paradise, peponi. 



Gate of paradise, kilango cha 

Paralysis, kipooza, tiwo (?). 
Paralytic, mwenyi kupooza. 
Parched maize, mbisi. 
Pardon, arathi, musama, masameho, 

Parent, mzaa, pi. wazaa, mzazi, pi. 

wazazi, mzee, pi. wazee. 
Part, fungu, pi. mafungu, sehemu, 

upande, pi. paude, kisma. 
Partner, msliarika, pi. washarika. 
Partnership, usharika. 
Partridge, kwale (?). 

Kering'ende, the red-legged par- 
Party (faction), aria. 
Pass, or passport, cheti, pi. vyeti. 
Passage (by), pito, pi. kipito. 
(through), kipenyo, pi. vipenyo. 
A very narrow passage, kicbo- 

choro, pi. vichoclioro. 
Patch (in cloth), kiraka, pi. viraka 

(in planMng), hasho. 
Path, njia, pito, pi. mapito. 
Patience, saburi, subiri, uvumilivu, 

Pattern, namna. 

(to work from) tielezo, pi. vielezo. 
Pauper, kibapara, pi. vibapara (an 

insulting epithet). 
Pawn (chess), kitunda, pi. vitunda. 
Pay, ijara, njia, faritha, mshabara 

Pea, dengu {they are not grown in 

Zanzibar, but are brought dry 

from India). 
A small pea-like bean^ chooko, 

Peace, amani, salamu. 
Peace-maker, mpatanlshi, msele- 

hisha, msuluhisha. 

Peacock, tausi. 

Peak, kilele, pi. vilelo. 

Pearl, lulu. 

Pebble (very small), mbwe. 

{or small piece of stone), kokoto, 
pi. makokoto. 
Peel, ganda, pi. maganda. 
Peg, change, pi. vyaugo. 
Pelvis, tokoni. 
Pen, kalamu. 

Beed pen, kalamu ya 'mwanzi. 
Penis, mbo. 
People, watu. 

People of this world, walimwengu. 

Other people's, -a watu. 

People like us, kina sisi. 

Abdailah*s people, kina Abdallah. 
Pepper, pilipili manga. 

Bed pepper, pilipili hoho. 
Percussion cap, fataki. 
Perfection, ukamilifu, utimilivu. 
Perfumes, manukato. 
Period (or point of time), kipindi, 

pi. vipindi. 
Perjury, aziir, zuli. 
Permission, ruksa, ruhusa. 
Persia, Ajjemi. 

Persian Gulf, Babari il 'alL 
Person, mtu. 

A grown person, mtu mzima. See 
Old, &c. 
Perspiration, bari, jasho. 
Pestilence, tauui, wabba. 
Pestle, mchi (or mti), pi. micbi, 

mtwango, pi. mitwango. 
Phantom, kivuli, pi. vivulL 
Phlegm, belgbamu. 
Phthisis, ukohozi. 
Physic, dawa, pi. dawa or madawa. 
Physician, tabibu, mtabibu, pi. 
watabibu, mganga. pi. wa- 



Pice, pesa. p2. pesa or mapesa. 

Pickle, acliari. 

Picture, taswtra, sura, sauamu. 

Piece, kipande, pZ. vipaude. 

Piece of Madagascar grass cloth, 

ramba, pi. maramba. 
Piece let in hy way of patch (in 
planking), basho. See Firewood. 

Pig, nguruwe, nguuwe. 
Jivi, a wild hog. 

Pigeon, njiwa, udiwa (^L). 
Tame pigeon, njiwa manga. 
Wild pigeon, njiwa wa mwitu. 

Pile of sticks, (fee, for burning, biwi, 
pi. mabiwi. 

Piles (hemorrhoids), bawasir. 

Pilgrimage, haj. 

Pill, kidonge, pi. vidonge. 

Pillar, nguzo. 

Pillow, mto, pi. mito. 

Wooden head rest, msamilo, pi. 

Pilot, rubani. 

Pimple, kipele, pi. vipele, upele, pi. 
pele {large), kiwe, ^Z. viwe {o, 
small hind). 

Pincers, koleo. 

Pine-apple, nanasi, pi. mauanasi. 

Pinna {shellfish), kaya,^Z. makaya, 
panga, ^Z. mapauga. 

Pipe (icater), nelli. 
(clarionet), zomari. 
(tobacco), kiko, pi. viko. The 
native pipe consists of a bowl 
(bora), a stem (digali) leading 
from the bowl into a small vessel 
of water, ichich last is properly 
the kiko ; the stem from the kiko 
to the mouth is the sbilamu. 
The bubbling of the water ichen 
it is being smoked is the malic 
ya kiko. 

Piping, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 

Pirate, baramia. 

Pistol, bastola. 

Pit, shimo, pi. mashimo. 

Pitch or Tary lamL 

Pity, huruma. 

Place, mabali, pahali. 

Place may often be expressed by 

the prefix pa-. 
Panyamavu, a quiet place. 
Pakutokea, a place to go out at. 
Panginepo, elsewhere. 
or by the use of penyi. 
Penyi mti, the place where the 

tree is, or was. 
An open place, kiwanja, pi. 

A clear space in a town, uga. 
A place where offerings are made 
to propitiate spirits supposed to 
haunt it, mzimu, ^Z. mizimu. 
Plague, tauni. 
Plain, u wand a. 
Plan, sbauri, pi. mashauri. 
Plane, randa. 
Plank, ubau, pi. mbau. 
Planking, mbau. 

A pkuik laid over the body before 

the earth is filled in, kiuuza, pi. 

Plant, mbegu, mbeyu. [viunzM, 

A young plant, mcbe, pi. miciie, 

cbipukizi, pi. vipukizi. 
Upupu, cowitch. 
Mbaruti, a thistle-like plant with 

a yellow flower. 
Nyinyoro, a bulbous plant throw- 
ing up a head of redfloicers. 
Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Afu, the loild jasmine. 
Kirukia, a parasite on fruit trees. 
Mpuagati, a kind of cactus. 
Plantains, ndizi. 



Flantation, shamba, pi. masliamba. 
Plate, kisabani, pi. visahani. 

A plate of metal, bamba, pi. ma- 
Platter of wood, chano, pi. vyano. 
Pleasure, anasa, furaba. 

Pleasing things, mapendezi. 
Pledge, rahani, amani, kabathi. 
Vleiades, kilimia. 
Plenty, wingi, ungi (M.), mari- 

Plumb-line (a stone hung by a strip 

of banana leaf), timazi. 
Plug, nguruzi, zibo, pi. mazibo. 
Plummet, cbubwi. 
Pocket, mfuko, pi. mifuko. 

Pocket-handkerchief, ieso. 
Poem, masbairi, uteiizi {religious). 
Poet, mtunga mashairi, pi. watunga 

Poetry , masbairi. 

One line of poetry, shairi. 
Point, ncba. 
Poison, sumu, ucbungu. 

Fish poison, utupa. 
Pole, mti, pi. miti. 
for carrying burdens on, mpiko, 

pi. mipiko. 
for propelling a canoe, upondo,^?. 
Politeness, adabu. 
7 Pomegranate, kamamanga. 
"f Fomeloe, furungu, pi. mafurungu. 

f^ond, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 
! Pool, ziwa, pZ. maziwa. 
* Pool left by the retiring tide, 
kidimbwi, pi. vidimbwi. 
Poop, sbetri. 
Poor free man, maskini ya Muu- 

Porcupine, nungu. 
Pores, uweleo, matokeo ya bari. 

Porpoise, pomboo. 

Porridge, ugali, uji, fuka, hasida. 

Porter, See Doorkeeper, 
{carrier), bamali, pi. mahamalL 
(in a caravan), mpagazi, pi. wa- 

Port Durnford, Burikao. 

Position in the world, cheo, kiwa 


Possessions, mali, milki. 
Possessor, mwenyewe. 

Possessor of, dc, mwenyi, &c., pi, 
wenyi, &c. 
Post, mti, pi. miti. 

Bearing post, mbimili, pi. mibi- 
Posterity, wazao. 
Pot. See Cooking-pot, Censer. 

A lobster-pot, dema. 
Potash (nitrate of), sbura. 
Potatoes, viazi vya kizungu. 

Sweet potatoes, viazi, sing, kiazi. 
Raised beds for planting viazi, 
tuta, pi. matuta. 
Potsherd (broken piece of pottery or 
glass), kigai, pi. vigai, gai, pi. 
magai (a large piece), kige- 
renyeuza, pi. vigerenyenza (a 
very small piece, a splinter). 
Potter, mfinangi, pi. wafinangi, mfi- 
nyanzi, wafinyanzi. 
A place to bake potter's work, ]6k.o. 
Poultry, k'uku. 
Poverty, umasikini. 
Powder, unga. 

Gunpowder, barati. 
Power, uwezo, nguvu, mamlaka, enzi. 
Practice, mtaala, mazoezo. 
Praise, sifa, bamdi. 
Prattle, vijineno. 
Prayer (worship), ibada. 
(entreaty), kuomba. 



(pie prescribed forms), sala. TTie 
regular Mohammedan times of 
prayer are, Magaiibi, directly 
after sunset ; Esha, an hour or 
two later ; Alfajiri, before sun- 
rise ; Athuuri, at noon ; Alasiri, 
about half-way between noon 
and sunset. 

Preacher, mwenyi kukhutubu, or 

Precept, mafundisho. 

Pregnancy, mimba. 

Present {see Gift), zawadi. 

Customary present, ada, kilemba. 
Customary presents at a wedding : 
to the bride's father, mahaii, 
kilemba ; to the bride* s mother, 
mkaja, ubeleko ; to the bride's 
kungu, kiosba migim, kifunua 
mlango; to the bride herself, 
kipa mkono. 

Press or Pressure, sbinikizo. 

Prey, mawindo. 

Price, kima, ^Tiamani. 

Prickly heat, vipele vya bahara. 
A medicament for it, liwa. 

Pride, kibmi. 

Priest, kahini, pi. makabini (used 
in the sense of soothsayer). 
{Christian), kasisi, padre or pa- 
diri, pi. mapadiri. 

Prison, kifungo, gereza. 

Privacy, favagba. 

Privy, cboo. 

Proceeds, pato, pi. mapato. 

Produce (fruit, seed, &g.), zao, pi. 

Profit, fayida, gbanima. 

Progeny, mzao, pi. wazao. 

Progress, kiendeleo. 

Prohibition, makatazo. 

Promise, abadi, wabadi. 

Promissory note, awala. 
Pronunciation, mata mko. 
Prop, mbimili, pi. miiiimili, mate- 
A prop to keep a vessel upright 
when left by the tide, gadi. 
Property, mali, milki. 
Prophet, nabii, mtume, pi. mitiime. 
Prosecution, mstaki, pi. mistaki. 
Proselyte, mwongofu, pi. waongofu. 
Prostitute, kababa, pi. makababa. 
Protection, bami, bamaya. 

Under British protection, fi ba- 
mayat al Ingrez (Ar.). 
Proverb, mfano wa maneuo. 
Provision, madaraka. 
Provisions, vjakula. 
Provocation, ekerabi. 
Prow, gubeti. 

of a small vessel, kikono, pi 

(head), omo. 
Prudence, busara, fikira. 
Pulley, kapi, ^Z. makapi, gofia. 
Pulpit, munbara. 
Pump, bomba. 
Pumpkin, boga, pi. maboga. 
plant, mboga, pi. miboga. 
shell used to carry liquids in 

dundu, pi. madundu. 
Mumunye, pi. mamumuuye, 

sort of vegetable marrow. 
Tango, pi. matango, eaten raw 

like cucumber. 
Kitoma, pi. vitoma, a sma 

round sort. 
Tikiti, pi. matikiti, a round k nd 
of water-melon. 
Punch, keke. 

Purchaser, mnunuzi, pi. wanunuzi. 
Purgative, dawa la kiibara. 
Purity, raasafi, utakatifu. 



kusudi, pi. makiisudi, 
kasidi, nia. 
Purse, kifuko cha kntilia fetha. 
Push in the cheek, mdukuo. 
Putridity, kioi:a. 
Puttij, chaki. 
Python, chatu. 

Quail, tombo, tomboroko. 
Quality, tabia, ginsi, jisi, aina. 
Quantity, kiasi, kadiri, cheo 

Quarrel, mateto, tofauti, uazar, 

Quarrelsomeness, ugomvi. 
Quarter, robo. 

Three-quarters of a dollar, kassa 

Quarter of a town, mta, pi. mita. 
Queen, malkia. 

{_chess), kishi. 
Question, maulizo, s-wali. 
Quieting thing, kitulizo,_pZ. vitulizo. 
Quietness, utulivu, makini, kimya. 
Quiver, podo. 


Rahhit, sungura, kisungura, pi. 
visungura, kitungule, pi. vitu- 
ngule, kititi. 
Race, mashindano. 
Rafter, boriti (/or a stone roof), 
kombamoyo, pi. makomba- 
moyo ifor a thatched roof), 
pao, pi. mapao {very thin). 
Bag, kitambaa, pi. vitambaa, 

utambaa, pi. tambaa. 
Rain, mvua. 
Rain cloud, ghubari, pi. maghu- 
Rainy season, masika. [bari. 

Lesser rains, mvua ya mwaka. 

Rainbow, upindi ^va mvua, kisiki 

cha mvua (M.). 
Rammer for heating roofs, kipande, 

pi. vipande. 
Rampart, boma, sera. 
Rank, daraja, cheo. 
Ransom, kombozi, pi. makombnzi, 

ukomboo, ukombozi, fidia, 

ufidiwa, ukombolewa. 
Rarity, t'unu, hedaya. 
Rash (small pimples), vipele. 
Bat, panya. 

a very large kind, buku. 
Rations, posho. 
Rawness {of meat, &c.), ubichi. 

(dulness), ujinga. 
Razor, wembe. 

Reason, maana, sababu, huja, akili. 
Reasoning, huja. 
Rebellion, maasi. 
Recess, kidaka, pi. vidaka, kishu- 

baka, pi. vishubaka (a pigeon- 

Wall at the hack of a recess, raff. 
Recommendation, maagizo. 
Rectitude, adili. 

Bed coral, marijani ya fethaluka. 
Red Sea, Bahari ya Sham. 
Redeemer, mkumbozi, j:»Z. wako- 

Beed, unyasi, pi. nyasi, "mwanzi, pi. 

Reference, maregeo. 
Refuge, makimbilio. 
Regret, majutio. 
Regularity, kaida. 
Reign, ezi, enzi. 
Rein, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Rejoicing, furaha, ^hangwi. 
Relations {relatives), akral.a, ndugu, 

A near relative, karibu. 



Belaxation (loosening), ulegevu. 

Religion, dini, dua. 

Relish {something to he eaten with 

rice or porridge), kitoweo. 
Remainder, msazo, masazo, mabakia, 
Remedy, dawa, niapoza. [baki. 

Reminder, ukumbubho. 
Remission (of sins), maghofira, ma- 

Remnant, mabakia. 
Rent, ijara. 

Eepentance, toba, majuto. 
Representative, -wakili. 
Reproaches, matayo. 
Reprobate, baa, pi. mabaa. 
Eeptile (?). 

Kenge, a monitor (?), a very large 

slender lizard. 
P'ili, a large snake. 
CLatu, a python. 
See Snake, Crocodile, &c. 
Request, haja, matakwa. 
Residue. See Remainder. 
A little left in ayar,t&c.,kisliinda. 
pi. visMnda. 
Resin, ulimbo. 

Respiration, kutanafusi, kiishusha 
Rest, raha, piunziko. [piimzi. 

Resting-place, pumzikio, kituo, ptl. 

zituo or vituo. 
Restlessness, fatbaa. 
Resurrection, ufufuo, ufufulio, ki- 
yania (the general resurrection). 
Resuscitation, (actively) kufufua, 
kuhr.isba, (neuter) kufufuka, 
Retainer, mfuasi, pi. wafuasi. 
Ttetaliation kasasi, kisasi. 
Return, maregeo, marejeo kuja 

zao, &c. 
Revenge majilipa. 
Reverence, uneByekeo. 

Reviling, masbutumu, mashutumio, 
Revival. See Resuscitation. 
Reward, ijara, ujira, majazo, thai' 
wabu (especially from God). 
Reicard for finding a lost thing, 
kiokosi, pi. viokosi. 
Rheumatism, baridiyabis, uweli wa 

Rhinoceros, kifaru, pi. vifaru, pea. 
Rib, iibatiu, pi. mbavu, kiwavu 

cbana (A.). 
Rice, growing, or yet in tlce husk, 
cleaned from the husk, mcbele. 
cooked, wali. 
watery, and imperfectly cooked 

cooked so that the grains are 
dry and separate, pukute ya 
scorched in the cooking iikoko, 

utandu (A.). 
left from overnigld to be eaten in 

the morning, wali wa mwikuii. 
Kinds of rice, sena, bungala, 
sbindauo, garofuu, kapwai, ki- 
fungo, madevu, mwanga, sifaia, 
Riches, mail, utajiri, ukwasi, 
Rich man, tajiri, pi. matajiri, mwe- 
nyi mali, mkwasi, p>l- wak^Ya&i. 
Ridicule, mzaba, tbihaka. 
Right, haki, wajib, adili. 
Righteousness, haki. 
Rind, ganda, pi. maganda. 
Rind of a lemon, &c., after the 
inside has been squeezed or 
extracted, kaka. 
Ring, pete, pi. pete or mapete. 
Rings on the scabbard of a sword, 
iicc. ukoa, pi. koa. 


Ring where the hlade enters the 

haft, noleo, pi. manoleo. 
Ear-rinrf, pete ya masikio. 
Ring-ivorm, ehoa. 
Eipple, viwimbi. 
Rishy in trading, juku. 
River, mio, pi. mito. 
Road, njia. 

Roar, ngurnmo, vumi. 
Robber, mnyang'anyi, pi. wanya- 
ng'anyi, haramia. 
People who wander about at night, 
robbing and committing violence^ 
mrungura, mpakacha. 
Rock, mwamba, pi. miamba. 

A small rock, kijamba, pi. yi- 

in the sea, kipwa, pi. vipwa. 
Rftlling of a ship, mramma. 
Roof, dari, sakafu (stone roof or 
floor), paa, pi. mapaa (thatched 
roof). The thatched roofs con- 
sist generally of a front and 
back slope, kipaa cha mbele and 
kipaa clia nyuma, and hips for 
the ends, which are carried up 
under and within the main 
slopes ; these hips are called 
visusi, sing, kisusi. 
A lean-to, kipeuu, pi. vipenu. 
The roof over a watching-place in 
the fields, duugu, pi. madungu. 
Rook (chess), fil. 
Room (space), nafasi. 

(apartment), chumba, pi. vyumba. 
tJkumbi, hall or porch ; it is icithin 
a stone house, but outside an 
earthen one. 
Sebule or sebula, parlour, recep- 
tion room. 
Orfa, drofa, or ghdrofa, an tipper 

Ghala, a dark room on the ground- 
floor, a store-room. 
Root, shina, pi. mashina. 
Rootlets, mizizi, mizi (M.). 
Rope, kamba, ngole (Mer.). 

Hempen rope, kamba, ulayiti. 
Rosary (Mohammedan beads), tas- 

Rose, waradi, waridi. 

Otto of roses, hal waradi. 
Rose-water, marashi mawaridi. 
Rose apple, darabi, pi. madarabi. 
Roundness, mviringo. 
Row (line), safu. 
Row (noise), uthia, kero. 
Royalty, kifaume, ufaume. 
Rubbish (from old buildings), fusi, 
(small articles), takataka. 
Rudder, shikio, sakani, msukani, pi. 

misukani, usukani,^?. sukatii. 
Ruddle, used by carpenters to mark 

out their work, ngeu. 
Rudeness, safihi. 
Ruin or Ruins, maanguko. 
Runaway (from a master, home, &c.), 
mtoro, pi. watoro. 
(from a fight, (fee), mkimbizi, pi. 
Rupee, rupia. 
Rupia or any similar skin disease, 

Rust, kutu. 
Rustling, mtakaso. 


Sabre, kitara, pi. vitara. 

Sacrifice, sadaka (an offering), fidia 
(giving up), thabibu (sacrific- 
ing), mathabuba (the victim)^ 
kafara (aw animal or thing 
offered but not eaten). 



Saddle, kiti cha frasi, matandiko, 
seruji (an Arab saddle), khorj 
(the pad used for a donJtey). 
Sadness (see Grief), rammii. 
Safety, salamu, salama. 
Saffron, zafarani. 
Sail, tanga, pi. matanga. 

Dhow-sail, duumi. 

Sail-cloth, kitali. 
Sailor, baliaria. 
Saint, 'walli. 
Sake, ajili, iiiija, maana. 

For my saJce, unipendavyo (as you 
love me). 
Sale (auction), mnada. 
Salesman, dalali. 
Saliva, mate. 

Salt, chumvi, munyo (A.). 
Saltpetre, shura. 
Salute (fired), mizinga ya salamu. 

(salutation), salamu. 
Salvation, wokovu, suudi, njema. 
Salver, sinia, pi. masinia. 
Sanction, ithini. 
Sayid, mchanga, mtanga (M.). 
Sandals, viatu, sing, kiatu, viatu 
vya ngozi. 

strap of a sandal, gidam. 
Sandalwood, liwa(?). 
Sandfly, usubi. 
Sap, maji. 

Saturday, Juma a mosi. 
Saucepan, sufuria. 
Saviour, mwokozi, pi. waokozi. 
Savour, luththa, tamu. 
Scab, kigaga, pi. vigaga. 
Scabbard, ala, pi. nyala. 

The metal rings on a scabbard, 
ukoa, pi. koa. 
Scaffold (for building), jukwari. 
Scales (of a fish), magamba, mamba 

; Scales (balances), raizani. 

Scale pans, vitanga vya mizani. 
Scar, kovu, pi. makovu. 
Scarf (often worn round the waist), 

Scent, harufu, manuka, nukato. pi. 

manukato, meski, marashi (a 

scent for sprinkling). 
Tibu, a hind of scent. 
See Rose, Ambergris, Aloes icood. 
School, chuoni. 
Scissors, makasi. 
Scoop. See Ladle. 
Score (20), korja. 
Scorn, tharau, thihaka. 
Scorpion, nge. 
Scraps left after eating, makombo, 

sing, kombo. 
Scrape (slide), para. 
Scratch, mtai, pi. mitai. 
Scream, kiowe, pi. viowe (cry for 

help), kigelegele, pi. vigelegele 

(a trilling scream raised a» a 

<^ry of joy). 
Screw, parafujo. 
Scrip, mkoba, pi. mikoba. 
Scrofulous and gangrenous sores, 

Scrotum, pmnbo, mapumbu. 
Scull, kitwa, pi. vitwa, fovn or 

bupuru la kitwa. 
Scum, povu, mapovu. 
Sea, babari. 
A sea, mawimbi, wimbi. 
A seaman, mwana maji. 
One from beyond seas, mja na 

Seaweed, mwanL 
Seal, muhuri. 
Seam, mshono, pi. raishono, baud 

(tacked), upindo (a hem). 
Season, wakati. 

F 2 



The principal seasons in Zanzibar 
are: — Musimi, the time of the 
northerly winds (kazkazi), that 
is, December, Januarij, and 
February. For March, April, 
and May, the rainy season, 
masika; after that, the cold 
time, kipupwe ; then, about the 
end of August, demani, or 
mwaka. The southerly winds 
(kusi) begin to drop in October, 
and in the intervals between 
them and the northerly winds 
come the times of easterly and 
westerly winds, malelezi or tanga 

Seasoning. See Relish. 

Seat, kikao, makazi. 

The stone or earth seat near a 
door, baraza, kibaraza. 

Secrecy, siri, faragha. 

Secrets, mambo ya siri. 

Secretary, mwandisbi,^Z. waandishi, 
khatibu, karani. 
Secretary of State, waziri, pi. 

Sect, matbhab, mathehebu. 

Sediment, masbapo. 

Seed, mbegu, mbeyu. 

Seedling, mche, pi. micbe. 

Self, moyo, nafsi, nafusi. 

Self-content, kinaya. 

Semen, sbabawa, manni. 

Semsem, ufuta. 

Semsem oil, mafuta ya uta. 
What is left after the oil has been 
pressed out, sbudu. 

Senna, sanamaki. 

Sense, akili. 

Sentinel, mngoja, pi. wangoja. 

Servant, mtumisbi, pi. watumisbi, 
mtumwa, vl. waUimwa, iioker. 

One who serves at table, mwa- 

ndikaji, pi. waandikaji. 

In a shamba there are generally 

three chief servants. 1. Msi- 

mamizi, generally a free man. 

2. Nokoa, the chief slave. 3. 

Kadamu, the second head slave. 

Service, utumwa, budumu, bidima. 

Setting-out, things set out or the place 

for them, maandiko. 
Shaddock, furungu, pi. mafurungu. 
Shade, uvuli, vuli, mvuli, mvili, 

kivuli, kitua. 
Shadow, kivuli, pi. vivuli. 
Shame (disgrace), aibu. 
(modesty), baya. 
(a thing causing confusion), ari, 

fetbeba, bezaya. 
having no shame, rajanja, pi. 
Shape, kiasi, kalibu, namna. 
Share, fungu, pi. mafungu, semebu. 

Sharing, usbarika. 
SliarTc, papa. 
Sharpness, ukali. 
Shaving (of wood), usafi. 
Shawl, sbali. 

v)orn round the waist, mabazamu. 
Sheaf, or bundle of cut rice, mganda, 

pi. miganda. 
Sheath, uo, pi. mauo, ala, pi. nyala. 
Sheave (of a pulley), roda, koradani. 
Shed, banda, pi. mabauda, kibanda, 

pi. vibanda. 
Sheep, kondoo. 
Sheet, sbuka. 

of a sail, demani. 
of a book, gombo, pi. magombo. 
of paper, ukurasa,pZ. kurasa. 
Shelf, kibau, pi. vibau. 
in a recess, rufuf. 



Suso, pi. masuso, a kind of hang- 
ing shelf. 
Shell (sea shells\sheWe, pi. mashelle. 
(husk), ganda, pi. maganda. 
(empty shell), fuvu, pi. mafuvu, 
bupuru, pi. mabupuru, kaka. 
Shepherd, nilishi, pi. walishi, mchu- 

nga.,pl. ^Yachunga. 
SJierd. See Potsherd. 
Shield, ngao. 

Shin, muundi wa guu (A.). 
Ship, merikebu, marikabu, jahasi. 
3Ian-of-icar, manowari, merikebu 

ya mizinga. 
Merchant ship, merikequ ya taja, 
Steam ship, merikebu ya dohaan, 

merikebu ya moshi. 
Ship belonging to the government, 

merikebu ya serkali. 
Full-rigged ship, merikebu ya 

railingote mitatu. 
Barque, merikebu ya milingote 

miwili na nuss. 
Native craft, chombo, pi. vyombo. 
Shirt, kanzu. 
Shivering, kitapo, kutetema, ku- 

Shoal (hank), fungu, pi. mafungu. 
Sliock, shindo. 

Shoe, kiatu cha kizungu or cha 

kihindi, pi. viatu vya kizungu. 

Shoemaker, mshoni viatu, pi. wa- 

shoui viatu. 
Shoot, chipukizi, uchipuka, pi. 
A pointed shoot like that contain- 
ing a spike of flower, kilele, pi. 
Shop, duka, pi. maduka. 

Shops icith icarerooms, bokhari. 
Sliot (small), marisaa. 
Shot-helt, beti. 

Shoulder, bega, ^jZ. mabega, fuzi, pL 
mafuzi (A.). 
Shoulder-blade, kombe la mkono. 
Shout, ukelele, pi. kelele, kelele, pi. 

Shower, manyunyo. 
Showing, wonyesho. 
Shrewdness, werevu. 
Shroud, saanda. 
Shrub, kijiti, pi. vijiti. 
See Thorn. 

Mwango, pi. miwaugo (?). 
Sick person, mgonjwa,pL magonjwa, 

mweli, pi. waweli. 
Sickness, ugonjwa, uweli, marathi. 
Side, upande, pi. pande. 

Side of tlie body, mbavu, mata- 

The oflier side of a river, &r., 
Siege, mazingiwa. 
Sieve, kiyamba. 
Siftings of rice after pounding, 

Sighing, kuugua. 
Sign, dalili. 
Signal, ishara. 

Ukonyezo, pi. konyezo, a sign 

made by raising the eyebrows. 
Kikorombwe, a kind of signal cry. 
Silence, nyamavu, kimya 
Silk, hariri. 
Silliness, niapiswa, puo. 

Silly talk, upuzi. 
Silver, fetha. 
Silversmith, mfua fetha, pi. wafua 

Simpleton, mjinga, ^Z. wajiuga. 
Sin, thambi, pi. thambi or ma- 

thambi, makosa, taksiri. 
Singleness, upweke. 
Sip, funda (?). 



Sir ! Bwana ! 

Sister, umbu, pi. maumbu, ndugu, 
ndugu nike. 
As a term of endearment, dada. 
Foster-sister, ndugu kunyonya. 
Sister-in-law, shemegi. 
Sitter, nikaa,^3L wakaa. 
Sitting, kikao, yl. vikao, kitako, pi. 

Size, ukuu, ukubwa, kiasi, kadiri, 

Skeleton, mzoga (?) 
Skilful workman, mstadi, pi. wa- 

Skilled or master-workman, fundi. 
Skin, ngozi. 
Sky, uwingu. 
Slackness, ulegevu. 
Slander, masingizio, fitiua (sowing 

of discord). 
Slaughter-house, matindo. 
Slave, mtumwa, pi. watumwa, mu- 
hadimu,pZ. wahadimu, mtwana, 
pi. watwana. 
A slave boy, kitwana, pi. vitwana. 
A slave girl, kijakazi, pi. vijakazi. 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi. wa- 

A concubine slave, suria, pi. ma- 

A slave horn in the house or 

country, mzalia, pi. -wazalia. 
A runaway slave, mtoro, pi. wa- 

A fellow slave, mjoli, p)l- wajoli. 
A household of slaves, kijoli, pi. 

Piece of land allotted to a slave 
for his own use, koonde, pi. 
Slavery, utumvra. 
Sleep, uzingizi, zingizi 

Sleeping place, malalo. 

Things to sleep upon, malazi. 
Sleeve, mkono, pi. mikono. 
Sling, kombeo, pi. makombeo. 
Slip of a tree, &c., mcbe, pi. miche. 

A slip which has put forth leaves, 
mche uliochanua. 

One ichich has made a new shoot, 
mche uliocbipuka. 
Slipperiness, utelezL 
Sloth, uvivu. 
Slovenliness, fujofujo. 
Smallness, udogo. 
Small-pox, ndui. 
Smell, harufu, manuka, azma. 
Smith (worker in metal), mfua, pi. 

wafua. See Blacksmith, &c. 
Smoke, moshi, pi. mioslii. 
Snail, koa, pi. makoa, konokono. 
Snake, nyoka, joka, pi. majoka 

Chatu, python. 

P'ili, cohra (?). 
Snare, sliabuka. 
Sneezing, chafya. 
Snoring, kukoroma. 
Snuff, tumbako ya kunuka, or 

Snuff-box, tabakelo. 
Soap, sabuui. 
Soda, magadi. 
Solder, lihamu. 
Soldier, asikari. 

Sole {of the foot), uayo, pi. nyao. 
Solitude, upekee, ukiwa. 
Somauli Coast, Banada. 
Somebody, mtu. 

Some one else's, -a mwenyewe. 

Child of somebody, i.e., of respect- 
able parents, mtoto wa watu, 
mwana wa watu. 
Somersault, kitwangomba. 



Son, mwana, pi. waana, kijana, 
mtoto mume. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed's 

Bin Abdallali (Ar.), Ahclallah's 

Haraisi wa Tani, Hamisi the son 

of Tani {Othman i. 
Son-in-law, mkwe, pi. wakwe. 
Song, uimbo, pi. nyimbo. 
Soot, kaa moshi, makaa ya mosM. 
Soothing thing, kitulizo, pi. vitulizo. 
Soothsayer, kahini, pi. makahini. 
Sore, donda, pi. madonda, kidonda, 
pi. viJonda, jeraha. 
Sares in the leg, nyungunyungu, 
Sorrow, kasarani, huzuni, sikitiko, 
Sorrow for a loss, majonzi. 
Sorrow for something done, ma- 

Excessive sorrow, jitimai. 
Sort (hind), ginsi, namna, aina. 
The sort is often expressed by 
the prefix ki-. Kizungu, the 
European sort, Mfaume, the 
hingly sort. 
Soul, roho. 
Sound, sauti. 
Soundness, uzima. 
Source, asili, chimbtiko. 
Soiith, kusini, suheli. 
Southerly wind, kusi. 
Sovereign, mwenyi ezi, mwenyi 
inchi, mwenyi mji. 
(coin), robo Ingrezi. 
Sovereignty, ezi. enzi. 
Space, nafasi. 
(of time), muda. 
(open space), uwanda, uga. 
Spade, jembe la kizungu. 

Span, futuri, sliibiri, sliibri. 

Spangles, puluki. 

Sparh, checLi, pi. machechi 

Sparkle, kimeta. 

Speaker, mneni, pi. waneni, msemi, 
pi. ■wasemi, msemaji, pi. wa- 

Speaking, kusema, kunema. 

A dark obscure way of speaking, 

kilinge cba maneno. 
Ail enigmatical way of speaking, 
in which the last syllable is 
taken from the end, and made 
to begin the word, kiuyume, 
kinyuma. (See Appendix I.) 

Spear, fumo, pi. mafumo (flat- 
bladed) mkuke, pi. miknke, 
(three-edged) sagai, pi. masagai. 

Spectacles, miwani. 

Speech (speaking), kunena. 
(oration), mataguso, milumbe. 

Spider, buibui. 

Spinal column, uti wa maungo. 

Spirits, mvinyo. 
Evil spirit, pepo. 
Kinds of spirits, jini, pi. majini, 
milboi, mahoka, dungumaro, 
kitamiri, kizuu, kizuka, koikoi, 
mwana maua, &c. 

Spit, uma, pi. nyuma. 

Spittle, mate. 

Spoil, mateka. 

Spleen, wengo. 

Splint, gango, pi. magango, banzi, 
pi. mabanzi. 

Splinter (of wood), kibanzi, pi. 
(of glass or earthenware), kige-- 
renyenza, pi. vigerenyenza. 

Spoon, mwiko, pi. miiko, kijiko, pi. 
vijiko a tea-spoon), mkaiashe, 
pi. mikamshe (a wooden spoon). 



Sp'irt, mchezo. mzaha. 

^2^01, waa, ^:)Z. mawaa, kij)aku, pi. 

Spout ( from a roof), kopo la 

nyumba, marizabu. 
Sprain, kuteuka. 
Spread, eneo. 

Spreading a meal, maandiko. 
Spring, mtambo, pi. mitambo, 

of water, chemchem, jicho la maji. 
SprinMe, manyunyo. 
Sprinkler {for scents), mrashi, pi. 

Spur of a cock, kipi, kipia, pZ. vipia. 
Spy, mpelelezi, pi. wapelelezi, 

mtumbiiizi (A.). 
Square, mrabba. 
Squint, Doakengeza. 
Stable, banda la frasi, faja la frasi. 
Staff, gongo, pi. magougo, mkongo- 

jo, pi. inikongojo. 
Stagnation, vilio, pi. mavilio. 
Stain, waa, pi. mawaa. 
Stairs, daraja, ngazi. 
Upstairs, juu, darini.- 
Down-stairs, chini. 
Stalks, of mtama, bua, pi. mabua. 
of a kind of millet cheiced like 

sugar-cane, kota, pZ. makota. 
of cloves, &c., kikonyo,2?Z. vikonyo. 
>S^toZZ keeper, mcburuzi, pi. wa- 

Stammering, kigugumizi. 
Stamp, muhuri, chapa. 
Staple, pete, p)l- mapete, tumbuu. 
Star, iiyota. 

Falling stars, nyota zikishiika. 
Shooting stars, kimwoudo, pi. 
Starch, kanji, dondo. 
Start (fright), kituko. 

{beginning), fell, pi. mafeli. 

Startling thing, mzungu, pi. mi- 
A thing to frighten people, kinya- 
go, pi. vinyago. 
State, hali. 
Statue, sanamu. 
Stealing, kwiba. 
Steam, mvuke. 

A steamship, merikebu ya moshi. 
Steel, feleji, pua. 
Steelyard, mizani. 
Steersman, msliiki sbiki,o. 
Stem of a tree, sliina, pi. mashina. 

of mtama, bua, pi. mabua. 
Step {stepping), batua. 

{of stone, &c.), daraja. 
Step-father, baba "wa kambo. 

Step-mother, mama wa kambo. 
/Sieu'arcZ, msimamizi, j3Z. wasimamizi. 
Stick, fimbo, ufito, pi. fito {thin), 
bakora (a walking-stick with a 
handle bent at right angles). 
A short heavy stick, kibarango, 
pi. vibarango, mpweke, pi. mi- 
A staff, gongo, pi. magougo, 
mkongojo, pi. mikongojo {an 
old mail's staff). 
Stillness, kimya. 

Stirrup, kikuku cha kupandia frasi. 
Stocks {for the feet), mkatale. 
Stomach, tumbo. 

Pit of the stomach, chembe cha 
moyo (A.). 
Stone, jiwe, pi. mawe or majiwe. 
A stone house, nyumba ya mawe. 
Small stones or pieces of stone, 

kokoto, pi. makokoto. 
Very small stones, not larger than 

an egg, mbwe. 
Very small grit, cbangarawi. 
Fresh coral, matumbawi. 



Precious stones, kito, pi. vito, 

Stones of fruit, kokwa, pi. ma- 
Stooping, kiinamizi. 
Stop (end), kikomo, kinga. 

{stopping), kizuizo, kizuizi, kizuio. 
Stoppage in the nose or icind-plpe, 

(stagnation), vilio, pi. mavilio. 
Stopper, zibo, pi. mazibo, kizibo, pi. 

Store (put hy), akiba. 

Store-room, ghala. 
Storm, tharuba, tufauu. 
Story, hadithi, habari. See Tale. 
Stoutness, unene. 
Strainer, kunguto, pi. makunguto 

(of basJcet-work). 
Straits (distress), shidda. 

(narrow seas), kilango cha babari. 
Stratids of a cord, meno, ncba. 
Stranger, mgeni, pi. wagenL 
Strap, ukanda. 
Stratagem, hila. 
Stream, mto, pi. mito, kijito, pi. 

Strength, nguvu. 
String, ugwe, uzi, katani. 

String of heads, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
String-course, usbi. 
Strip. See Mat. 
Stripe (line), uzi, pi. nyuzi, mfuo, 

pi. mifuo, utepe, pi. tepe. 
Study, mtaala. 
Stumble, kwao, pi. makwao. 
Stumhling-Uock, kwao, pi. makwao. 
Stump, shin a, pi. mashina. 
Stupor, kurukwa na akili. 
Stye in the eye, chokea. 
Style (of writing), dibaji, a good 

Subject, rayia. 

Substance, asili. 

Subtlety, busara, werevu. 

Subtraction (arithmetical), baki. 

Suburbs, kiunga. 

Sugar, sukari. 

Sugar-cane, mua, pi. miwa. 

Suit of clothes, kisua. 

Sulpihate of copper, mrututu. 
of magnesia, cbumvi ya haluli. 

Sulphur, kiberiti. 

Sultanship, usultani. 

Sum, jurala. 

Summary, muhtasari. 

Summit, kilele, pi. vilele (used of 
any sharp-pointed top or peak, 
of the centre shoot of a cocoa- 
nut tree as icell as of the peak 
of a mountain). 

Sun, jua, pi. majua. 

The coming out of the sun after 
rain, kianga. 

Sunday, Juma a pilL 

Sundries, takataka. 

Sunset, maghaiibi, mangaribi 

Supercargo, karani. 

Superciliousness, kitongoton go. 

Superintendent, mwangalizi, pi. wa- 
angalizi, msiniamizi, pi. waoi- 

Supper, cbakula cha jioni. 

Suppuration, kutunga. 

Surety, mthamini, thamin, thamana, 

Surf, mawimbi. 

Swallow (bird), barawai, mbili- 
wili (?), mbayuwayu (A.). 

Sweat, hari, jasho, vukuto. 

Sweetheart, mcbumba. 

Sweet lime, dimu tamu. 

Sweetness, tamu. 

Sweet potatoes, viazi, sing, kiazi 



Swindler, thalimu. 
Sioing, pembea. 
Swine, nguruwe, nguuwe. 
Sioitch, ufito, pi. fito. 
Sword, upanga, pi. panga. 

curved sword, kitara, pi. vitara. 
straight two-edged sword without 

any guard, upauga wa feleji. 
with a small cross hilt, upanga 

wa imani. 
Syphilis, sekeneko. kijaraha cha 

mboni, tego (a virulent hind 

supposed to he the result of a 

Syria, Sham. 
Syrup, asali. 


Table, meza. 

Table-cloth, nguo ya meza. 

Table - napkin, kitambaa cha 
Tack of a sail, goshi. 
Tacking {sewing), bandi. 
Tail, mkia, pi. mikia. 
Tailor, mshoni, pi. washoni. 
Taking aicay, maondoleo. 
Tale, hadithi, kisa, iigano. 
Tale-bearer, mzuzi. 
Talipes, kupinda ua mguu. 
Talk, usemi, 

Silly talk, upuzi. 
Talker, msemaji, pi. wasemaji. 
Tamarind, ukwaju. 

Tamarind tree, mkwaju, pi, mi- 
Tangle, matata. [kvvaju. 
Tap, bilula. 
Tajje, utepe, pi. tepe. 
Tar, lami. 

Tartar on the teeth, ukoga. 
Taste, tumu, tamu, luththa, nyonda, 
maondi, maonji. I 

Taster, mwonja, pi. waonja, mwo- 

nda (M.), pi- waonda, kionja, 

pi. viouja, kiouda (M.^, pi. 

Tea, cljayi, cha. 
Teacher, mwalimu, pi. waalimu, 

mkufunzi, pi. wakufunzi. 
Teaching, mafundisbo, elimu. 
Teak, tnsaji. 

Teapot, bull, pi. mabuli. 
Tear, chozi, pi. machozi, tozi (M.), 

pi. matozi. 
Teazing, thihaka. 
Tediousness, uchovu. 
Telescope, durabiui. 
Temper, tabia. 

Temperance, tawassuf, kadiri. 
Temple, hekalu (a great thing, the 

temple at Jerusalem), bauiya 

(a building, the temple at 

Temptation, majaribu, nyonda. 
Ten, kumi, pi. makumi. 

a decade, mwongo, pi. miongo. 
Tent, khema, hema. 
Testicles, mapumbu, tamboa. 
Testimony, ushahidi. 
Thanks, sbukuru, usbukura, salamu, 

ahsanta, marahaba. 
Thatch, makuti (of cocoa-nut leaves). 
Thin sticks used to tie the makuti 

to, upau, pi. pan 
See Cocoa-nut. 
Theft, uizi. 
Thicket, kicbaka, pi. vichaka, koko, 

pi. makoko. 
Thickness, uuene. 
Tliief, mwivi, pi. wevi, mwibaji, j)?. 

Thieving, kwiba, uizi, wibaji. 
Thigh, upaja, pi. paja, paja, pi. ma- 




Thimhle, subana. 
Saihnaker's palm, dofra, pi. ma- 
Thing, kitu, pi. vitu (a thing of the 
senses), neno, jambo, mambo 
(things of the intellect). 
I have do)ie nothing, sikufanya 

I see nothing, sioni kitu. 
A hind thing, jambo la wema. 
Strange things, mambo mageni. 
Third {a third part), theluth. 
Thirst, kin. 

Thorn, mwiba, pi. miiba or miba. 
Mchongoma, pi. michongoma, o 

thorny shrub used for hedges. 
Mkwamba, pi. mikwamba, a 
thorny shrub. 
Thought, wazo, pi. mawazo, fikara, 

thamiri, nia. 
Thousand, elfu, pi. elfu or alafu. 
a thousand or myriad, kikwi, pi. 

zikwi or vikwi. 
a hundred thousand, lakki. 
Thread, uzi, pi. nyuzl, katanL 
Threat, wogofya, tisho. 
Throat, koo, pi. makoo. 
Thumb, kidole cha gumba. 
Thunder, radi (near), ngnrumo 

Thursday, Alhamisi. 
TirJcet, kibarua, pi. vibarua. 
TicJding or tingling, mnyeo, kiuye- 

Tichs, papasi {in houses], kupe {on 

Tide, maji kujaa na kupwa. 
Spring tides, bamvua. 
Neap tides, maji mafu. 
Tiller, kana, gaua. 

Tiller ropes, mijiari, sing, mjiari. 
Timber^ miti, mibau. 

Time, wakati, wakti, majira. 
(sufficient), natasi. 
(hour), saa. 
{leisure), faragha. 
(first, &c.), mara. 
(fixed term), mohulla. 
Times (age), zamani. 
Space of time, muda. 
Period of time, kipindL 
A short time, kitambo. 
Times, in multiplication, fi. 

Six times eight, sita fi tlie- 

Divisions of Time. 

Til ere are two years in nse in 
Zanzibar; that which is most com- 
monly heard of is the Arab year of 
twelve lunar months. It cannot be 
more than about 355 days long, and 
lias therefore no correspondence to 
the seasons. The months are de- 
termined by the sight of the new 
moon, or by the expiration of thirty 
days since the beginning of the 
previous month. It happens some- 
times that some of the coast towns 
will begin their months a day before 
or after what was taken as its first 
day in Zanzibar. A gun is usually 
fired from one of the ships when 
the month begins. Practically the 
Ramathan is treated as the first 
montlj, and tlie rest are reckoned 
from it; the word by which they 
are denoted seems to mean not 
fasting, as though the Ramathan 
being the month of fasting, the rest 
were the first, second, third, &c., 
of not fasting, until the months of 
Rajah and Shaaban, wliich have 
both a special religious character 

76 • 


The following are the names of the 
Arab months, with their Swahili 
equivalents : 




Eabia al aowal. 

Rabia al akhr. 

Jemad al aowal. 

Jemad al akhr. 





Th'il ka'ada. 

Th'il hajjah. 


Mfunguo a 'nne. 
Mfunguo a tano. 
Mfunguo a sita. 
Mfunguo a saba. 
Mfunguo a nane. 
Mfunguo a kenda. 
Mfunguo a mosi. 
Mfunguo a pill. 
Mfunguo a tatu. 

The two great Mohammedan 
feasts are held on the first of 
Shaowal, when every one gives pre- 
sents, and on the tenth of Th'il 
hajjah, when every one is supposed 
to slaughter some animal and feast 
the poor. 

The other year in use among the 
Swahili is the Nautical and Agri- 
cultural year ; it is roughly a solar 
year, having 365 days. It is 
reckoned to begin from the Sihu a 
mwaTca (answering to the Persian 
Nairuz), which now occurs towards 
the end of August. The last day 
of the old year is called Kigunzi, 
and the days are reckoned by 
decades, called miongo, sing, mwo- 
ngo. Thus — Mwongo wa mia con- 
sists of the days between 90 and 
100. Mwongo wanyapi 9 asks which 
decade it is. The SiJcu a mwaka is 
kept as a great day, and formerly 
had a number of special observances 
connected with it. In the night or 

early in the morning every one used 
to bathe in the sea ; the women are 
particularly careful to do so. TliL-y 
afterwards fill a large pot with 
grain and pulse, and cook them. 
About noon they serve out to all 
friends who come ; all the fires are 
extinguished with water and lighted 
again by rubbing wood. Formerly 
no inquiry was made as to any one 
killed or hurt on this day, and it is 
still the custom to go armed and 
to be on the guard against private 
enemies. It used to be a favourite 
amusement to throw any Indians 
that could be caught into the sea, 
and otherwise ill-use them, until 
the British Government interfered 
for their protection. The year is 
called after the day of the week on 
which it began ; thus, in 1865 it 
began on Thursday and was 
MwaJca Alhaniisi ; in 1866 on 
Friday, and was Mivaha Juma, and 
so on. 

The seasons will be found briefly 
mentioned under that word. 

The week has been reconstructed 
on the Arab week, retaining only 
the Arab names of two days, Alha- 
misi and Juma (Thursday and 
Friday), which answer to our Satur- 
day and Sunday for Mohammedan 
religious purposes, and are the days 
which slaves in the country are 
generally allowed for their own 
recreation or profit. Juma is so 
named from the assembly held on 
that day for public worship; the 
Arab names of the rest are merely 
those used by English Quakers, 
first, second, third, &c. 


English. Arabic. Swahili. 

Sunday. Al ahad. Juma a pili. 

Monday. Ath tteneen. Juma a tatu. 

Tuesday. Ath theluih. Juma a 'nne. 

Wednesday. At robua'. Juma a tano. 

Thursday. Al kbamis. Alhamisi. 

Friday. Juma'. Juma. 

Saturday. As sabt. Juma a mosi. 

The day begins at sunset ; to-night 
therefore in the mouth of a Swahili 
means what an Englishman would 
call last night. As the days are of 
a very nearly uniform length there 
is little practical incorrectness in 
taking sunset as six o'clock in the 
evening and reckoning the night 
first and then the day from it, hour 
by hour. Thus, seven, eight, and 
nine are the first, second, and third 
of the night (saa a hiuanza, a ^nli, 
a tatu ya usiku). Midnight is the 
sixth hour, saa a sita. Five in the 
morning is the eleventh hour of the 
night, saa a edhashara. Nine 
o'clock in the morning is the third 
hour of the day, saa a tatu. Twelve 
at noon is the sixth hour, saa a sita, 
and four and five the tenth and 
eleventh hours, saa a Jcumi, saa a 
edhashara. Sunset is determined 
by observation, and a gun is fired, 
and tha Sultan's flag hauled dox^Ti 
to mark it. Dming the Bamathan a 
gun is fired at half-past two in tlie 
morning to warn every one of the 
approach of morning, that they may 
get their cooking and eating over 
oefore dawn. This gun-fire is called 

There is another way of marking 
the time by reference chiefly to the 
hours of prayer (see Frayer) ; the 
following are the chief points 

Magaribi, sunset. 

Mslmko wa magaribi (coming out 

jrom sunset prayers), about 

half -past six. 
Esha or Isha, from half-past six 

to eight. 
Mshuko wa esha, ahout half-an- 

hour later. 
Nuss ya usiku, midnight. 
Karibu na alfajiri, between three 

and four in the morning. 
Alfajiri mkuu. rising of the morn- 
ing star, about four. 
Alfajiri mdogo, dawn. 
Assubui, the morning, i.e., after 

Mchana, the day from asoubui to 

Mafungulia ng'ombe (letting out 

of cattle), about 8 a.m. 
Mafungulia ng'ombe makuu, is 

earlier, mafungulia ng'ombe 

madogo, is later than eight 

Jua kitwani, noon. 
Athuuri or Azuuri, noon, and 

thence till three o'clock. 
Awali athuuri, between twelve and 

Alasu-i, about half -past three, or 

from three to five. 
Alasiri kasiri, about five, or thence 

to half -past. 
Jioni, evening, from about five o» 

half -past till sunset. 

Tin, bati. 

Tiv ncha, nta (BI.). 
Tithes, 2aka. 
Tobacco, tumbako 
To-day, leo. 



Toe, kidole, pi. vidole, kidole cha 

Token, dalili, buruhani. 
Tomh, kaburi, pi. makaburL 
To-morrow, kesho. 

the day after, kesho kutwa. 

the day after that, mtondo. 

after that, mtondo goo. 
Tongrs, koleo, pi. makoleo. 
Tongue, ulimi, pi. ndimi. 

A piece of cloth, &c., to lie under 
an opening, lisani. 
Tool, samani. 

Carpenter's tool for marhing lines, 
Tooth, jino, pi. meno. 

cuspids, chonge. 

Dirt on the teeth, ukoga. 

He has lost a front tooth, ana 

Tooth stick or brush, msuaki, pi. 
Top, juu. 

{the toy), pia. 
Torpor, utepetefu. 
Tortoise, kobe. 
Total, jumla. 

Towel, kitambaa cha kufutia uso, &c. 
Toiver, mnara, pA. minara. 
Town, mji, pi. mijL 
Trace, dalili 
Track, nyayo. 
Trade, biashara. 
Trader, mfanyi biaishara. 
Traitor, khaini. 
Trap, mtego, 2^. mitego. 

(with a spring), mtambo, pi. mi- 
Traveller, msafiri, pi. wasafirL 
Tray, sinia, pi. masinia. 
Treacle, asali ya mua. 
Treasure, hazina, kanzi, khazaua. 

Treatment, mwamale. 
Tree, mti, pi. miti. 

Mkadi, Pandanus. 

Mtomondo, Barringtonia, 

Trench, handaki. 

Trench for laying in foundations, 
msinji, msingi. 
Trial, majaribu. 
Tribe, kabila, taifa, pi. mataifa. 

(taifa is larger than kabila). 

Of what tribe are you ? Mtu gani 
Trick, Mia, cherevu, madanganya. 
Trot, mashindo (of a horse), matiti 

(of an ass). 
Trouble, taabu, uthia. 
Trousers, soruali. 

Trowel (mason's), mvdko, pi. naiiko. 
Trumpet, paanda. 

Trunk, shina, pi, mashina, jiti, pZ, 

(cut down), gogo, pi. magogo. 

(the human trunk), kiwiliwilL 
Truth, kweli. 

A truth teller, msemi kweli 
Trying, maonji, majaribu. 
Tub, pip a, pi. mapipa. 
Tuesday, Juma a nne. 
Turban, kilemba, pi. vilcmba. 

A turban cloth, utambi, pi. tambi 

ends of turban cloth, utamvua, pi. 
tamvua, kishungi. 
Turkey, bata la mzinga, pi. mabata 

ya mzinga. 
Turmeric, manjano. 
Turn, zamu, pi. mazamu. 

By turns, kwa zamu. 
Turner, mkereza, pi. wakereza. 
Turnery, zikerezwazo. 
Turtle, kasa. 

Hawkshead turtle, from ichich 



tortoisesheU is oUaincd, ng'a- 

mba, guauiba. 
Turtle dove, hua.. 
Twin, pacha. 
Twist, pindi, pi. mapindi. 
Type {for printing j, cLapa, jpZ. ma- 



Udder, kiwele. 
Ulcers, donda ndugu. 
Umbrella, mwavuli, -pi. miaviili. 
Native umbrella, dapo, pi. ma- 

Uncleanness, janaba, uchavu. 
Uncle, mjomba, pi. wajomba, baba 

mdogo (mother's brother)^ atnu 

(father's brother). 
Undergrowth, magugiL 
Understanding, akili (pi.). 
Underwood, makoko. 
Unity, umoja. 
Universe, ulimwengu. 
Uproar, fujo,kelele, makelele, uthia, 

Urine, mkojo. 
Use, kutumia, kufaa. 

(Jiabit), raazoezo. 
Useful things, vifaa. 
Usurer, mlariba, pi. walariba. 
Usury, iriba. 
Utensils, vyombo. 
Uterus, mji. 
Uvula, kimio. 


Vagabond, ban a kwao (homeless). 

Vagina, kuma. 

Valley, boonde, pi, boonde or ma- 

Value, kima, tha,ma.m. kadiii, kiasi, 

upataji, uthani. 

What is it worth ? Chapataje ? 
Vapour, mvuke, fukizo. 
Vapour bath, mvuke. 
Vault, or vaulted place, kuba, kubba. 
Vegetables, mboga. 
Dcdoki, pi. madodoki, a long 

many-angled seed pod. 
Fijili or figili, a large white 

Jimbi, pi. majimbi, a root very 
much like a hyacinth root. 
Vegetable marrow, mumunye, pi. 

Veil, utaji, shela. 
Vengeaiice, kasasi. 
Verses, masbairi. 
Utenzi, religious verses. 
Utumbuizo, verses sung at a dance. 
Vesicular eruption on tJie shin, 

Vial, kitupa, pi. vitupa. 
Vice, uovu, ufisadi, ufiski. 
(the tool), jiiiwa, pi. majiliwa, 
Vicegerent, kaimu, pi. makaimu, 

nayibu, kalife. 
Victim, mathabuha. 
Victuals, vyakula. 
Vigil, kesba, pi. makesha. 
Village, mji, pi. miji, kijiji, pi. vijiji. 
Vine, mzabibu, pi. mizabibu. 
Vinegar, siki. 
Violence, jeuli, nguvu. 
Kwa nguvu, by violence. 
Ana jeuri, he attacks people iootj- 
Virgin, bikiri, kizinda. 
Viscera, matumbo. 
Vizir, waziri, pi. mawaziri. 
Vizir ship, u waziri. 
Voice, sauti. 
Vow, nathiri, nazirL 



Voyage, safari 
Vulture, tai. 


Wages, ujiva. 
monthly, mshaliara. 
sailors', halasa. 
Wailing, maombolezo. 
Waidcoat, kisibau, pi. visibau. 
sleeved, cha mkouo. 
sleeveless, kisicho mkono or cha 
Walk, mwendo. 
A icalh, matembezi. 
to go for a walk, kwenda tembea. 
Wall, uknta, _2:»?. kuta, kikuta, pi. 
vikuta, kitalu, pil. vitalu (0/ an 
enclosure), kiyambaza (mud 
and stud). 
Wall-plate, mbati, mwamba, pi. mi- 

Wahiut, jozi. 
Wandering about, mzunguko, pi. 

Want, uhtaji, upungufu, kipiinguo. 

{"poverty), shidda, umasikiui. 
War, vita, kondo (Mer.). 
Wareroom, gbala. 

Warehouse and shop, bokhari, 
Warmth moto, uharara. 

Luheicarmness, uvuguvugu. 
Wart, chiinjua. 
Washerman, dobi. 
Waste, upotevu, Tiharibivn. 
Waster, mpotevu, pi. wapotevu, 

mubaribivu, pi. wabaribivu. 
Watch, saa. 

(vigil), kesha, pi. makesha. 
(time or place of icatching), ki- 

ugojo. pi. vingojo. 
(icatching -place), Undo. 

Water, maji. 
Fresh icater, maji matamu, majI 

ya pepo. 
Water-closet, choo, chiro. 
Water cooler (earthen lottle), 
guduwia, gudulia, kuzi (a 
larger kind icith handles and 
Water jar, mtungi, pi. mitungi. 
Water melon, battikh. See 

Water skin, kiriba. 
Wave, wimbi, pi. mawimbi. 
Way, njia. 

the shortest way, njia ya kukata. 
Weakness, uthaifu. 
Wealth, mali mengi, titajiri, tikwasi. 
Weapon, selaha, 7iiata (weapons, i.e., 

lows and arrows). 
Weather, wakati. 

Weather side, upande goshini, 
•upande wa juu. 
Weaver, mfuma, pi. wafuma. 
Wedding, harusi. 
Wedge, kabari. 
Wednesday, Juma a tano. 
Weeds, magugu. 
Kinds of weeds, kitawi, nidago, 
gugu mwitu, mbarutL 
TFeefc, jumaa. 

Weight (see Measure), uthani. 
How much does it weigh ? Yapata 

kassi gani uthani wake ? 
Native Weights : 
Wakia, the weight of a silver 

dollar, about one ounce. 
Battel, sixteen wakia, about one 

Kibaba, pi. vibaba, one rattel and 

a half. 
Mani, wo rattel and three- 



Pishi, four vibaba, or six rattel. 
Frasila, thirty-five rattel, or twelve 

Farra ya mti, seventy-two rattel, 

or twelve pishi. 
Well, kisima, pi. visima. 
Weeping, kilio. 
West, maghribi. 

West wind, umande. 
Wet, rataba, maji. 
Whale, nyamgmni, ngumi. 
Wheat, ngano. 
Wheel, gurudumu, pi. maguru- 

Wheeled carriage, gari, pi. ma- 

Wietstone, kinoo, pi vinoo. 
Whip, mjeledi, pi. mijeledi. 
A plaited thong carried by over- 
lookers and schoolmasters, ka- 

mbaa, kikoto (M.). 
Whirhcind, kisusuli, pepo za cha- 

Whistling, msonyo, miunsi. 
White ants, mcbwa. 
White of egg, ute wa yayi. 
Whiteness, weupe. 
Whitening, chaki. 
Whitlow, mdudu. 
Wich of a lamp, utambi, pi. 

tambi. : 
of a candle, kope, pi. makope. 
Widow, mjani, mjaani, mke aliofi- 

wa na mumewe. 
Width, upana. 
Wife, mke, pi. wake, mtumke, pi. 

watuwake, mwanamke, pi. wa- 

Wilderness, bara, nyika, unyika. 
Wild people, wasbenzi. 
Wild aninuds, nyatna za niwitu, 

nyama mbwayi, uyama wakali. 

Will (mind), moyo, nia, kusudi. 

(testament), wasio. 
Wind, upepo, much icind, pepo. 
See Cold, Whirhcind, Storm, East 

Northerly Winds, which hloic from 

December to March, kaskazi. 
Southerly winds, which blow from 

April to Novfmber, kusi. 
Head icinds, pepo za omo (also 

stern icinds). 
Wind on the beam, matanga kati. 
Winding, kizingo, pi. viziugo. 

of a stream, maghuba. 
Windlass, duara. [dirisha. 

Window, dirisha, pi. dirisha or ma- 
Wine, mvinyo (strong wine), divai 
Wing, bawa, pi. mabawa. [(claret). 
A icing feather, ubawa, pi. mbawa. 
Wink, kupepesa. 
Wire, masango, uzi wa madini. 
Wire-draicer's plate, chamburo. 
Wisdom, hekima, busara, akiii. 
Wit, ujuvi (?). 

Witch, mchawi, pi. wachawi. 
Witchcraft, ucLawi. 
One who uses witchcraft against 
another, wanga. 
Witness, shahidi, pi. masliahidi. 

(testimony), ushahidi. 
Wits, akili. 

Wizard, mchawi, pi. wachawi. 
Woe, msiba. See Grief. 
Woman, mwanamke, pi. waanaake 
or waanawake. 
A young woman, kijana,pZ. vijana. 
A young woman who has not yet 
left her father's house, one wliose 
breasts are not yet flattened, 
A slave icoman, mjakazi, pL wa- 
See Person, Old, Slave. [J£*kazi. 



Womb, tumbo, matmnbo, mji. 
Wonder, ajabu. 

Wonders, mataajabu. 
Wood, mti. See Fireicood, Timber. 

A vjood, msitu wa miti. 

A piece of wood, kijiti, pi. vijiti. 


Finessi, the wood of the jack-fruit 

tree ; it has a yellow colour. 
Mche, a reddish wood much used 

in Zanzibar. 
Mkumavi, a red wood. 
Msaji, teaJi. 
Mtobwe, the wood of which the 

best bakora are made. 
Sesemi, Indian black wood. 
Simbati, a kind of wood brought 

from near Cape Delgado. 
Sunobari, deal. 
Wooden clogs, viatu vya mti. 
The button which is grasped by 
the toeSf msuruaki, pi. misu- 
Woollen cloth, joho (broadcloth). 
Tliich icoollen fabrics, blanketing, 
Word, neno, pi. maneno. 
Bad ivords, matukano. 
Work, kazi. 

Workman, mtenda kazi. 
{skilled), fundi, 

{skilful, a good hand), mstadi, pi. 
Workshop, kiwanda, pi. viwanda, 

kiwanja, pi. viwauja. 
'^rld, ulimwengTi, dunia. 
People of this world, walimwengn. 
Worldly affairs, malimwengu. 
Worm, nangonango, cbaugo, 

mnio (?). 
Worth, kima. See Value. 
Wound, jeiaba, donda, pi. iiiadouda. 

kionda, pi. vionda, kidonda, pi. 

Wrath, gbathabu. 
Wriggle, pindi, pi. mapindi. 
Wrist, kiwiko cha mkono, kilimbili. 
Writer, mwandislii, pi. waandishi, 

akatabao, pi. wakatabao {icriter 

of a letter). 
Writings, maandiko, maandishi. 
Writing-desk, dawati. 
Wrong, thulumu, sivyo. 


Yam, kiazi kikuu, i)l. viazi vikim. 

A kind of yam like a hyacinth 
root, jimbi, p)l. majimbi. 
Yard {of a ship), foramali. 

{an enclosure), uanda, uanja, ua. 
Yawn, miayo. [pi. nyua. 

Year {see Time), mwaka, pi. miaka. 

Last year, mwaka jana. 

The year before last, mwaka jiizL 
Yesterday, jana. 

The day before yesterday, juzi. 
Yolk of an egg, kiini cha yayi. 
Young of birds, kinda, pi. makinda. 

See Chicken, d:c. 
Youth, ujana, udogo, 

A youth, kijaua, pi. vijana. 


Zanzibar, Ungnja. 

The language or dialect of Zanzi- 
bar, Kiunguja. In Zanzibar, 
Kiswahili is understood to mean 
chiefly the language used on the 
coast north of Mombas. 
The original inhabitants of Zanzi- 
bar, MubadimUj^Z. Wabadimu. 
Their sultan is the Munyi 
Zeal {effort), juhudi. [mkuu. 

(jealousy), iiwivu. 
Zebra, punda milia. 

t of 

nge in the t ;ed in the eight following Classes. 

angmg m- 
ing heingSf 
3 the first 
^ne vizir : 


ngi, many 

I by changing ki- or ch- into vi-. Kitu 
^any things : vyombo vingi, many dhows. 
j moja, one chest : makasha mengi, many 

it, the u- is omitted in the plural. If 
r into ny-. Ukucha mmoja, one claw : 
•nyimbo nyingi, many songs, 
^ali pengi, many places, 
^tu, our dying. 


stantives. ^ronouns begin with k- ; if it expresses 

G 2 

Ca^jle of Concortis, 

AdjectivcB and Pronouns are in Swahili made to agree with their Substantiv 
with 1 

by a 

the first syllable. Swahili Substantives may be conveniently arranged in the eight following Classes. 

I. Those which begin with m- and are the names of living beings. The plural is made by changing m- 
into wa- Mtu innioja, one person : watu wengi, many people. The names of living beings, 
whatever their form, may have their adjectives and pronouns in the forms proper to the first 
class. Ng'ombe mmoja, one ox: ng'ombe wengi, many oxen. Waziri mmoja, one vizir: 
mawaziri wengi, many vizirs. 
II. Those which begin with m- and are not the names of living beings. The plural is made by changing 
m- into mi-. Mti mraoja, one tree : miti miugi, many trees. 
III. Those which do not change to form the plural. Nyumba mqja, one house : nyumba nyingi, many 

IV. Those which begin with ki- or ch-. The plural is mad^ by changing ki- or oh- into vi-. Kitu 
kimoja,onething:chombokimoja, one dhow. Vituvingi, many things: vyombovingi, many dhows. 
V. Those which make their plural by prefixiug ma-. Kasha raoja, one chest : makasha mengi, many 
VI. Those which begin with u-. If followed by a consonant, the u- is omitted in the plural. If 
followed by a vowel, the plural is made by changing u- into ny-. Ukucha mmoja, one claw : 
kucha nyingi, many claws. Uimbo mmoja, one song : nyimbo nyingi, many songa. 
VII. The word mahali, place. Mahali pamoja, one place : mahali pengi, many places. 
VIII. Verbs in the infinitive, used as Substantives. Kufa kwetu, our dying. 

The Locative Case made by adding ■ 

requires special forms, which are the same for all Substantives. When it implies motion to or distance f re 
being within, they begin with m- ; if nearness only, with p-. 

the thing named, the Pronouns begin with k- ; if it expresses 

Nyumba Nyusiba 


Eow mamj f 





His, Iter, Hi 



This & these 


That mentioned before 

Which ? 

Where is or are ? 


, \sake 


jni wapi 


8, dr. there ^neoi) yupo 
„ „ (within) yumo 

This I 

he, dc. dec. 
I- which 

aliye, ; 



































i wapi 











zi wapi 


Be, she, it, they 
Him, it, them 











ki wapi 



ki- ch- 
























li wapi 











ya wapi 







u wapi 











zi wapi 



-NI (« 







pake ' 





pa wapi 


































( S3 ) 



Adjectives always follow the Substantives they 

agree with. 

Mtu micema^ a good man. 

Regular Swahili Adjectives are made to agree with 
the Substantives they qualify by prefixing to them the 
initial syllables proper to the class of their Substan- 
tives, in the singular or plural, as the case may be. 
The minor rules laid down in regard to the prefixes of 
Substantives are applicable to Adjectives and their 
prefixes. The following instances will illustrate the 
ordinary application of these rules : 

Class I. M-tu 'm-haya, a bad man. 

Wa-tu wa-haya, bad men. 
M-tu mw-eupe, a white man. 
Wa-tu w-eupe, white men. 

Substantives of whatever class denoting living beings 

may have their Adjectives in the forms proper to the 

first class. 

Mbuzi m-kuhwa, a large goat. 

3Ibuzi wa-kuhwa, large goats 
Mbuzi mic-ekundu, a red goat. 
Mbuzi w-ekundu, red goats. 

G 2 


Waziri rmcema, a good vizir. 

Mawaziri wema, good vizirs. 
Kijana mwema, a good youth. 

Vijana wema, good youths. 

Class II. M-ti m-zuri, a fine tree. 

Mi-ti mi-zuri, fine trees. 
M-ti mw-ema, a good tree. 

Mi-ti mi-ema, or m-ema, good trees. 
Class IIL Ny-umha n-zuri, a fine house. 

Ny-umba n-zuri, fine houses. 
Ny-umba ny-eupe, a white house. 
Ny-umba ny-eupe, white houses. 

Class IV. Ki-tu ki-refu, a long thing. 

Vi-tu vi-refu, long things. 
Ki-tu ch-epesi, a light thing. 
Vi-tu vy-epesi, light things. 

Class V. Kasha zito, a heavy chest. 

Ma-kasha ma-zito, heavy chests. 
Kasha j-ehundu, a red chest. 

Ma-kasha m-ekundu, red chests. 

Class VL U-imho m-zuri, a beautiful song. 

Ny-imho n-zuri, beautiful songs. 
U-hau m-refu, a long plank. 
M-hau n-defu, long planks. 

Class VII. Mahali pa-pana, a broad place, or broad places. 
Mahali p-eusi, a black place, or black places. 

Class VIII. Ku-fa ku-zuri, a fine death. 

Ku-fa kw-ema, a good death. 

It will be seen at once from the above examples lio-w 
to make the Adjective agree with its Substantive in 
ordinary cases. The following rules must be remem- 
bered in order to avoid mistakes : — 

1. Adjectives beginning with a vowel require pre- 
fixes which end in a consonant, wherever possible, as 
in the above instances, miveu^e, mwekundu, mwema, 
chepesi, hicema. 


2. Adjectives beginning with a vowel must have j- 
prefixed when they are made to agree with nouns like 
kasha, as in the instance given above of hasJia jekunduy 
a red chest. Monosyllabic adjectives prefix ji, as in 
kasha jipya, a new chest. 

3. Prefixes ending in -a, when they are put before 
adjectives beginning with e-, merge the a into the 
first letter of the adjective, as in the instances, weupe, 
wekundu, mekundu, peusi. This suppression of the a is 
more noticeable in Adjectives than in Substantives, 
and occurs even in the few Adjectives which begin 
with -0- ; -a before i- coalesces with it and forms e. 

Weusi = wa-eusi. Meupe = ma-eupe. 

Pema = pa-ema. Mororo = ma-ororo. 

Wengi — wa-ingi. 

4. Adjectives beginning with a consonant are subject 
to the same rules when n is to be prefixed as Substan- 
tives of the third class and plurals of the sixth. The 
rules are given at length under Class VI. of Substan- 
tives. The following instances will show their appli- 
cation to Adjectives : 

Nyumba [ ndogo, ]ittle i 

Mbau I ngeni, strange \ n prefixed, 

Nyimbo I nzuri, fine ) 

ndefu, long — r becomes d. 

mhovu, rotten — n becomes m, 

mhili, two — nw becomes mh. 

huhwa, great ) 

nene, thick 

pana, broad 

tamu, sweet 

ehache, few 

fu23i, short 

► n suppressed. 


Besides tlie many apparent irregularities in tiiese 
n formations, there are two or three really irregular 
forms. These are ngema or njema (not nyema)^ good, 
and 'mpya (not pya), new. 

Adjectives beginning with a vowel are, like the cor- 
responding Substantives, regularly formed by prefixing 
ny-^ as in the instance given, nyeujpe, from -eupe, white. 

Instances are given in the list of Adjectives where 
there is likely to be any practical difficulty in knowing 
what form to use. 

-Ote^ all, and -enyi, or -inyi, having or with, are not 
treated as Adjectives, but as Pronouns. Instances 
illustrating their changes will be found under each. 
On the other hand -ngapi, how many ? is treated as an 

Irregular Adjectives. 

Although Swahili is rich in Adjectives when com- 
pared with other African languages of the same family, 
it is very poor in comparison with English. The place 
of the English Adjective is supplied — 

1. By Arabic words which are used as Adjectives 
but do not vary. 

Rahisi, cheap. Laini, smooth. 

2. By a verb expressing generally in the present 
imperfect to become, and in the present perfect to bey 
possessed of the quality denoted. 

Fimho imenyoka, the stick is straight. 

Flmho iUyonyoha, a straight stick. 
Fimho imepotoka, the stick is crooked. 

Fimho iliyopotoka, a crooked stick. 
Mtungi umejaa, the jar is full. 

Mtungi uliojaa, a full jar. 


3. By a Substantive connected with, the tiling quali- 

lied by the particle -a, of. 

Mtu wa choyo, a greedy person. 

Mtu wa dkili, a man of understanding, a wise man. 

If it is wished to predicate the quality of any person 
or thing, the verb huioa na, to have, must be used. 

Ana clioyo, he is greedy. 
Kina taka, it is dirty. 

4. By the use of the word -enyi or -inyi, which may 
be translated by having or with. 

Mtu micenyi afia, a healthy person. 
Kitu chenyi mviringo, a round thing, 
Kamba zenyi nguvu, strong ropes. 
E)iihe yenyi maji, a juicy mango. 

When -enyi is followed by a Yerb in the Infinitive, 
it answers to our participle in -ing. 

Mwenyi hupenda, loving. 

5. By the use of Adjectival Substantives which 
change only to form the plural. 

Eipofu, bhnd, or a blind person, pi. Vipofu, blind, or bUnd people. 

Where in English a special stress is laid upon the 
Adjective, in Swahili the relative is inserted. 

Jiwe huhiva, a large stone. 

Jiice lililo kuhica, a large stone, literally, a stone that is large. 
Mtu wa haki, a just man. 

Mtu aliye wa haki, a. just man. 

The Comparison of Ad.jectives. 

There are not, properly speaking, any degrees of 
comparison in Swahili. 


The Comparative degree as it exists in Englisli is 
represented in several ways. 

1. By the use of kuliko, where there is, the idea heing 
that when the two things are brought together one of 
them is marked by the possession of the quality men- 
tioned, whence it follows that it must possess it in a 
more eminent degree than the other. 

Saa Mi njema kuliko He, this watch is good (or the hest) where 

that is, i.e., this watch is better than that. 
Tamu kuliko asali, sweeter than honey. 

2. By the use of zayidi ya, more than, or of punde, a 
little more. 

Unguja mji mkuhwa zayidi ya Mvita, Zanzibar is a large town 
more than Mombas, i.e., Zanzibar is a larger town than 

Kitu kirefu punde, somethiug a little longer. 

3. By the use of hupita, to pass or surpass. 

Salimu ampita Ahdallah, Salim is better than Abdallah. 
Ndiyo tamu yapita asali, it is sweet, it passes honey, i.e., it is 
sweeter than honey. 

4. Comparison of one time with another may be ex- 
pressed by the use of the Verbs kuzidi, to increase, 
kupungua, to diminish. 

Mti umezidi kuzaa, the tree has borne more fruit than it did 

The Superlative may be denoted by the use of the 
Adjective in its simple form, in an absolute sense. 

Mananasi mema ya wapi ? Where are the best pines ? 

Ndiyo mema, these are the best. 

Ni yupi alio mwema '? Who is the best of them ? 

When this form is used of two only, it is more 



correctly Englished by the Comparative than by the 
Superlative. So conversely where the Comparative 
forms are so used as to apply to many or all, they 
must be translated by Superlatives. 

Saa Mi njema hulllco zote, this watch is the best of all. 

All awapita wote, Ali surpasses them all, or, is the best of all. 


There are two sets of numerals in use in Zanzibar ; 
one is properly Swahili, the other Arabic, but in a 
Swahiliized form. 

The numbers from one to ten are as follows : 






























Tissa or Tissia 




It will be seen that for six and seven there are only 
the Arabic names. The other Arabic numbers under 
ten are not very commonly used, but for numbers above 
ten the Arabic are more used than the purer Swahili. 


S v.- A HILL 



Kumi na moja 



Kumi na mbili 



Kumi na tatu 



Kumi na 'nne 



Kumi na tano 



Kumi na sita 



Kumi na saba 








Kumi na nane 



Kumi na henda 



Maliumi mawili 

Asharini or Ishrin 


Makumi matatu 



Mahumi manne 



Makumi matano 



Makumi sita 



Makumi saha 



Makumi manane 



Makumi henda 


The intermediate numbers are expressed in tlie pure 
Swahili by adding na moja, na mbili, &c. Thus forty- 
one is maJcumi manne na moja ; forty-Jive is maJcumi manne 
na tano, and so on. In the Arabic, the smaller number 
precedes the larger. Twenty-one is wdhid u ishrin, forty- 
five is khdmsi u arohain. The mode of counting most 
usual in Zanzibar is to employ the Arabic names for 
the larger numbers, but to follow the Swahili order, 
thus — 

Twenty-one • 

, Asharini na moja 


Ai^harini na mhili 


Asharini na tatu 

Twenty -four , 

Asharini na 'nne 


Asharini na tano 


Af-harini na sita 


, Asharini na saba 

Twenty-eight . 

, Asharini na nane 


Asharini na kenda 


, Thelathini na moja 

&c. &c. 

&G. &c. 

There is no negro word in use for a hundred ; the 
Arabic mia is universally employed, and for several 
hundreds the numeral follows it, as mia tatu, three 
hundred. If the Arabic numerals are used they pre- 
cede the word mia, tlielatha mia = three hundred. The 


Arabic dual miteen is very commonly used to express 
two hundred. 

There is a SwaMli word for a thousand, Mliwi, "but it 
is very rarely used except in poetry. The common 
word is the Arabic elfu. This is used in the same way 
as mia ; thus, elfu tatu is three thousand, elfu tano, five 
thousand, &c. The Arabic dual elfeen, two thousand, 
is more common than elfu mhili. If the Arabic nu- 
merals are employed the small number comes first, the 
plural form aldf is employed, and the final of the small 
number is heard, thus tJieldthat aldf is three thousand, 
Jchdmset aldf five thousand, and so on. 

Lakhi is used for ten thousand, and the word milyon 
is known, but is rarely employed, and perhaps never 
with exactitude. 

Fungate occurs for seven, as denoting the days spent by 
the bridegroom in his bride's company after marriage. 

Mwongo, plur. miongo, occurs for a ten or a decade, in 
reckoning the nautical year. 

Both these words occur in cognate African languages 
as cardinal numbers. 

When used in enumerating actual things, and not 
in mere arithmetical computation, six of the Swahili 
numbers are treated as regular Adjectives, the other 
four remaining unchanged. The following table will 
ehow the forms proper to each class of Substantives. 





1. mmoja 








2. wawili 




3. waiatu 










4. wanne 




5. watano 




6. sita 




7. saba 




8. wanane 




9. kenda 




10 kumi 








1. mqja 








2. mawili 




3. matatu 




4. manne 




5. matano 




6. sita 




7. saba 




8. manane 




9. keuda 




10. kumi 




The mimber always follows the Substantive. 
One man, mtu mmoja. 
If an adjective is employed, the numeral follows tlie 
adjective, thus exactly reversing the English order. 
Two good men, watu ivema wawili. 

The Ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of the 
variable particle -a. (See Prepositions.) 

The third man, mtu wa tatu. 
The fourth house, nyumha ya *nne. 
The fifth chair, kiti cha tano. 

The Ordinal numbers are : 

First, -a mosi, or more com- Third, -a tatu. 

monly -a liwanza. 
Second, -a pili. 

Fourth, -a 'nne. 
Fifth, -a tano. 


Sixth, -a sita. Tenth, -a kumi. 

Seventh, -a sahcu &c. &c. 

Eighth, -a nane. Last, -a rmcisho. 
Ninth, -a henda. 

Once, twice, &c., are denoted by the use of marra, or 

maray a time. 

Once, mora, moja. 

The first time, mara ya kicanza. 
Twice, mara mhili. 

The second time, mara ya pili. 
How many times ? Mara ngapi ? 

Often, viara nyingi. 

Fractions may be expressed by the use offungu, a 

part, as 

Fungu In thelathini, a thirtieth. 

The only fractions in common use are the parts of a 
dollar, which are thus expressed in forms borrowed 
from the Arabic : 

One-sixteenth — Nusg ya tliemuni. 

One-eighth — Them2ini. or Themni, or Ze'mni. 

Three-sixteenths — Themuni na nuss ya themuni. 

One-fifth — Zerenge. 

One-quarter — Roho. 

Five-sixteenths — Roho na nuss ya i\iemuni. 

Three-eighths — Roho na ihemuni. 

Seven-sixteenths — Roho na ihemuni na nuss ya themuni. 

O ne-h alf — Nuss. 

Nine-sixteenths — Nuss na nuss ya themuni. 

Five-eighths — Nuss na themuni. 

Eleven-sixteenths — Nuss na themuni na nuss ya themuni. 

Three-quarters — Kassa roho [i.e., a dollar less by a quaiterj. 

Thirteen-sixteenths— Xassa roho na nuss ya themuni. 

Seven-eighths — Kassa themuni. 

Fifteen-sixteenths— .Kassa nuss ya themuni. 

Numbers treated as Substantives make their plurals 
by prefixing ma,- : 

Makumi maioili, tvi-o tens, i.e.. twenty. 
Mamoja pia, all ones, i.e., all the same. 




Those words to which no hyphen is prefixed do not take any variable syllabi?. 

A qualify for which one cannot find 
a word, a sort of a, -nyanga- 

Kitu kinyangalika gani? ^Vhat 
sort of a kind of thing is this ? 

Able, having ability for, or power 
over, mweza. 

Abortive {fruit, &c.), -pooza. 

Active, -tendaji. 


Mpaka mmoja, having a common 

Kutangamana, to adjoin. 

Alike, sawasawa, -moja. 

Alive, hayi. 

All, -ote, or -ot'e, varying as a pos- 
sessive pronoun and not as an 
Class i. wote. 

„ II. sing, mote, pi. yote. 




yote, „ zote. 




chote, „ vyote. 




lote, „ yote. 




wote, „ zote. 









-ote has special forms after the 
particles of time and place. 
po pote, whensoever- 
ko kote, whithersoever. 
mo mote, whereinsoever. 
Also after the first and second 
persons plural. 
sisi sote, we all. 
ninyi nyote, you all. 
Sote has the meaning of together. 

tu sote, we are together. 
Wote has the meaning of both, 
sisi wote, both of us. 

2. Pia, the whole, all of it or 

3. Jamii. 

Jamil wa asikari, all the soldiers. 
Almighty, mweza vyote. 
Alternate, moja bado wa moja. 
Ancient, -a kale, -a zamani, -a 


Kuwa na pembepembe, to have 

Antique, -a kikale, of the old style. 
Artful, -a vitimbi. 
Aicake, macho. 

He is aicake, yu macho. 




Bad, -bay a, maJdng mbaya ^c^th 
nouns lilie nyumba or nyimbo. 
-ovu or -bovu, mahing mbovu 
u-ith nouns like nyumba or 
nj'imbo. -ovn expresses rather 
corruptness than mere badness. 
Utterly had, baa. pi. mabaa. 
Good for very little, thaifu. 
Bare, -tupu, maMng tupu with nouns 
like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Bareheaded, kitwa kiwazi. 
Barren, of land, kame. 
of animals, tasa. 
of persons, si mzazi. 
Beautiful, -zuri. 
Bent, of persons, kibiongo, pi. vibi- 

Best, bora (pre-eminent). 
Bitter, -cbungTi ( -tungu (M.)), 
making uchungu with nouns 
like nyumba, nyimbo, or kasha. 
Dawa ucbungu, bitter medicine. 
Tuuda uchungu, bitter fruit. 
Black, -eusi. Sometimes forms occur 
as if from -usi, such as wausi 
for weusi, mausi /or meusi, and 
viusi for vyeusi or veusi. It 
makes nyeusi with nouns like 
nyumba or nyimbo, and jeusi 
with nouns like kasba. 
Blind, kipofu, pi. vipofu. 
Blue, samawi (sky colour). 

ilaji a bahari (sea-water colour). 
Blunt, -vivu (see Idle). 

Kisu bakipati, the knife is blunt. 
Bold, -jasiri, sbujaa, pi. mashujaa. 
Breeding (of animals), koo. 

Koo la mbuzi, a breeding goat. 
Broad, -pan a, making pana with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Careless, -zembe. 
Castrated, maksai. 
Certain, yakini. 

A certain man, mtu miaoja. 
Cheap, rakbisi, rahisi. 
Checkered, marakaraka. 
Chief, bora, -knu. See Great. 
Choice, -teule, aali. 
A choice thing, bedaya, tunu, 

Civilized, -ngwana, -a kiungwana 

(of the civilized sort). 
Clear, safi, fasibi, -eupe (see White). 
Clear, kweu, mbayani, tbahiri 

(manifest), -wazi (see Open). 

-eupe (see Wliite). 
Clever, bodari, mahiri, -a akili. 
Clumsy, -zito (see Heavy). 
Coloured, -enyi rangi. 

Of one uniform colour, -takatifu. 
Comic, -cbekesbaji, -testeshi. 
Common, vivi bivi, zizi bizi, &c., 

yee kwa yee, &c. (see Pronouns), 
A common thing, jazi. 
Complete, kamili, -kamilifu, -timi- 

Confident, -tumaini. 
Confidential, -siri. 
Consecrated, wakf. 
Cool, wovisi. 
Correct, sahibi, fasibi. 
Countrified, -a kimajhamba. 
Covetous, bakbili, -enyi choyo, -enyi 

Crafty, -a hila, -erevu. 
Crazy, mafuu. 
Credible, mutaabir, -tabari. 
Crooked, kombokombo, mshitbari. 
Cross, -kali (see Fierce). 

Cross roads, njia panda. 
Cunning, -orevu, -a hila. 




Damp, kimaji. 
Daring, -jasiri. 
Dark, -a giza (of darlcness), -eusi 

(see Black). 
Dead, -fu. 

One whose mother is dead, j\ltu 

aliofiwa Da mamaye. 
Deaf, kiziwi, pi. viziwi. 
Dear, ghali. 
Deceased, mareliemu. 
Deformed, kilema, pi. vilema. 
Destructive, -harabu, -haribivu. 
Devout, -taowa. 
Different, -ingiue (see Other), mba- 

limbali, ihtilafu. 
Difficult, -gumu (see Hard), -zito 

(see Heavy). 
Disfigured by disease, -enyi lemaa. 
Disobedient, aasi. 
Distinct, mbalimbali. 
Double, maradufu. 
Dressed-up, -pambi. 
Drunken, -levi. 
Dry, -kavu, making kavu tcith nouns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Dull, -vivu. See Idle. 
Dumb, bubu, pi. mabubu. 


Easy, -epesi. See Light. 

Elder or Eldest, -kubwa. See Great. 

Eloquent, -semaji, -semi. 

Empty, -tupu. See Bare. 

Equal, sawa, sawasawa, 

Eternal, -a milele. 

European, Ulayiti, -a Kizungu. 

Even (level), sawasawa. 

(not odd), kaniili. 
Every, killa or kulla. It always 
its substantive. 

Killa mtu, every man. 

Killa niendapo, whenever I gOf 
or, every time I go. 
Evident, thahiri, -wazi. See Open. 
Extravagant, mubatharifu. 


Fat, -none. 
Faithful, araini. 
Feeble, thaifu. 
Female, -ke. 

On the female side, kukeni. 
Few, haba, -chache, making chache 

with nouns like nyumba or 

Fierce, -kali, making kali with 7wuns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Filthy, -cliavu. 
Final, tama. 
Fine, -zuri. 
Firm, imara (of things), thsibit (of 

Fixed (certain), maalum. 
Flat, sawasawa, pauapana. 
Foolish, -pumbafu. 
Foreign, -geni. 
Forgetful, -sahau. 
Forgiving, -samehe. 
Former, -a kwauza. 
Fortunate, beri, -enyi babati, -a 

jPree, huru, -ngwana. 
Fresh, -bichi. See Raic. 

Fresh water, maji matamu, maji a 

Full, kujaa, to become full. 
Full to the brink, fava, farafara. 
Full of words, mwingi wa ma- 

Full groiim, -pevu. 
Future, mkabil. 



G. • 

Generous, kariiau, -paji. 

Gentle, -anana. 

Glorious, -tukufu, -enyi fakhari. 

Gluttonous, -lafi. 

Good, -ema, maldng njema or ngenia 
with nouns like uyumba or ny- 
imbo, and }&in.Q, with nouns like 
The idea of goodness may be ex- 
pressed hy the suffix -to. 
Mauuka, smells. 

Manukato, good smells. 
Kuweka, to put. 

Kuwekato, to put properly. 

Greedy, -enyi roho, -enyi tauiaa, 
-enyi choyo. 

Great, bora, -kuu and -kubwa or 
-kuba, making kuu and kubwa 
with nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo. Kuu is used preferably 
of moral or figurative greatness. 
Kubwa, of physical size. 
Great, ichen applied to anything 
not material, is usually rendered 
hy -ingi. 

Green, uhanikiwiti, rangi ya majani. 
{Fresh, or unripe), -bichi. See 


Handsome, -zuri. 

Handy, -a mkono. 

A handbook, chuo cha mkono. 

Happy, -a heri, furahani. 

Hard, -gumu. 

Having, icith, being with, or who or 
which has or have, -enyi or 
-inyi. It varies like a possessive 
pronoun, as in the following 
examples : — 
Class I. INItu mwenyi {or mwi- 
nyi) mali, a rich man. 

Watu wenyi mali, richyeople. 
Class II. Mti mwenyi {or mwi- 
nyi) kuzaa, a tree in bearing. 

Miti yeuyi {or yinyi) kuzaa, 
trees in bearing. 

III. Nyumba yenyi {or yinyi) 
dirisha, a house with windows. 

Nyumba zenyi {or ziayi) 
dirislia, houses with windows. 

IV. Kikapu cbenyi {or kiuyi) 
ngTivu, a strong basket. 

Yikapu vinyi nguvu, strong 

V. Neno lenyi kweli, a true word. 

Mabakuli yenyi may ay i, 
basins with eggs in them. 

VI. Upiudi wenyi nguvu, a 
strong bow. 

Pindi zenyi nguvu, strong 

VII. Mahali penyi mtende, the 
place where the date-tree stands 

Healthy {of persons), -enyi Lifia,-zima 

{of places, &c.), -a alia. 
Heavy, -zito. 
High, -refu. See Long, -kub-^a 

See Great. 
Hollow, -a uvurungu, -wazi. See 
A hollow stone, jiwe la uvu- 
It sounds hollow, panalia wazi. 
The hollow or open space in or 
under anything, mvuugu. 
Holy, -takatitu. 
Hot, -a moto. 

I am hot, nina hari. 
Hot-tempered, hararii. 
Human, -a mwana Adarau, -a biaa- 

damu, -a mtu. 
Humble, -nenyekevu. 
Humpbacked, -enyi kignngo. 




Idle, -Tivu. 

Ignorant {like a simpleton), -jinga. 

Ill-o'mened, -korofi. 

Ill-tempered, -kali. See Fierce. 

Immature, -changa. 

Infirm, tbaifu. 

Ingenious, -juzi. 

Inquisitive, -pekuzi, -jasusi, -pele- 

Insignificant (mean), -nyonge. 

{unimportant), khafifu. 
Insipid, -dufu. 


Jealous, -wivu. 

Juicy, -enyi maji. 

Just, sawa, -a baki, -enyi hakL 

Kind, -ema. See Good. 

(doing kindnesses), -fathilL 
Knowing, -erevu, -juzi. 


Languid, -tepetevu, -chovtL 
Large,.-kub-wa or -kuba. See Great 

(xc ell-grown), -kuza. 
Laii-ful, halali. 

Lawful to you, balili yako. 
Laying (of birds), koo, 'pi- makoo. 

Koo la k'uku a laying heu. 
Lazy. See Idle. 
Lee, -a damalini, -a cbini. 
Left (hand, (fee), -a kusboto, -a kuke. 
Level, sawa, sawasawa. 
Liberal, karimu, -paji. 
''^dghi (not dark), -eupe. See White. 

(not heavy), -epesi, making nyepesi 
with nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jepesi with nouns 
like kasha. 

(unimpoitant), khafifu. 

Lined (of clothes), bitaua. 

Little, -dogo, katiti (A.), -cbache 
Little water, maji machacbe. 
(Maji and other similar nouns 
being treated as plurals, and 
therefore requiring few and not 
small as their adjective.) 
Kidogo, pi. vidogo, is used as a 
substantive for a little or a little 
piece of anything. 

Living, bayi, -zima. 

Long, -refu, making ndefu with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Long-suffering, -vumilivu. 

Lukewarm, -enyi uvuguvugu. 


Mad, -enyi wazimu, -enyi mahoka 

(Country dialect). 
Male, -ume, making mume or ndurae 
(as from -lume) with nouns of 
the second class. 
On the male side, kuumeni. 
Manifest, tbabiri, waziwazi, mba- 

yani, -wazi. See Open. 
Manly, -ume. See Male. 
Bebera (a strong he-goat). 
Fahali (a bull). 
Many, -ingi or -ngi, making nyingi 
with nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jingi with nouns 
like kasba. 
Maternal (on the mother's side), -a 
(motherly), -a mama. 
Mean, -nyonge. 
Merry, -cbekesbaji. 
Middling, kadiri. 
Mischievous, -barabu, -tundo- 
j Moderate, kadiiL 



Much, -ingi (see ilfan?/), tele. 
MurderovSy kiuwaji, nduli. 


NaJced, -tupu, uchi. S'ee Bare. 

Narrow, -eml >amba, maldng ny emba- 
mba with nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jembamba with 
nouns like kasha. 

Necessary (unavoidable), lazim, fa- 
(indispensable), kanuni. 

New, -pya, making 'mpya with nouns 
like nyumba or nyimbo, jipya 
with nouns like kasha, and 
pipya with nouns of place. 

Noble, bora, -kuu. See Great. 

Notable, mashuhur, mashur. 

Nice, -ema (see Good), -tamu. See 

Nipping(pressing closely and tightly), 


Obedient, tayi, -tii. 

Obligatory, farathi. 

Obstinate^ -kaidi, -shindani, -shi- 

Odd (not even), witini. 

Officious, -futhuli, -juvi. 

Old (of things), -kukuu, making 
kukuu with nouns like nyumba 
or nyimbo. Kukuu implies 
being worn out. Where mere 
antiquity is to be expressed see 
(of persons), -zee. 
Extremely old, -kongwe. 
How old is hef Umri wake 
apataje ? 

One-eyed, -enyi chongo. 

-a pekee, peke yake, »S:c. 
Open, -wazi. 
Other, -ingine or -ngine. 
Class I. Mgine or mwingiae. 

II. Mwingine or mgine. 

III. Nyingine (sing, and pi > 

IV. Kingine or chingine. 

V. Jingine. 
maiigine or mengine. 

VI. Mwingine or mgine. 

Vn. Pangine or pingiue. 
(The) other, -a pili. 
Other people's, -a watu. 
Another person's, -a mwenyewe. 
(not the same) is expressed hy 

adding the relative particle (see 

p. 117). 
panginepo, elseivhere, other places. 


Paternal (on the father*8 side), -a 

(fatherly), -a baba. 
Patient, -stahimili, -Vumilivu. 
Perfect, kamili, -kamilifu, -timilifu. 
Perverse, -potoe, -tundu. 
Plain (evident), thahiri, -wazi. 
Pleasant, -tamu (see Sweet), -a ku- 

Plenty, tele. 
Polite, -a adabu. 
Poor, masikini, fukara, fakiri. 

wretchedly poor, thalili. 

utterly destitute, hohe hahe. 
Printed, -a chapa. 
Profane, -najisi. 
Pure, safi, fasihi, -takatifu. 

H 2 

J 00 



Quarrelsome, -gomvi. 
Quick, -pesi. 

Quiet, -tulivu (still), -nyamavu 


Rare, nadira, -a tunu. 

Baw, -bichi, making mbichi with 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Bichi is used for raw, unripe, 

underdone, fresh, or any state 

which will or might change hy 

keeping or cooking, 
[inexperienced), -jinga. This word 

is specially applied to newly 

arrived slaves. 
Beady, tayari. 

(quick), -pesi, mahiri. 
Bebellious, aasi. 
Bed, -ekundu, making nyekundu 

with nouns like nyumba or 

nyimbo, and jekundu with 

nouns like kasha. 
Regular, -a kaida, taratibu. 
Safu za kaida, regular rows. 
Mtu taratibu, a person of regular 

Bemarkable, mashuhur, mashur. 
Bich, -enyi mail, -kwasi, tajiri, pi. 

Hight (hand, (fee), -a kulia, -a 

kuume, -a kuvuli. 
Bipe, -bivu, making mbivu with 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Bivu is used as the contradictory 

of bichi. See Baw. 
Rotten, -ovu or -bovn. See Bad. 
Bough, kuparuza, to he rough and 

Bound, -a mviringo. 
Boyal, -a kifaume. 

Safe, salama. 
Same, moja, pi. mamnja. 
Sanguine, -tumaini. 
Satisfied or content, rathi. 

Self-satisfied, -kinayi. 
Savage, -kali (see Fierce), mbwai. 

Very savage, nduli. 
Second, -a pili. 

A second in command, akida. 
Secret, -a siri, ndani kwa ndani. 
Separate, mbali. 
Severe, -zito. See Heavy. 
Shallow, [maji] haba, [maji] ma- 
Sharp, -kali. See Fierce, [chache. 
Short, -fupi, making fupi with nouns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Shrewd, -erevu, -enyi busara. 
Sick, -gonjwa, -weli. 
Silent, -nyamavu. 

A silent man, mtu wa kimya- 
Slim, -embamba. See Narrow. 
Slender, -embamba. See Narrow. 
Sleek, -nene. See Stout. 
Slow, -vivu. See Idle. 
Smooth, laini. 

Soaked (with rain, (fee), chepechepe. 

Soft, -ororo, making nyororo with 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 

andpioro with nouns like kasha. 

-anana, laini. 

the soft, teketeke. 
Solid, yabisi. 
Some, baathi ya, akali ya. 

Some — others — , wangine — wa- 
ngine — . 
Sound (healthy, living, entire), -ziina. 
Sour, -kali. See Fierce. 
Sjjotted, madoadoa, marakaraka. 
Square, mrabba. 
Steadfast, tMhit 



Steep, -a kusimama. 

Still, -anana, -tulivu (quiet), -nya- 

mavu (silent), -zizima (very 

still water, (fee). 
Stout (plump, thick), -nene. 
Strange (foreign, surprising), -geni. 
(startling), mzungu, pi. mizungu. 
Strong, hotiari, -enyi nguvu, -mne. 
Sweet, -tamu, making tarau with 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Tall, -refu. See Long. 

A very tall man, -tambo. 
Thick, -nene. 

Thick syrup, asali nzito. See 

Thievish, kijivi, pZ. vijivi, mwibaji, 

pi. webaji. 
Thin, -embamba (see Narrow),-ej^esi. 

See Light. 
Tiresome, -choru. 
True, -a kweli, hakika yako, &c. (it 

is true of you, (fee), yakini 

Trustworthy, amini. 
Truthful, -a kweli, -neni kwelL 

Uncivilized, -a kishenzi. 

Uncultivated, -gugu. 

Underdone (half -cooked), -bichi. See 

Unhealthy, -welL 
Unlawful, haramu. 
Unripe, -bichi. See Raw. 
Usual, -zoea. 

We are used to him, tuna mazoea 


Vain, ana makuu, he is vain. 
Valuable, -a i/iamani. 
Vigilant, macho. See Awake. 


Wasteful, -potevu. 
Watery, chelema. 
Weak, thaifii. 
Wealthy. See Rich, 
Weary, -chovu. 
Weather, -agoshini, -a juu. 
Well. See Healthy. 

Well done (cooked), -bivu. See 

Wet, majimaji, rataba. 
Wldte, -eupe, making nyeupe with 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 

and jeupe with nouns like 

Very white is expressed hy putting 

a strong accent on the last 

syllable, and sometimes raising 

the voice on it into a sort of 

Whole, -zima. See Sound. 

pia, pia yote, zote, &c. 
Wide, -pana. See Broad. 
Wild (of plants), -gugu. 
(of animals), -a mwitu 
Willing, -epesi, -pesi. 
Worn out, -kukuu (of things), -ko- 

ngwe (of persons). See Old. 

Yelloio, rangi ya manjano. 

Young (immature), -changa, making 

mchanga with nouns like 

nyumba or nyimbo. 
Younger, youngest, -dogo. 



Personal Pronouns. 

The full forms of tlie Personal Pronouns are — 

I, Mimi. We, Sisi or Swiswi. 

Thou, Wewe. You, Nyinyi or Nwinyi, 

He or she, Yeye. They, Wao. 

The second and third persons singular are often con- 
tracted into Wee and Yee. The second person singular 
is always used where one person only is to be denoted. 

There are no special forms for it and they when 
referring to inanimate things. If any special emphasis 
makes it necessary, the Demonstrative Pronouns 
agreeing with the nouns referred to must be used. 
Similarly, for lie or she and they, the Demonstrative 
Pronouns proper to the first class may be used, when 
any special emphasis is to be expressed. 

The objective cases, me, thee, him, her, us, them, are 
expressed by the same forms as those given above for 
the subjective case, I, thou, &c. 

The possessive case, of me, of thee, of him, &c., is 


generally expressed by the Possessive Pronouns (which 
see, p. 109); there is thus no distinction between of me 
and mine, of thee and thine, &c. 

Habari zangu, my news, or news of me. 

The Possessive Pronouns proper to animate beings 
may be used of inanimate things also ; -ake, its, and 
-aOy their, being used for of it and of them, in reference 
to all nouns of whatever class they may be. 

The possessive case may be regarded as an instance 
of the Personal Pronouns in a special form subjoined to 
the variable preposition -a, of. 

The Preposition na, with or and, is commonly joined 
with short forms of the Personal Pronoun to express 
and or with me, and or with you, &g. &c. 

Nami, and or with me. Nasi or Naswi, and or with us 

Nawe, and or with you. Nanyi or Nanioi, and or with you. 

Naye, and or with him or her. Nao, and or with them. 

Nao, Nayo, Nacho, Nalo, Napa, Nao, Nayo, Nazo, Navyo, Napo, 
Nako, and or with it. and or with them. 

The above forms may be used for either the objective 
or subjective cases after and. Nami = and I or and me, 
Nawe = and thou or and thee, &c. &c. 

It will be seen that in referring to animate beings 
the latter half of the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
is suffixed to the na-, and in referring to inanimate 
things the syllable suffixed is that which denotes the 
relative (see Relative Pronouns, p. 117), a syllable 
which occurs also as the final syllable of those Demon- 
strative Pronouns which refer to a thing mentioned 

Other Prepositions, that is to say, hwa and katika, are 


constructed with, the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
referring to animate beings, and with the Demonstra- 
tive Pronouns, where necessary, referring to inanimate 
things. This rule distinguishes the preposition hwa, 
for, by, &c., from the form of the variable -a required 
by substantives of the eighth class and sometimes by the 
case in -ni. 

Kwa mimi, for me. Kwangu, of me or my, to my [house]. 

The prefixes used in conjugating the verb to mark 
the subject and object may be regarded as shortened 
forms of the Personal Pronouns. The objective and 
subjective cases are denoted by slightly different forms. 

It will be most convenient to take the prefixes de- 
noting animate beings first, as they alone can be used 
in the first and second person. The following are the 
subjective or nominative forms : — 

I, Ni- or N-. We, Tu- or Tw-. 

Thou, U- or W-. You, 3Iu-, 'ill-, or Mw-. 

He or she. A- (or Tu-). They, Fa-. 

The rule for applying these prefixes is that the forms 
ending with a vowel are used when they are to be im- 
mediately followed by a consonant, and those ending 
in a consonant are used before a vowel. In the third 
person, both singular and plural, the vowel remains 
unchanged before o or w, it coalesces with e and i 
into an e, and merges into an a, so as to be no longer 
distinguishable. Thus, where the verb or tense prefix 
begins with a, the third person singular is apparently 
without prefix and the third person plural is marked 
only by a w-. Examples of and further observations on 
these prefixes will be found under Verbs, as playing an 


important part in their conjugation. The form yu- is 
but seldom used for the third person singular, and 
very rarely with any but monosyllabic verbs. 

The syllables which stand for the objective or accu- 
sative case of the Personal Pronouns denoting animate 
beings, when they are connected with Verbs, are — 

Me, -ni- or -w-. Us, -tu- or -tw-. 

Thee, -ku- or -hio-. You, -wa-. 

Him or her, -m- or -mw-. Them, -ica-. 

The same rules as above app^y to the use of forms 
ending in a consonant before a vowel, and forms ending 
in a vowel before a consonant. 

As the forms proper to the first class of Nouns denote 
animate beings, there remain seven classes denoting 
inanimate things, each of which has its appropriate 
subjective and objective pronominal forms when con- 
joined with a verb. The subjective pronominal prefixes 
are — 

Class II. 






or Y-. 

„ III. 


„ Y- 



„ Z-. 

„ IV. 


„ Ch- 



„ Vy-, 

» V. 





„ VL 


„ w. 



„ Z-. 

„ VIL 





» P-. 

„ VIII. 


„ Kw- 



„ Kw- 

Here also the forms ending in a vowel are used 
before a consonant, and the forms ending in a conso- 
nant are used before a vowel. Examples of their use 
will be found in the sections on the conjugation of the 

Tliere, used as the subject of a verb, is expressed by 
hi- or pa- employed as personal prefixes. Eu- is the 
more indefinite of the two. One, they, or people used 


to denote what is customary, are expressed by the 
prefix hu-. 

The objective forms in reference to inanimate objects 
are very similar to the subjectives. 

Class II. 





» III. 





„ IV. 




„ V. 




„ VI. 




„ VII. 




„ vm. 




In these forms also w becomes w, and i y, before vowels. 

The following examples will illustrate the use of the 
objective syllables : they are parted off from the rest of 
the word by hyphens. Instances are given of both 
vowel and consonantal verbs. 

Class I. A-ni-penda, he loves me. 

A-n-amhia, he tells me. 
A-ku-penda, he loves you. 

A-kiv-amhia, he tells you. 
Na-m-penda, I love him. 

Na-mw-amhia, I tell him. 
A-tu-penda, he loves us. 

A-tw-mnhia, he tells us. 
A-wa-penda, he loves you. 

A-wa-amhia, he tells you. 
A-wa-penda, he loves them. 

A-wa-amhia, he tells them. 
M II. A-u-penda, he likes it (mti, a tree). 

A--'o-ona, he sees it. 
A-i-penda, he likes them Qmiti, trees). 

A-y-ona, he sees them. 
y, III. A-i-penda^ he likes it (nyumba, a house). 

A-y-ona, he sees it. 
A-zi-penda, he likes them (nyvmha, houses). 

A-zi-ona, he sees them. 

PE0N0UN8. 107 

Class TV. A-ld-penda, he likes it (JHtu, a thing). 
A-Jci-ona, he sees it. 
A-vi-penda, he likes them (vitu, things). 
A-vi-ona, he sees them. 
„ V. A-li-x)enda, he likes it (kasha, a chest). 
A-li-ona, he sees it. 
A-ya-penda, he likes them (makasha, chests). 
A-ya-ona, he sees them. 
ff VI. A-u-penda, he likes it (uimho, a song). 
A-iv-ona, he sees it (ubau, a plank). 
A-zi-penda, he likes them (nyimho, songs). 
A-zi-ona, he sees them (mhaii, planks). 
„ VII. A-pa-penda, he likes it or them (place or places). 

A-pa-ona, he sees it or them. 
„ VIII. A-ku-penda, he likes it {kwiba, stealing). 
A-ku-ona, he sees it. 

In all cases tlie Pronominal Syllable representing the 
subject is the first prefix, and therefore the first syllable 
of the word ; and the syllable representing the object 
is the last of the prefixes and immediately precedes the 


A-takapo-ku-ona, when he shall see yon. 
Wa-Upoki-m-penda, when they loved him. 
A-ki-kw-ita, if he calls you. 

It is quite allowable for the sake of emphasis to use 
the full forms of the Personal Pronouns as well as the 
subjective and objective syllables. 

Mimi nakupenda wewe, I love you. 
We%ve wanipenda mimi, you love me. 

When 80 used, however, a very strong emphasis is 
put upon the persons loving and loved, and unless such 
an emphasis is intended the full forms ought not to be 
used. The above phrases might be better tran^ilated 
by — For myself I love you the best; and, It is you 
who love me. 


In poetical Swahili an objective suffix is used as well 
as the objective prefix. The syllables used as a suffix 
are the same as those given before with na (see p. 103). 
The suffixes are not used in the dialect of Zanzibar. 

U-ni-hifathi-mi, do thou preserve me. (Both the -ni- and the 

-mi represent the object of the verb.) 
A7ca-zi-angusha-zo, and he threw them down. (Both the -zi- and 

the-zo represent the object of the verb.) 
Na-wa-amhia-ni, I tell you. 

The use of the objective prefix implies a reference to 
some ascertained object : it is therefore properly used 
wherever in English the object would be expressed by 
a Pronoun. Where in English the object would not be 
expressed by a Pronoun, the objective prefix has the 
effect of a definite article, and its omission that of an 
indefinite article. 

Natdka hununua nyumha (no objective prefix being used), I want 

to buy a house. 
Natdka huinunua nyumha (the objective prefix -i- being used), 

I want to buy the house. 
Naona mtUy I see somebody. 
Namwona mtUy I see the man. 

Where a Demonstrative Pronoun is used with the 
object, the objective prefix must always be used. 

Nataka kuinunua nyumha Mi, I want to buy this house. 
Namwona mtu yule, I see that man yonder. 

The objective prefix is used where anything about 
the person or thing is about to be stated. 

Na-m-jua aliko [I know of him where he is], I know where he is. 
Nali-m-thania amekufa [I thought of him, he had died], I thought 

he was dead. 
Aka-m-kata kitwa [and he cut of him the head], and he cut off 

his head. 


Possessive Pronouns. 

The Possessive Pronouns are always placed after the 
Substantive denoting the thing possessed, and vary- 
according to its Class and Number. 

The unvarying parts of the Possessive Pronouns are : 

My, -angu. Our, -etu. 

Thy, -ako. Your, -enu. 

His, her, or its, -ake. Their, -ao. 

The same forms are used for its and their, of what- 
ever class the thing possessing may be. 

In many dialects of Swahili the form of the third 
person singular is -akwe, and in some that of the second 
is -ahwo. 

The above forms may be used as enclitics, and fre- 
quently are so with some common words, such as haba, 
father, mama, mother, mwana, child, mwenzi, companion, 
&c. When the final letter of the substantive is -a, -e, 
or -2, it merges into the first letter of the possessive 

Micanangu, my child. 

Mwenzangu, my companion, 
Mwandko^ thy child. 

Micenzako, thy companion. 
Mwanahe, his or her child. 

Micenzalce, his or her companion. 
Micanetu, our child. 

Micenzetu, our companion. 
Micanenu, your child. 

Mwenzenu, your companion. 
Micanao, their child. 

Mwenzao, their companion. 


The initial letters proper to each class of Substan- 
tives are : 

Class I. sing, w- plur. w-. 

,, II- » w- „ y-. 

„ III. „ y- „ Z-. 

„ IV. „ ch- „ vy-, 

Class V. sing. 1- plur. y-. 

„ VI. „ w- „ Z-. 

„ VII. „ p- „ P-. 

„ VIII. „ kw- „ kw-. 

Besides these forms proper to the several classes, 
Substantives in the locative case in -ni require special 
forms of the Possessive Pronouns according to the 
meaning of the case. These forms are the same for 
all Substantives, of whatever class or number they 
may be. 

1. When the case denotes being witJiin, or to, or from 
within, the Possessive Pronouns must begin with mw-. 

2. Where the case denotes mere nearness, and can be 
translated at, by, or near, the Possessive Pronouns must 
begin with p-. 

3. For all other meanings the Possessive Pronouns 
must begin with ho-. 

The following instances will show how all these rules 

are applied : — 

Class I, Mtu wangu, my man. 

Watu wdko, thy men. 
Mhuzi waJce, his or her goat 

Jifbuzi wetu, our goats. 
Waziri wake, his vizir. 
Mawaziri wake, his vizira. 
„ II. Mti wenu, your tree. 

Miti yao, their trees. 
„ III. Nyumha yangu, my house. 
Nyumbo zako, thy houses. 
II IV. Kiti chake, his chair. 

Viti vyetu, our chairs. 
n V. Kasha lenu, your chest. 

Makasha yao, their chests. 


Class VI. TJimho wangu, my song. 

Nyimbo zako, thy sougs. 
„ VII. Mahali pake, his, her, ar its place or places. 
», VIII. Kufa kicetu, our dying. 

1. Nyuwhani micenu, in your house or houses. 

2. Nyumhani pao, near their house or houses. 

3. Nyumhani kwangu, to my house. 

All the Possessive Pronouns will be found in the 
Table of Concords (p. 82), arranged under the classes 
to which they are appropriate. The Personal Pronouns 
may be added to give emphasis. 

Kisu changu mimi, my own knife. 
Vyangu mimi, they are mine. 

The Possessive Pronoun is used for the preposition 
-a, of, where it is intended to mark particularly the 
person whose the thing is. 

Km cha sultani, the sultan's chair, or a sultan's chair. 

Kiti chake sultani, the sultan's own chair, or this sultan's chair. 

There is another and short enclitic form for the 
Possessive Pronouns of the second and third persons 
singular, which is much used with some common 
words, such as miime, husband, mice, wife, ndugu, brother 
or sister, &c. They consist of -o for the second person 
and -e for the third, with the appropriate initial letters 
for each class as given above (p. 110). 

Mumewe, her husband. 

Mkewo, or rakeo, thy wife. 
Mwenziwe, his companion. 

Jinalo, thy name. 
Shogaye, her friend. 

It will be seen from the above tables that there is 
absolutely nothing to distinguish the singular and 
plural of Substantives in the form of the third class 


which denote animate beings, when joined with Pos- 
sessive Pronouns. It is probably for this reason, and 
to avoid ambignity, that they are frequently treated as 
ordinary Substantives of that class. 

Ndugu yangu, my brother. 

Nduguye or Ndugu yoke, his brother. 
Nduguzo or Ndugu zaho, thy brothers. 

Mbuzi zetu, our goats. 

Possessive Pronouns are sometimes used in English 
where Personal Pronouns are used in Swahili. 

Waka-m-funga miJcono nyuma [and they tied him hands behind], 

and they tied his hands behind him. 
Ali-m-kata Jcitwa [he cut him head], he cut off his head. 

After verbs of coming and going Possessive Pronouns 
beginning with z- (or in other dialects with vy- or th-) 
are used somewhat as — his way, &c., were used in old 

Amehwenda zake, he has gone away, or he has gone off. 

Twende zetu, let us be going. 

Wamekuja zao, they have come home, or they have come away. 

Eeflective Pronouns. 

The Swahili verb is made reflective by prefixing -ji-f 
as if it were a pronoun in the objective form. 

Na-ji-penda, I love myself. 

Self may be translated by the Arabic word, nefsi, 
nafsi, or nafusi ; or by the word moyo, a heart, plur. 
mioyo or nyoyo. 

Nafsi yangu, or moyo wangu, myself. 
Nafsi zetu, or nyoyo zetu, ourselves. 


Itself, themselves, &c., may also be expressed by thc 
word -enyewe with the proper prefix. 

Class I. Mtu mwenyeice, the man himself. 

Watu wenyeive, the people themselves. 
Mhuzi mwenyeive, the goat itself. 

Mhuzi wenyewe, the goats themselves. 
Waziri mwenyeive, the vizir himself. 
Mawaziri wenyeive, the vizirs themselves. 
ft 11, Mti mwenyewe, the tree itself. 

31iti yenyewe, the trees themselves. 

III. Nyumha yenyewe, the house itself 
Nyumba zenyewe, the houses themselves. 

IV. Kitu chenyeice, the thing itself. 
Vitu vyenyewe, the things themselves. 

V, Kasha lenyewe, the chest itself. 

Makasha yenyewe, the chests themselves. 
VI. Uimho mwenyewe, the song itself. 

Nyimho zenyewe, the songs themselves. 
VII. Mahali penyeive, the place itself 

Mwenyewe may be used for myself and thyself, as well 
as for himself or herself 

Wenyewe may be used for ourselves and yourselves, as 
well as for themselves. 

By myself, by ourselves, &c., are expressed by pehe 
with the appropriate Possessive Pronoun. 

Pehe yangu, by myself, or I only. 
Pehe yetu, by ourselves, or we only. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

There are three Demonstrative Pronouns. 1 , denoting 
objects at no great distance. 2, denoting objects pre- 
viously mentioned. 3, denoting objects at a distance. 
They have each forms proper to the several classes of 
Substantives and to the three meanings of the case 
in -m. 


1. This or that, these or those, of objects at no great 

Class I. Mtu huyu, this man. 

Watu Jiaica, these people. 
Mbuzi huyu, this goat. 

Mhuzi Jiawa, these goats. 
Waziri huyu, this vizir. 

Mawaziri hawa, these vizira, 
„ II. MH huu, this tree. 

Miti Mi, these trees. 
„ III. Nyumha hizi, this house. 

Nyumha hizi, these houses. 
„ IV. Kitu hilii, this thing. 

Vitu hivi, these things. 
„ V. Kasha hili, this chest. 

Mahasha haya, these chests. 
„ VI. TJimbo huu, this song. 

Nyimho hizi, these songs. 
„ VII. Mahali hapa, this place. 
„ VIII. Ku/a huliu, this dying. 

1. Nyumhani humo (humu (?) ), here, in the house. 

2. Nyumhani hapa, here, by the house. 

3. Nyumhani huku, here, to the house. 

It will be observed that the second syllable of each 
of these Demonstratives is the pronominal syllable 
given at p. 105, and that all begin with h-, followed by 
the vowel of the pronominal syllable. 

2. This or that, these or those, referring to something 

mentioned before. Both the other forms can also be 

used in this sense. 

Class I. Mtu huyo, that man. 

Watu hao, those people, 
Mhuzi huyo, that gout. 
Mhuzi hao, those goats. 
31 II. Mti huo, that tree. 

Miti hiyo, those trees. 
;; III. Nyumha hiyo, that iiouse. 

Nyuinba hizo, those lior.aee. 


Class IV. Kitu hicho, that thing. 

Vitu hivyo, those things. 
ff V. Kasha hilo, that chest. 

Mahasha hayo, those chests. 
,) VI. Uimbo huo, that song. 

Nyimbo hizo, those songs. 
„ VII. Maliali liapo, that place or those places. 
„ VIII. Kufa huTio, that dying. 

1. Nyumhani humo, in that house. 

2. Nyumhani hapo, by that house. 

3. Nyumhani hulco, to that house. 

3. That and those or yonder, referring to things at a 

Class L Mtu yule^ yonder man. 

Watu icale, those people, 
Mbuzi yule, that goat. 

Mhuzi wale, those goats. 
Mti ule, that tree. 

Miti lie, those trees. 
Nyumba He, that house. 

Nyumba zile, those houses. 
Kitu Idle or c7iz7e, tlial tLiiig. 

Vitu vile, those things. 
Kasha Ule, that chest. 

Mahasha yale, those chests. 
Uimbo ule, that song. 

Nyimbo zile, those songs. 
Mahali pale, that place or those places. 
7iu/a Z;M?e, that dying. 
Nyumhani mle, in that house. 
Nyumhani pale, by that house. 
Nyumhani hule, to that house. 









It will be seen tliat these last Pronouns are made 
hj adding -le to the second syllable of the first set of 
Demonstratives. Sometimes the whole of the first form 
is retained, making huyule, hawale, huule. Mile, hizile, 
hiMle, hivile, hilile, hayale, hajpale, hukule. 

I 2 


An increase of distance is denoted by a stress on the 

final syllable. 

Mtu yule, that man yonder. 
Yulee, that one further off. 
Yuleee, that one still further. 

The more stress is laid on the final syllable, and the 
more the voice rises into a falsetto, so much the greater 
is the distance denoted. 

When the substantive is mentioned the demonstra- 
tive always follows it. 

The demonstratives are frequently doubled, and then 
have the meaning of just this, that very, &c. 

Palepdle, just there. 

Mti uleule, that very tree. 

Maneno yaleyale, just those words. 

With the first set of demonstratives the final or true 

pronominal syllable is doubled and prefixed to the usual 


Fapahapa, just here. 

ViviMvi, just these things. 
Zizihizi, those very, &c. 
Kukuhuku, just to this place. 

These forms are also used to denote that there is 
nothing special about what is mentioned. 
Zizihizi, just these and no more. 

Huyo is often used when people are chasing a man 
or an animal. 

Muyo ! Huyo 1 = There he is ! There he is ! 

There are other forms which ought probably to be 
regarded as demonstratives, as they have the force of. 
This is it, and. This is not it. 



ndisi, it is we. 
ndinyi, it is you. 
ndio, it is they. 

ndiyo, these are they. 





Class I. ndimi, it is I. 

ndiwe, it is thou. 
ndiye, it is he. 

II. ndioy this is it. 
IIL ndiyo. 
TV. ndicho. 
V. ndilo. 
VI. ndio. 
VII. ndipo. 
„ VIII. ndiko. 

ndimo, it is here, or it is there. 



The negative is made by substituting si- for ndi. 

Siye, it is not he. Sicho, &c. &c., this is not it. 

Both forms may be used interrogatively. 

Ndiye ? Is it he ? Siye ? Is it not he ? 

Other demonstratives may be used with these for the 
sake of greater emphasis or clearness. 

Relative Pronouns. 

The Relative Pronouns have special forms appropriate 
to the several classes of Substantives and the three 
meanings of the -ni case. 

Class I. Who and Whom, sing, ye or yee, plur. o or wo. 
„ II. Which, sing, o or wo, plur. yo. 

„ III. 
„ IV. 
„ VI. 
„ VII. 
„ VIII. 

1. WJierein 

2. Whereat 

3. Whereto 


, zo. 


> vyo. 


, yo. 

or wo 

, zo. 


, po. 


, ko. 





These relatives occur most frequently in their 
simple forms in connection with -ote, all. 

yee yote, wo wote, whosoever or whomsoever. 

too wote, yo yote, zo zote, clio chote, vyo vyote, lo lote,po pote, what' 

vw mote, whereinsoever, inside everything. 
po pote, wheresoever or whensoever. 
ho Jiote, whithersoever or wheresoever. 

When connected with the substantive verb, to be, 
that verb is represented by the syllable -li-. 

Class I. aliye, [he] who is. walio, [they] who are. 

II. ulio, [it] which is. ihyo, [they] which are. 

III. iliyo. ziUzo. 

lY. kilicho. vilivyo. 

V. lililo. yaliyo. 

VI. ulio. ziUzo. 

VII. palipo. palipo. 

VIII. huliJco. huliko. 

1. mulimo, wherein there is. 

2. palipo, where there is. 

3. huliko, where there is. 

There is a disposition in Zanzibar to make -o the 
general relative. Thus one very often hears alio for 
aliye, Ulio for lililo, and ilio for iliyo. 

When joined with the verb the syllable denoting the 
relative follows the sign of the tense if there is one. 

The relative may be joined with the verb to form the 
present, or rather, an indefinite tense, without the use of 
any sign of time whatever. It is made precisely as in 
the examples given above of the use of the relative 
with the verb, to be, only substituting the particular 
verb for the syllable -li-. 

[he] who loves, apendaye, 
[they] who love, wapendao. 


[the tree] wliich falls, uangukao. 

[trees] which grow, imeayo. 
[the house] which falls, yangukayo. 

[houses] which fall, ziangukazo. 

Where the relative is the object of the verb the same 
form maybe used, only introducing the objective prefix 
proper to the substantive referred to, and changing the 
personal prefix. 

[fruit] whicli I love, niUpendalo. -li- and -lo- being the syllables 
appropriate to tunda, a fruit, and other nouns of the Fitth 

When taken to pieces the word is seen to be, wi-, I, 
-li-, it, -penda-, love, -Zo, which. 

Relatives are rarely used in Swahili with any tenses 
except the present imperfect (the -na- tense), the past 
perfect (the -li- tense), and a peculiar form of the future 
(the -taJca- tense). The following instances will show 
the way in which the relative is expressed with these 
several tenses both as subject and object. 

Class I. [the man] who is coming, ana-ije-Tcuja. 

„ who came, ali-ye-huja. 

„ who will come, ataha-ye-Jiuja. 

„ whom he is striking, ana-ye-rapiga. 

,, whom we loved, tuli-ye-mpenda. 

[the men] who will beat us, icataTia-o-tupiga. 

„ whom we will beat, tutaJca-o-icapiga. 

[the ox] which is eating, ana-ye-kula. 

„ which we shall eat, tutaka-ye-mla. 

„ II. [the tree] which fell, uli-o-anguka. 

,, which he cut down, ali-o-ukata. 

[the trees] which were visible, ili-yo-onekana. 

„ which we saw, tuli-yo-ionu. 

„ III [the house] which fell down, ili-yo-anguka. 

„ which I bought, nili-yo^inunua. 



Class III. [the houses] which fell down, zili-zo-anguka. 
„ which I bought, mli-zo-zinunua. 

„ IV. [the knife] which cut me, hili-dw-nikata. 
„ which I took, nili-cho-hitwaa. 

,, which I gave you, nili-cho-Tiupa. 

[the knives] which fell down, vili-vyo-anguha. 
,, which I gave you, nili-vyo-'kupa. 

„ V. [the chest] which is unfastened, lili-lo-funguka. 
„ which I unfastened, nili-lo-lifungua. 

[the chests] which were carried, yali-yo-chukuUwa. 
„ which they carried, wali-yo-yachukua. 

„ VI. [the song] which pleased me, uli-o-nipendeza. 
J, which I liked, nili-o^upenda. 

[the letters, nyaraka] which I ^ioie,niU-zo-ziandilia. 
„ which I sent to you, nili-zo-'kupelehea, 

„ which reached me, zili-zo-niwasilia. 

„ VII. [the place] which I live in, nina-po-paJcaa. 
[the places] which I saw, nili-po-paona. 

■ The particles of place and time, mo, po, JcOj are treated 
as relative particles. 

alimo, where he is (within). 
alipo, where he is (if near). 
aliko, where he is (far of£}. 
anapohwenda, when he is going. 
anakohwenda, whither he is going. 
aUmokwenda, wherein he went. 
alipokwenda, when he went. 
alikokwenda, whither he went. 

There is one ambiguity which cannot be avoided 
where both subject and object are of the same class. 
Aliyempiga may mean, who beat him, or, whom he beat ; 
kilichokikata may mean, which cut it, or, which it cut, 
supposing kisu, a knife, to be one substantive, and kitUy 
a thing, to be the other. 

The negative is combined with the relative by the 


use of -si-. Tliere is but one negative tense, and it 
embraces all times, past, present, and future. 

asiye, [lie] who is not, who will not be, who was not. 
usioanguha, [the tree] which falls not, which is not falling, which 

did not fall, or, which will not fall. 
nisichokupa, [the knife] which I did not give you, do not give 

you, or, shall not give you. 

"^Vliere tbe relative is used in Englisb with a prepo- 
sition, the relative particle is sometimes joined with the 
verb and also with the preposition ; but more commonl}-, 
the force of the preposition being contained in that of 
the Swahili verb, no special form is required. See 
Derivative Yerbs, p. 157. 

The man whom I went with, mtu nali-o-kicenda naye. 
The man I went to, mtu nali-o-mwendea. 
Where I came from, nili-po-toka. 
Where I am going to, nina-Tco-Jcwenda. 

As the Swahili has no proper word for to have, but 
uses for it Jcuwa na, to be with, cases of double relatives 
are very frequent where having is mentioned. 

The knife I have, Msu nilicho nacho. 
The houses you have, nyumha ulizo nazo. 
The knife I had, Msu nilicliokuica nacho. 
The houses you had, nyumha ulizokuwa nazo. 

The relative is used in some cases in which it is not 
employed in English. 

Who went by ? Nani ali-ye-pita (who is he who passed) ? 

He likes this fruit, tunda hili ndilo alipendalo (this fruit is it 

which he likes). 
The boy is going, kijana aendao. 
Whosoever may come, yee yote atakayehuja. 

There is another way of expressing the relative by 


nieaus of amhaye or ambaye Jcivamha, thougli not used 
in Zanzibar. When it is employed the final syllable of 
amhaye changes according to the rules given above, 
making amhao, amhazo, amhacho, amhavyo, &c. 

Sometimes an English relative can be expressed by 
the use of mwenyi, &c., having. 

The man whose house it is, mtu mwenyi nyumha. 

Interrogative and other Pronouns. 

There are four Interrogatives which are not variable. 

Nanif Who? I Nini^ What? 

Lini ? When ? j Ga7ii ? What sort ? 

Gani always follows the substantive it is connected 


Mtu gani ? What man ? What sort of man ? 
Kitu gani ? What thing ? Wliat sort of thing ? 

What? is sometimes expressed by the syllable -ni 
suffixed to a verb. 

Atapatani9 What will he get? 

Amefanyani ? What has he done ? 

Kunani? What is there ? What is the matter? 

Kina nini ? WJiat has it ? What is the matter with it ? 

Wanani ? What have they ? What are they at ? 

What o'clock is it ? is rendered by Saa ngajpi ? How 
many hours ? 

The interrogative Which? is expressed by -jpi pre- 
ceded by the appropriate syllable, which is the same as 
that used as the subjective personal prefix to verbs. 
It always follows the noun it refers to. 


Class I. TMii 

cli [man] Yupi? 

Lmen] Wapil 

11. , 

[tree] Upi? 

[trees] Ipi? 

» III. 

, [house] Ipi ? 

[houses] Zipi? 

„ IV. , 

, [thing] Kipi? 

[things] Vipif 

» V. , 

, [chest?] Lipi? 

[chests] Yapi? 

„ vi. , 

[song] Upi ? 

[songs] Zipi? 

„ vii. , 

, [place] Pain? 

[places] Fapil 


The Interrogative, if followed by a verb, requires a 
relative with it. 

Mtu yupi apendaye Jcwenda ? "Wliich. [or what] man likes to go ? 
Nyumha ipi ihupendezayo ? Which house do you like ? 

Nani ? who ? is also generally followed by a relative. 

^ni aliopo mlangoni ? Who is at the door ? 

It is, however, allowable to say nani yupo mlangoni, 
which is a literal translation of the English. 
The interrogative Where ? is wapi ? or aj)i 9 

Wenda wapi ? Where are you going ? 

When referring to a substantive icapi must always 
be preceded by the syllable which is the proper sub- 
jective personal prefix for that substantive. This prefix 
very probably represents the substantive verb, and may 
often be translated by is it ? or are tliey 1 

I. si 

ig. Yu wapi ? plur 

Wa wapi ? 


, U wapi ? „ 

I wapi ? 


, I wapi ? „ 

Zi wapi? 


, Ki wapi ? „ 

Vi wapi ? 


, Li wapi ? „ 

Ya wapi ? 


, U wapi ? „ 

Zi wapi ? 


„ Pa wapi ? „ 

Pa wapi ? 

A fuller form to represent where is it f or tchere are 
they f is made by adding -ko to the personal prefix. 
Yuho wapif Where is he ? Ziho wapi ? Where are they ? 


The noun referred to follows this interrogative. 
I ivapi merikebu ? Where is the ship ? 

How ? is expressed by the syllable -je suffixed to the 
Nitakipataje f How shall I get it ? 
Chalifanywaje ? How was it made ? 
Ulipendaje^ ao kupika, ao hicJii ? How do you like it, cooked or 

Asemaje ? [How does he talk ?] What does he say ? 
TJrefu wake yapataje ? How long is it ? 
Umri wake apataje ? How old is he ? 
Kwenda chini kwake chapataje [kisima']9 How deep is it [a 

well] ? 

The use of hupata, to get, in these phrases must be 
noticed. There is no direct way of attaching the hoio f 
to the adjective ; they say therefore, " His age, how 
gets he it?" 

How many ? is expressed by -ngajpij which is treated 

as an adjective. 

How many people ? Watu wangapi ? 
How many goats ? Mbuzi wangapi or ngapi f 
How many trees ? Miti mingapi ? 
How many houses ? Nyumha ngapi9 
How many chairs ? Viti vingapi 9 
How many chests ? Makasha mangapi ? 
How many planks ? Mhau ngapi ? 
How many places ? Mdhali pangapi ? 

How ? is in some cases expressed by the use of other 

How long ago ? Tangu lini ? [since when ?] 

How much? Kadri gani, or Kiassi gani^ [what quantity ?] 

How often? Marra ngapi ? [how many times ?] 

The exclamatory What ! is rendered by the inter- 
rogative pronoun in -pi. 

Furaha ipi ! What joy I 

( 125 ) 


Regular Swahili verbs always end in -a, as, Tcupenda, 
to love, hu/piga, to beat. 

Verbs derived from the Arabic may end in -e, -i, or -w, 
as, kusamehe, to pardon, husajiri, to travel, huharihu, to 
destroy. Verbs in this form do not change the final 
vowel, where verbs in -a regularly do so. 

The simplest form of the verb is used in Swahili, 
as in English, for the second person singular of the 

Feudal Lovel Figal Strike! 

Samehe! Pardon! Safiri ! Travel! 

Haribu ! Destroy ! 

The second person plural imperative is made by 
adding -ni. All the other tenses and moods are made 
by prefixing syllables to the simple form, except that 
verbs in -a change -a into -e in the present subjunctive, 
and into -i in the present negative, and a -«;- is inserted 
to mark the passive. 

There is a negative as well as an affirmative con- 
jugation, in which the tenses and persons are also dis- 
tinguished by prefixes. 

The various prefixes form in pronunciation or^ word 


with the verb, and when taken to pieces denote its 
person, number, tense, mood, subject, and object. 

Amekwambia = A-me-kw-ambia = He-has-you-tell = He has told 

Waliponipenda = Wa-li-po-ni-penda = They-did-when-me-love 

= When they loved me. 
Nitakachokupa = Ni-taka-cho-ku-pa = I-shall-which-you-give-to 

= Which I shall give to you. 
Ningalimwona = Ni-ngali-mw-ona = I-should-have-him-see = I 

should have seen him. 

The syllables used as prefixes have not the same 
meaning standing separately as they have when com- 
bined with the verb in their proper order; for this 
reason, therefore, as well as to show the proper pro- 
nunciation, they with the verb must all be written as 
one word. 

Lists of the several prefixes will be found at the end 
of the preliminary observations to the second part of 
this handbook (p. 237). The personal prefixes will be 
found described under Pronouns (p. 104), and seen 
arranged under their appropriate classes of Substantives 
in the Table of Concords, p. 82. 

Indefinite Tenses. 

1. Customary actions are expressed by prefixing hu- 
to the verb. In this form there is no distinction of 
number, person, or time. 

Hu-enda, one goes, they go, everybody goes, he used to go. 
Hu-penda, one likes, they like, one would like. 

2. The relative may be joined with the verb without 
any sign of time. The personal prefix only is put 
before the verb, and the relative sign suffixed to it. 



Sing. Class I. Ni-penda-ije, [I] who love. 

U-penda-ye, [tliou] who lovest. 

A-penda-ye, [he] who loves. 
„ n. U-anguha-o, which falls. 

„ III. I-anguJ:a-yo, 

„ IV, Ki-anguka-clio^ 

„ V. Li-anguka-lo, 

„ VI. U-anguka-o, 

„ VII. F-anguka-po, where falls. 
„ Vni. Kw-anguka-ko, whither falls. 

Flur, „ I. Tu-penda-o, [we] who love. 

M-penda-o, [you] who love. 
Wa-penda-o, [they] who love. 
„ n. I-anguka-yo, or, Y-anguka-yo, which fall, 

„ in. Zi-anguka-zo, 

„ IV. Vy-anguka-vyo, 

„ V. Y-anguka-yo, 

„ VI. Zi-anguka-zo, 

The relative may represent the object of the verb, 
but in that case the objective sign (pp. 105-6) ought to 
be inserted between the personal prefix and the verb. 



Class I. Ni-m-penda-ye, [he or she] whom I love. 
Ni-ku-penda-ye, [thou] „ „ „ 

Ni-wa-penda-o, [you or they] ,, „ „ 
II. Ni-u-peuda-o [it] which I love. 
III. Ni-i-penda-yo, 
rV. Ni-ki-penda-chOf 
V. Ni-li-p>enda-lOy 
VI. Ni-u-penda-o, 
Vn. Ni-pa-penda-po, 
VIII. Ni-ku-penda-ko, 

n. Ni-i-penda-yo, [those] which I love. 
III. Ki-zi-penda-zo, 
rV. Ni-vl-penda-oyo, 
V. Ni-ya-penda-yo, 
VI. Ni-zi-penda-zo, 

3. The negative form, expressing Who, or which does 


not, is made by the personal prefix, tlio syllable -ei- 
[not] and the relative sign, followed by the verb. 

Sing. Class I. Ni-si-ye-penda, [I] who love not. 

U-si-ye-penda, [thou] who lovest not. 

A-si-ye-penda, [he or she] who loves not 
„ n. TJ-si-o-anguka, which falls not. 

„ m. I-si-yo-anguJca, 

„ rV. Ki-si-cho-angulca, 

„ V. Li-si-lo-anguka, 

„ VI. TJ-si-o-anguka^ 

„ VII. Pa-si-po-anguka, where falls not. 

Ku-si-ko-anguka, whither falls not, 

Mu-si-mo-anguka, wherein falls not. 
Plur. „ I. Tu-si-o-penda, [we] who love not. 

M-si-o-penda, [you]. 

Wa-si-o-penda, [they]. 
„ n. I-si-yo-anguka, which fall not. 

„ in, Zi-si-zo-anguka, 

„ rV. Vi-si-vyo-anguka, 

„ V. Ya-si-yo-anguka, 

„ VI. Zi-si-zo-anguka. 

Where the relative is the object of the verb, it is 

expressed as in the affirmative tenses, by the form of 

the relative particle and the insertion of the objective 


Ni-si-zo-zi-penda, which I do not like. 

This negative tense may be applied with equal pro- 
priety to past, present, or future time, amounting in 
effect to a negative of the relation at the time and under 
the circumstances implied in the context. 

The application of the relative to the definite affir- 
mative tenses is explained under Pronouns (p. 119). 

The difference between — which I like — and — I who 
like it — is to be found in the form of the relative 

VERBS. 129 

INyumha] nili-yo-ipenda, [the house] which I liked. 
nili-ye-ipenda, I who liked it 

lEitu] niU-cho-ldpenda^ [the thing] which I liked, 
nili-ye-Jiipenda, I who liked it. 

Definite Tenses. 

The important part of each tense is the tense prefix. 
It is preceded by the personal sign of the subject, and 
may be followed directly by the verb. If any signs of 
relation are used they are suffixed to the tense prefix, 
and the objective prefix (if any) must always imme- 
diately precede the verb. The tense prefix is the same 
for all persons and both numbers. The personal prefix 
is the same for all tenses, except the slight changes 
dependent upon the question whether the first letter of 
the tense prefix is a vowel or not. 

In order therefore to construct the proper form of 
verb, it is necessary first to ascertain the proper personal 
prefix, next the proper tense prefix, then the particles 
of relation and objective prefix, if they are required, 
and then to finish with the verb. Thus, to say, A house 
has fallen down. A house is nyumba, a word of the third 
class ; the proper personal prefix for a singular noun of 
the third class is -^, the tense prefix for the present 
perfect is -me-, the verb to fall is leu - anguha (the Jcu- 
being the sign of the infinitive : we have therefore — 

Nyumha imeanguka = a house has fallen down. 

If we wished to say. Six houses have fallen down ; we 
find that nyumha being of the third class keeps the same 
form in the plural ; sita is six, and must follow its noun ; 
the subjective prefix proper to plural nouns in the third 



class is zi-; the tense prefix and tlie verb remain the 

Nyumha sita zimeanguka, six houses have fallen down. 

To take one more complicated example, I saw the 
knife, which yon gave him. The personal prefix for 
the first person is ni- or n-, the tense prefix of the past 
perfect is -ali-, to see is Jcu-ona, knife is Icisu, a substantive 
of the fourth class. As some particular knife is intended 
we must use the objective prefix, and that for a singular 
substantive of the fourth class is -hi-. As the tense 
prefix begins with a vowel we must use the personal 
prefix which ends in a consonant. We have therefore — 

NaliJciona hisu = I saw the knife. 

* Which you gave him.' The relative referring to a 

singular noun of the fourth class is -cho-. It must 

follow the tense prefix, which is -ali-^ as before, for the 

past perfect. The sign of the second person singular 

is u- or 10- ; the verb, to give to, is hu-joa. The object 

of the verb is Jiim, the objective prefix for nouns of the 

first class is -mu- or -m-. Putting these together we 


Which you gave him, walichompa. 

And the whole sentence, 

I saw the knife which you gave him, nalikiona Jcisu walichompa. 

It must not be forgotten that Jcu- and pa- may be 
used for there in an impersonal sense. 

Kuliktiva or Palilcuim, there was or there were. 
KnliaiJi'ga, S:c., and ti.cre struck, &c 



Indicative Tenses. — Present. 

There are in the language of Zanzibar two Presents, 
one Indefinite and one Imperfect. 

1. The Indefinite Present answers to our common 
English present, I come, I love, &c. It is made by 
prefixing -a- to the verb. 

JV- y 

' I love. 


Thou lovest. 


He or she 

r-, r-, Ch; L-, TF-, P-, Kw- 

. a-penda < 

It loves. 


We love. 


You love. 

\Z.,Vy.,T.,Z. J 

^ They love. 

2. The Present Imperfect answers to our tense with 
am, I am coming, I am loving, &o. It is made by pre- 
fixing -na- to the verb. 



fl am 

Thou art 

He, she, 

y na-penda \ or it is i. loving. 

We are 

You are 

\ They are 

Wa-, I-, Zi; Vi-, Ta-, Zv- 

In the first person the ni- is often contracted into 'w-, 
and sometimes altogether omitted. This tense used 
after another verb may be translated by an English 
present participle., 

Namwona^ or Nalimwona anahuja, I see him, or, I saw him 


In the dialect of Mombas this -na- tense is used of 
past time. In Zanzibar it is the more usual form of 
the present. 

K 2 



Present Perfect. 

The Present Perfect is made by the prefix -me- : it 
denotes an action complete at the time of speaking, and 
therefore answers to the English tense with have. 


I have 
Thou hast 
He or she has 
It has 
We have 
You have 
iThey have 

■ loved. 

In verhs denoting a state or the possession of a 
quality the present has the meaning of to enter upon, 
to acquire, or to become, what the verb denotes. The 
-me- tense must then be translated by to have, or to be, 
&c. (p. 86). 

Inajaa, it is getting full. 

Imejaa, it is full. 
Inapasuka, it is being torn. 

Imepasuha, it is torn. 
Inapotea, it is becoming lost. 

Imepotea, it is lost. 
Anavaa, he is putting on. 

Amevaa, he has put on, therefore, he wears. 

When the -me- tense occurs in a narrative, it denotes 
an action complete at the time referred to, and must 
generally be translated by had. 

Nihamwona ameufungua mlango, and I saw that he had 
unfastened the door. 

The -me tense may sometimes be translated as a pas 



participle, signifying a state arrived at at the time of 
speaking or at the time referred to. 

Yu hayi ao amekufa ? Is he alive or dead ? 
Zalikuwa zimepotea, they were lost. 

In this sense it may be used to form compound tenses, 
somewhat as the past participle is in English. 

In some dialects of Swahili the prefix is pronounced 
-mor rather than -we-. See the end of Appendix II. 

Past Perfect. 

The Past Perfect tense is made by the prefix -li- or 
-all- : it denotes an action complete in past time. It 
must sometimes be translated in English by the tense 
■vNdth had, but more commonly it represents the indefinite 
past, which usually ends in -ed. 

N- ^ 


TT-, T-, Ch-, L- 

P-, Kw- 

) ali- \ 



I '^ 



r-, Z-, Vy, Y- J 

He or she 

penda It 


m- 1 






Z7-, I-, Ki' 

Li; Pa-, Eu- 

li- . 




I-,Zi-, Vi; Ya-. 

When it is 


1 to deu 

Ote the 

iction as a 



continuous one, the syllable -hi- may be inserted after 
the tense prefix. 

N-ali-M-mpenda, I loved him [not once but continuously]. 
W-ali-pa'pendana, when they loved one another. 
W-ali-po-hi-pendana, while they loved one another. 

Narrative Past. 

In telling a story it is usual to begin with one verb 
in the -li- tense, and then to put all that follow in a 
tense made by the prefijs -ha-. This tense includes in 
itself the power of the conjunction and. It can never 
properly stand at the beginning of a narrative, but no 
other past tense can properly be used for any verb 
except the first. It may occasionally be used after 
another verb, where the time being indefinite would 
in English be represented by a present. 



'And I 


And thou 

U-, I-, Ei- 

And he or she 

Li-, Pa-, Ku- 

' Tia-penda 

And it 


And we 


And you 


And they 

I;Zi-, Vi; Ya-\ 


Niha- is frequently contracted into Ha-. 

Hamwona = Nikamwona = And I saw him. 

The -ha- of this tense is often pronounced -hi- in rapid 
or careless talking. 



The Future Tense is made by the prefix -ta- 



'l shall 


Thou wilt 

U-, I-, Ki- 

He or she will 

Li; Pa-, Ku- 


It will 


We shall 


You will 


They wUl 

I-, Zi; Vi; Ya-^ 


In the first person the prefix Ni- is often omitted. 
Tapenda = Nitapenda — I shall love. 

When particles of relation are introduced the prefix 
'ta- is very rarely used ; the tense prefix stands almost 
always as -taka-. 

Atdkayekujoy [he] who will come. 

With particles of relation the difi'erence between the 
present, indefinite, and future times is much more care- 
fully observed in Swahili than in English. 

Nilalapo, when I sleep, i.e., in the case of my sleeping. 

Ninapolala, when I sleep, i.e., at the time when I am sleeping. 

Nitakapolala, when I sleep, i.e., when I shall be sleeping. 

Mtu aendaye, the man who goes (at any time). 

Mtu anayekwenda, the man who is going (now). 

Mtu atdkayekwenda, the man who goes (at some future time). 

Thus, if it is intended to send a man somewhere and 
pay him afterwards for his trouble, where it might be 
said in English — Tell the man who goes that I will 
pay him when he comes back — the Swahili verbs must 
all be in the future, Micamhie yule ataJcayekwenda hwamba 



ataJcaporudi nitamlipia. Where it is tHe fact and not 
the time, person, or thing, that is the important element 
of the idea, it is better not to use the particles of rela- 
tion, but to employ the -M- tense, which see. 

Conditional Tenses. 

There are four tenses which may be called Con- 
ditional. The first, made with -hi-j expresses a state of 
things as supposed to be existing. The second, made 
with -japo-, expresses a state of things supposed as 
possible. The other two refer to contingencies ; one of 
them, made with -nge- or -^ga-, expresses what would 
now be happening, and the contingency on which it 
would depend regarded as existing; the other, made 
with -ngali-, expresses what would have happened, and 
the contingency on which it would have depended 
regarded as no longer existing. 

Actual Conditional or Participial Tense. 

This tense is made with the prefix -Tci-, and may be 
translated by the English present participle, or by as, 
if, when, since, though, or any other words by which 
the idea of a state of things can be introduced and con- 
nected with the rest of the sentence. 

I lovinc 





U-, J-, Ki- 

He or she 

Li-, Pa-, Ku- 









I- Zi' Vi- Ya 

VERBS. 137 

Tlie prefix Niki- may be contracted into Si-. 

Hifukuza - Nihifukuza = As I was driving. 

Yiewed as a present participle, the -M- tense can be 
nsed to form compound tenses, especially a past im- 

Alikuwa dkiogdlea, he was swimming about. 

The following are a few examples of the use of this 
tense : — 

NitafuraM niJciJcuonay [seeing you I shall rejoice] I shall be 

glad to see you. 
AJcija Ahddllah mwamhia, [Abdallah coming, tell him] Tell 

Abdallah when he comes. 
Nikiica nacho, [I having it] If I have it — when I have it — if 1 

should have it — in case of my having it — since I have it, 
Alipotea aMzunguka Jcwa siku mbili, [He was lost wandering 

for two days] He lost his way and wandered about for two 

Majivuno yaMwa mengi, [Puffings up being many] Much self- 

Cfpepo uJiiwa moto Jiutanua, [Air being hot] Air expands when 
it becomes heated. 

AMsema hu-eli, hasadiJcuci, [Telling the truth, he is not believed] 
K he should tell the truth, he would not be believed. 

In this instance the use of the -hi- tense and of the 
negative present are both remarkable. It will be seen, 
however, upon examination, that there is no real con- 
tingency in such a sentence as this. It affirms a fact 
in a state of things, not a contingency upon a supposed 
state of things ; it is not his telling the truth which 
prevents his being believed. 

A corresponding past tense may be made by the -Zi- 
tense with the relative particle -po-. 

Wali;popenda, when they loved, being that they then Icved. 



ijapo-penda^ even if ' 


Possible Conditional. 
This tense is made by the prefix -japo-^ and puts a 
case ; it generally implies that the case is an extreme 
or unlikely one. It may be translated by even if. 
V-, J-, Ki- 
Li-, Pa-, Kxir 
I-, Zi-, F^-, Ya- 

The prefix seems to be formed from huja, to come, 

and -j9o, the particle denoting when or where ; so that 

ujapo may be translated, When you come, and so with 

the other persons ; this will give the force of the tense. 

WajapoJcupiga, when they come to beating you, i.e., even if 
they beat yon. 

Japo with the personal signs may be used alone in 
the sense of — even if. 

Ujapo huJcioni, even if you do not see it. 

Present Contingent. 

This tense is formed by the prefix -nge- or -nga-, and 

puts a condition and its results as present. It necessarily 

implies that neither are in existence. 

Ni- ^ 

I should, or if I did 

Thou wouldest, or if thou 

He, she, or it would, or if \ Jq^q 

he, she, or it did 
We should, or if we did 
You would, or if you did 
. They would, or if they did ) 



U-, I-, Ei- 

Li-, Pa-, Ku- ^ nge-penda ( 




I-, Zi-, Vi; Fa- 



The -nga- form is used with monosyllabic verbs — 
angawa — though he be, or he would be. 

The two branches of the contingency cannot in 
English be represented by the same tense, as they are 
in Swahili. The pair would stand in English, (1) If I 
did— (2) I should, &c. (1) If it were— (2) it would 
be, &c. Or they might stand, (1) Though I did — 
(2) yet I should, &c. 

The second branch is sometimes represented in 
English by a past tense ; sometimes both are. 

Kama ungekuwa na ahili, mali yaTco ungedumu nayo, [If you 
were with wits, your property you would continue with itj 
If you were a man of understanding, your property would 
be (or would have been) yours still. 

Past Contingent. 
This tense is made with the prefix -ngali-. It sup- 
poses something at a past time, and concludes that 
something else would then have happened, also at a 
past time. It represents the English — If this had 
happened, that would have happened. It supposes that 
neither condition nor contingency did ever in fact 
occur. In English a past tense is often used to express 
a present contingency, but the Swahili seem to dis- 
tinguish them more carefully. 

Had I, or I should have 
Hadst thou, or thou 

wouldest have 
Had he, she, or it, or he, 
she, or it would have 
ngali-penda j Had we, or we should ] loved, 
Had you, or you would 

Had they, or they would 


J-, Ki- 
; Pa-, Kip- 


Zi; Vi; Ya-J 


There is always an accent on tlie personal prefix and 

none on the tense prefix, thus ungalihuja, dngaliona^ &c. 

Kama ungalihuwapo hapa, ndugu yangu angaliponay If you 
had been here, my brother would have got well. 

The Imperative. 

It has been mentioned above that the simplest form 

of the verb may be used for the Imperative as in 

English. The fijial letter of verbs in -a is frequently 

changed into e-. The plural is made by adding -ni. 

Penda, or Pende^ love thou. Pendant, or Pendent, love ye. 

Twaa, or Twos, take thou. Twaani, or Twaeni, take ye. 

Sifu, praise thou. Sifuni, praise ye. 

Fikiri, consider thou. Fikirini, consider ye. 

The form ending in -e is the more commonly used in 
Zanzibar. The other persons are supplied by the use 
of the Subjunctive. 

Ka- may be prefixed to the Imperative to connect it 
with a preceding verb. 

Kajijicheni, and hide yourselves. 

The Subjunctive. 
The Subjunctive is made by prefixing the personal 
sign, and when the verb ends in -a changing that 
letter into -e. It may be translated into a variety of 
English forms. It may be used as an imperative or 
jussive, and is the only form that can be so used in the 
first and third persons. 

Nipende, let me love. 
When used with an interrogative it may be translated 
— am I to — is he to, &c. 

Ni/anyeje ? What am I to do ? 




It is tlie proper form to express purpose or object — that 
I may, &c. — and must be used in many cases where in 
1^ English the infinitive is employed. 

Mwamhie dkusayidiey tell Mm to help you, or speak to hira 
that he may help you. 

Where no purpose is impKed the infinitive is used as 
in English. 

I want to sleep, natdka Jculala, 

The* force of the conjunction and may be expressed 
by inserting -lea- after the personal prefix. And is used 
in English in many cases where the second action is 
more or less the object with which the first is to be 
done, as in — try and find, &c. In such cases -ha- must 
not be used, but only the subjunctive in its simple 

mav love. 

Verbs which end in -i, -e, or -w, keep the same final 
letter in the subjunctive. 




A-, U-, J- 


Ki-, Li; Pa- 

he or she 


, pende. That 








Ft-, Ta- 

The Infinitive, 

The Infinitive is made in all cases by prefixing -ku. 

Ku-penda, to love. 
Ku-onay to see. 


The -M- becomes -w- before a, e, and «, and often 

disappears before o, 

Kw-amhia, to telL 
Kw-enda, to go. 
Kw-isha, to finish. 
K-oga, to bathe. . 

The Infinitive may always be used to express the 
action denoted by the verb. 

Kwenda, going, 

Kufa, dying. 

Kupendana, mutual loving. 

[There are two idiomatic uses of the Infijiitive Mood, 
which are common, and may be mentioned here, the 
one a logical, the other a grammatical, contrivance. 

Any finite form of a verb may be preceded by the 
infinitive of the same verb, the effect being rather to 
particularize and give prominence to the idea conveyed 
by the verb, than to emphasize the mode of an action. 

Thus Jcufa utaJcufa, as to dying, you will die. Dying, 
that is what will happen to you. Not, you will 
certainly die. 

Again, when any finite form of the verb, and espe- 
cially a long form, would be closely followed by another 
verb in the same form, connected with the former verb 
by (at most) the simple copula * na,' the second verb 
may be put in the infinitive mood. By this device the 
cumbrous repetition of a series of personal and other 
prefixes in a number of successive verbs is neatly 

Thus, " anayeahudiwa na kutuhuzwa" for anayetuhuzwa, 
" who is worshipped and glorified." — A. C. M.J 

VERBS. 143 


There are properly no Participles in SwaMli. The 
present participle in -ing may be represented by the 
-ana- tense of an incomplete action, by the -hi- tense 
of a state of continued action, or by the use of the 

The man sitting yonder, mtu akaaye kule. 

The past participle may be represented by the -me- 
tense of a completed action, or by the relative when 
used adjectivally. 

NimeJiiona kisu Tcilicliopotea, I have found the lost knife. 

The Negative Conjugation. 

All Swahili verbs may be employed with negative 
prefixes to denote the reverse of their affirmative 
meaning. It must be observed that the negative forms 
do not simply deny the affirmative forms but rather 
reverse them. 

Napenda Tcwenda, I like going. 
Nataha Jcwenda, I want to go. 
Sipendi kicenda, I dislike going, 
Sitaki kicenda, I want not to go. 

In English I do not want is not so strong as I do not 
like, but in Swahili sitald is stronger than sipendi. 

The negative tenses are formed by negative personal 
prefixes, which, except in the first person singular, are 
made from the affirmative forms by prefixing lia-. 

For the negative combined with the relative, see 
p. 120. 





He or she 

love not 

pendi It 



do uot love. 


VThey J 

Negative Present. 
In this tense verbs ending in -a cliange fhat letter 
into 'i ; other final letters remain unchanged. 

Ha-, Hau; Hai- 
HaM-, Hall; Hajpa- 

Hawa-, Hai-, Hazi- 
Havi; Haya- 

This tense is a more general negative than the 
English do not tense. It is used for both past and 
future wherever the negative depends upon some cause 
which is not affected by the time referred to. 

The -i of si- in this and other tenses often disappears 

before a vowel. 

Sogopi, I do not fear. 

Negative Past. 
There is one negative form referring to past time 
generally ; it is made by the negative prefixes followed 
by -hu- 




Ea-, Hau-, Hai- 


Hahi-, Hali- 

He or she 

did not love 

Hapa-, Hakvr \ ]iu-penda \ 





have not lovfd. 



Hawa-, Hai-, Hazi- 


Havi; Haya' 

In a few rare instances negative prefixes may be 

[lowed by -me- or -li-. 

Simehuica mwo 

ngoi Hav 

e I not becoE 

ae a liar? 



The not yet Tense. 
There is a negative tense made by the use of the 
negative prefixes followed by -ja-, which is a sort of 
negative present perfect, denying the action up to the 
time of speaking. 


Hu' (I 

Ha-, Hau-, Hai- Thou 

Eaki-, Halt- He or she 

Hapa-, Hahu- jja-penda I I^ ^^^ve not yet loved. 

Hatu- We 

Ham- You 

Hawa-, Hai; Hazi- They 

Havi-, Haya- J 

The word hado is often used with this tense where 

it is intended rather to imply that what has not yet 

happened will some day come to pass. 

Hajaja, he is not yet come, he is not come even now. 
Hajaja hado, he is not come, at least not yet. 

The -a- of -ja- coalesces with i and e into a long -e- 


Hajesha = Hajaisha = He has not yet finished. 

Negative Future. 
The negative future is made from the affirmative 
future by merely using negative instead of affirmative 
personal prefixes. 


Ha-, Hau-, Hai- 
HaM-, Hali- 
Hapa-, Hahw- 


Hawa-, Hai; Hazi- 
Havi-, Haya- 


I shall not 1 
Thou wilt not 
He, she, or it 

will not 
We shall not 
You will not 
They will not 




Conditional Tenses. 

The case of not being or not doing is put by a tenwe 

formed by tlie affirmative prefixes followed by -sipo- ; 

it may be translated by tbe present participle with a 

negative, or by as, if, when, though, since, or any other 

word by which the case of not being, liaving, or doing, 

may be introduced. 



A-, U-, I-, Ki- 

JA-y Pa-, Ku- 



Wa-, I-, Zi-, Vi- 


This tense may be also used to translate an English 
affirmative preceded by except or unless. 

AsiiJojua, unless he knows. 
Asi^okuwa Ahdalldh, except Abdallah. 

sipo-penda ( 

not loving. 

Contingent Tenses. 
The negative contingent tenses, present and past, 
are made from the affirmative forms by merely using 
negative instead of affirmative personal prefixes. 

Did I or I should "^ 


Ha-. Hau-, Hai- 
Haki-, Hali- 
Bapa-, Baku- nge-penda \ 


Hawa-, Bai-, Hazi- 
Havi-^ Baya- 

Didst thou or 



Did he, she, 

or it. 

or He, she. 

or it 


Did we or 



Did you or 



Did they or 


. would 


not love. 




Ha-, Hau-, Hai- 
HaJii-, Hali- 
Hapa-, Hahu- 


Eaiva-, Eai- 
Eazi; Eavi- 


Had I or I should 

Hadst thou or Thou 

wouldest have 
Had he, she, or it, 

or He, she, or it 

would have 
Had we or We should 

Had you or You 

would have 
Had they or They 

would have 

not loved. 

Negative Imperative. 

The negative imperative is made by the iTse of si 
(not), with the affirmative forms. 

Si penda, love not. 
Si sifu, praise not. 

Si pendent, love ye not. 
Si sifuni, praise ye not. 

The negative subjunctive is more often used in this 
sense than the imperative form. 

Negative Subjunctive. 

The negative subjunctive is made from the affirma- 
tive form by inserting -si- between the affirmative 
personal prefix and the verb. 

not love. 

Ni- -s 


I may 

A-, U-, J- 

thou mayest 

Ki; Li; 

he, she, or 

Fa-, Ku- 



it may 


we may 


you may 

Wa-, I-, Zi- 

they may 

F*-, Ya- 

L 2 


The -i of -si- often disappears before a vowel. 
asende, that he may not go. 

The negative subjunctive may be Englished in 
several different ways. It may be used as above of a 
purpose not to do, or it may be used of a purpose to do 
which fails. 

Ahamtafuta asimwone, he looked for him, but did not see him 
or, without seeing him. 

This form is commonly used for the negative 

Nisende, let me not go. Usende, don't go. 

A form of subjunctive connected with the not yet 
tense is made by the use of -sije- with the affirmative 

not have already 



A-, U-, I- 
Ki; Li- 

I may 

thou mayest 
he, she, or it 

Fa-, Ku-, 

sije-penda, That 

we may 


Wa-, I-, Zi- 
Vi; Va- 

you may 
they may 

This tense may often be translated by before. 
Utampata asijelala, you will catch him before he goes to sleep. 

-sije with the personal prefixes may be used as a 
complete word followed by the -Jca- tense. 

Nisije nikafa, that I may not be already dead, or, that I may Dot 
die before, &c. 

VEBB8. 149 

Negative Infinitive. 

The negative infinitive is made by the use of hitoa 
(to put out), often contracted into huto- and used as a 

Kutoa kupenda, or Eutopenda, not to love, or not loving, to 
dislike, or disliking. 

The Passive Voice. 

The Passive is made from the Active by merely 
inserting -w- before the final vowel. 

Napenda, I love. Napendwa^ I am loved. 

Sipendi, I do not love. Sipendwi, I am not loved. 

Nimependa, I have loved. Nimependwa, I have been loved. 

Kupenda^ to love. Kupendwa, to be loved. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often use the passive of 
their applied form. See pp. 151, 161. 

The Passive is used in a sort of impersonal way to 
denote what is intended to be done. 

3Iaji yamekwenda kuletwa, some one has gone to get water. 
Fesa zimekwenda kuvunjwa^ some one has gone to get pice in 
exchange for silver. 

Auxiliary and Irregular Verbs. 

As the Auxiliary verbs are mostly also irregular, it 
will be best to speak of their irregularities first, and 
afterwards of their use in making compound tenses. 

Monosyllabic verbs and most dissyllabic words be- 
ginning with a vowel, retain the hu- of the infinitive 
in those tenses in which the tense prefix ends in a 


syllable incapable of bearing the accent. These tense 
jDrefixes are -na-, -ame-, -ali-, -ta-, -jajpo-^ -^^6-, -ngali-j 
and -sije-. The other prefixes, -a-, -ha-, -hi-, -nga-, -hu-, 
-ja-, -si-, are capable of bearing the accent, and the hu- 
is not retained when they are used. The personal 
signs, both subjective and objective, can bear the 
accent, the relative signs cannot. 

Thus, from huja, to come, we have : — 

Naja, I come. NinaJcuja, I am coming. 

Nikaja, and I came. Nimehuja, I have come. 

NiMja, I coming. Nalikuja, I came, 

Siji, I come not. Nitakuja, I shall come. 

Sikuja, I did not come. Nijapokuja, even if I come. 

Sijaja, I am not yet come. Ningekuja, I should come. 

Nisije, let me not come. Ningalikiija, I should have come. 

Nisijehuja, before I cor^e. 

Nije, let me not come. Nisipokuja, when I come not. 

Ajaye, he who comes. AUyehuja, he who came. 
Nijaye, I who come. 

It is shown that this irregularity depends upon the 

power of certain syllables to support the accent by 

the changes which occur when an objective prefix is 


Amekula, he has eaten. 
Amemla, he has eaten him. 

The verb hupa, to give to, is peculiar in always re- 
quiring an objective prefix, and therefore never having 
occasion to be irregular. 

With dissyllables beginning with a vowel it is gene- 
rally indifi'erent whether the hu- is retained or not. 

Amekwisha or Ameisha, he has finished. 
Amekwanza or Ameanza, he has begun. 

VERBS, 151 

Many verbs occur witli or without a to-, wliich seems 

to be a relic of tbe -ku-. 

Kuiva or Kuwiva, to ripen. 
Kuaza or Kuwaza, to consider. 

The word kuja, to come, stands alone in having an 
irregular imperative. 

Njoo, come. Njooni, come ye. 

Monosyllabic verbs and some dissyllables make their 
passives in a more or less irregular way. The follow- 
ing is a list of the monosyllabic verbs with their 
passives : — 

Kucha, to fear. Kuchica, to be feared. 

Kula, to eat. KuUica, to be eaten. 

Kujiywa, to drink. Kunyweica, to be drunk. 

Kupa, to give to. Kupaioa or Kupewa, to receive. 

Kucha is used in the dialect of Lamoo for to fear, the 
word used at Zanzibar being huogopa. Kucha means 
at Zanzibar to rise (of the sun), and huchwa (or, in the 
dialect of Mombas, hutwa^ means to set. The other 
monosyllabic verbs, kufa, to die, Icuja, to come, Jcunya, 
to fall like rain, huwa, to be, being neuters, do not 
make a passive. 

Two dissyllabic verbs make their passive by merely 

adding -iva to the active form. 

Kuua, to kill. Kuuaica, to be killed. 

Kufua, to beat. Kufuawa, to be beaten. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often insert an -I- in 
making their passive. See under Applied Forms, pp. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzaica or Kuzaliica, to be born. 

KuJcomhoa, to ransom. Kuhomholewa, to be ransomed. 

Kufungua, to open. Kujunguliwa, to be opened. 


The origin of this use lies probahly in the difficulty 
of pronouncing distinctly the regular passive forms. 
Verbs ending in -e make their passive in -ewa. 

Kusamehe, to pardon. Kusamehewa, to be pardoned. 

Verbs ending in -i make their passives in -iwa. 

Kukiri, to confess. Kuhiriwa, to be confessed. 

Verbs in -u generally make their passive in -iwa. 

Kuhartbu, to destroy. Kuharibiwa, to be destroyed. 

Where the -u is preceded by a vowel the passive is 
made in -uliwa. 

Kusahau, to forget. Kusdhauliwa, to be forgotten. 

The verb huwa, to be, has several peculiarities. The 
Present tense is very seldom used in its regular form. 
For the Present tense ni (or, in the negative, si) may 
be used for all persons and both numbers, or the per- 
sonal prefix appropriate to the subject of the verb may 
stand alone. Ni is apparently preferred where being 
is the important part of the idea ; the personal prefix 
is used where the being of that particular thing is 
intended specially to be noticed. Tu (not A) is used 
for he or she is. 

Si hiceli, ni kusifu tu, it is not true, it is only flattery. 
Tu, tayari, we are ready. 

When joined with a relative the regular form has 
the meaning of who may he. 

Awaye yote, whoever it be. 

Where no stress is intended to be laid on the heing^ 
the verb to be, when joined with a relative pronoun, is 

VERBS. 153 

represented by the syllable -li-. See Eelatives, p. 118. 
Li is used, tbough but rarely, with tbe personal signs 
to form a tense ■with the meaning — continuing to be. 
A narative past is also fonned with it in the sense of — 
I have continued to be. 

Nili Jiali ya Jcuwajuu yahe, I being on his back, 
Nikali nikipotea, and I go on wandering. 

In many cases where the verb to he is used in English 
merely to connect the parts of the sentence it is in 
Swahili omitted altogether. 

Kwa nini weye Ttutoa JcuoneJcana Mzi siku nyingi^ why [have] 
you [been] invisible, i.e.. Why have you kept out of sight so 

Yupi mkuu icao^ who [is] their chief? 

Nyama ya hifaro ngumu mno, rhinoceros meat [is] very tough. 

The Present Perfect has the meaning of has become. 

Manenoye yamekuwa uicongo, his words are become false. 
The Past Perfect must be used to translate was and 


Nilipokuwa Sultani, when I was Sultan. 

The English Jias or have been must be translated by 
a present. 

Nipo hapa siku nyingi, I have been here many days. 
The Imperative is used with an i prefixed. 
Iwe, be thou. Iweniy be ye.* 

In the negative present and with relatives si is used 
as ni and -li- are in the affirmative tense. The regular 
forms are also used, though but rarely. 

* The subjunctive forms uice, mice are commonly preferred in 
Zanzibar.— A. C. M. 


The verb to he is used in English sometimes to 
denote existence viewed as an ultimate fact, sometimes 
to denote existence in place and time, sometimes to 
denote existence as the possessor of certain qualities, 
or the doer or sufferer of certain acts. In Swahili these 
three uses are distinguished by the employment of 
different forms. 

The simple form of the verb is used only to denote 
existence as the possessor of qualities, or the doer or 
sufferer of acts. 

Existence merely in place and time, whether the 
place and time are in English expressed or no, is 
denoted in Swahili by the addition to the verb of -po, 
-mo, or -ho, as the case may be. See Relatives, p. 120. 

He is at my liouse, Yuho kwangu. 
He is here, Yupo liapa. 
He is in the house, Yumo nyumhani. 
When he was liere, AJipokuivajm hapa. 
Where are they ? Ziho wapi ? 

Existence viewed as a fact in itself is denoted by the 
addition of na to the verb, being the same form as is 
used for the verb to have. Na is joined to the personal 
prefixes to make the present tense, in all other tenses 
it is treated as a separate word, and has generally the 
appropriate relative sign suffixed to it. 

Kuna mtu, there is a man. 
KuUkuwa na mtu, there was a man. 
Zinazo, they are. 
Zilikuwa nazo, they were. 

In Swahili there is properly no verb to have. They 
employ for it kuwa na, to be with. 

YEBBS, 155 

Nina, I have. 
NaUkuwa na, I had. 
Nitaliuwa na, I shall have. 
Niwe na, that I may Lave. 

Where the oLjective prefix would be used with an 

ordinary verb, the appropriate relative particle must 

be suffixed to the na as well as to the tense prefix, 

Kinazo, I have them. 
Aliyehuwa nazo, who had them. 
Alizokuica nazo, which he had* 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

The Verbs used as Auxiliaries are, huica, to be, hitoa, 
to take out, hija, to come, hvislia, to come to an end. 

Can is represented by the appropriate tenses of 

kuweza, to be able. Must is expressed by sharti, of 

necessity, or by the negative tenses of huwa na huddij 

to have an escape from. 

Sina huddi, I must. 

Asiwe na huddi, that he may be obliged. 

After huwa na huddi either the infinitive or subjunc- 
tive may be employed. 

Ought may be represented by the tenses of Jcupasa, to 

concem, or, to come to concern. Should is expressed 

in the same way when it implies obligation, and by the 

contingent tenses when it expresses a contingency. 

Imenipasa Tcwenda, it concerns me to go, i.e., I onght to go. 
Imenipasa nisende, it concerns me that I go not, i.e., I ought not 
to go. 

Kupasa is also used as follows : — 

Haihunipasa mimi, it is no business of mine. 
Imekupasani ? What have you to do with it ? 
Amenipasa mimi, he is a connection of mine. 


May and miglit may be represented by Jcuweza wbere 
they imply power, by halali, lawful, where they imply 
lawfulness, and by the subjunctive where they imply a 

The use of Tcuja as an auxiliary has been mentioned 
under the -japo-, ~ja-, and -sije- tenses, pp. 138, 145, 148. 

Kutoa is used to convey a negation in cases where 
the regular negative tenses cannot conveniently be 

With the infinitive it is frequently contracted into 
-to-, and used as a mere formative. 

Kutoa Jiiija, or Kuto'kuja, not to come. 
Kutoa kupenda, or Kutopenda, not to love. 

The meaning of these negative infinitives may be 
given as, putting out coming, barring coming, coming 
not happening. A transitive form may be made by the 
use of hutoslia, to make to go out. 

Kutosha humwuliza, to exclude asking him. 

In many cases kutoa may be translated by, to forbear, 
or, to neglect. 

Ametoa huja, he has neglected coming, he has not come. 
Nikitoa huja, if I forbear from coming, or, so long as I do not 

The negative tenses do not furnish a true present 
perfect. The past, hahuja, is, he did not come; the 
present, haji, implies rather that he never will, that 
coming is not to be predicated of him at all. The 
difference between nisipoJcuja and nikitoa kuja is repre- 
sented in English by that between, if I come not, and, 
while I come not. In all cases the use of toa connects 

VERBS 157 

tlie negation with the tense only ; the negative tenses 
imply that the opposite of the verb might be affirmed. 
KwisJia may often be translated by already. 

Amekwisha huja, he has already come. 
NimeJcwisha kula, I have done eating. 

It is used to strengthen the present perfect, convey- 
ing the meaning that something is not merely done, 
but fully done and over. 

A somewhat similar effect is produced on the present 
by using katiJca kwisha, 

Ni katika kwisha kula, I am finishing eating, I am just leaving 
off, I have very nearly done. 

Kuwa, to be, is used in Swahili very much as it is in 
English, the -hi- and -me- tenses of the principal verb 
being used as present and past participles. 

NUi nikienday I continuing to be going. 
Nikali nikienda, and I am still going. 
Nikiwa nikienda, I being going, while going. 
Nikiwa nimekwenda, I being gone, having gone. 
Nikiwa nimekivisha kwenda, having already gone 
Nalikuwa nikienda, I was going. 
Nalikuwa nimekwenda, I was gone, I had gone. 
Nalikuwa nimekwisha kwenda, I had already gone. 
Nitakuwa nikienda, I shall be in the act of going. 
Nitakuwa nimekwenda, I shall be gone. 
Nitakuica nimekwisha kwenda, I shall have already gone. 
Nitakuwa niliokioenda, I shall be who has gone, I shall have 
gone, I shall have gone to or been at. 

Kuwa na, to have, is not used as an auxiliary. 

Derivative Verbs. 

There are four derivative forms which may be con- 
structed out of any Swahili verb, where in English 


we must use either anotlier verb or some compound 

1. Wliat may be called tbe applied form is used in 
cases where in English a preposition would be em- 
ployed to connect the verb with its object. By the use 
of this form verbs which have things for their objects 
may be made to apply to persons. 

This form is made by inserting i or e before the final 
-a of the simple verb. I is used when the vowel of the 
preceding syllable is a, ^, or u. E is used when the 
vowel of the preceding syllable is e or o. 

Kufanya, to make. Kufanyia, to make for. 

Kuleta, to bring. Kuletea, to bring for. 

Kusikitiha, to be sorry. Kusikitikia, to be sorry for, to pity 

Kuoha, to bake. Kuokea, to bake for. 

Kuanguka, to fall down. Kuangukia, to fall down to. 

Where the simple verb ends in two vowels the sup- 
pressed I appears in the applied form. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzalia, to bear to. 

Kukwea, to climb. Kukwelea, to climb for. 

Kusikia, to hear. Kusikilia, to listen to. 

Kxikomhoa, to redeem. Kukombolea, to redeem for, 

Kununua, to buy. KununuUa, to buy for. 

The following is a list of the monosyllabic verbs 
with their applied forms : — 

Kucha, to fear. Kuchelea, to fear for. 

Kufa, to die. Kufia, to die to. 

Kuja, to come. Kujia, to come to. 

Kula, to eat. Kulia, to eat with. 

Kumja, to fall (like rain). Kunyea, to fall upon. 

Kunywa, to drink. Kunywea, to drink with. 

Kuwa, to be. Kuwia, to be to. 

Kuza, to sell, makes Kuliza, to sell to. 

VEBBS, 159 

Kiipa, to give to, having already an applied meaning, 
has no applied form. There is a difficulty in expressing 
what would have been the meaning of the simple form. 
Kutoa is used for to give, in the sense of parting with. 
Such expressions as, which was given you, must be 
rendered by a change of person — uliopewa^ which you 
had given to you, or, which you received. Which he 
gave me, is very commonly rendered niliopeica naije. 

Verbs ending in -i and -u make their applied forms 

in -ia. 

Kufasiri, to explain, Kufasiria, to explain to. 

Kuharibu, to destroy. Kuliarihia, to destroy for. 

The great paucity of prepositions in Swahili brings 
the applied forms of verbs into constant use. The 
only difficulty in their application lies in the exact 
discrimination of the meaning of the simple word. 
Many Swahili verbs imply in their simple form what 
can only be expressed in English by the use of a pre- 
position. Whenever a really good dictionary shall have 
been compiled it will supply all the necessary informa- 
tion. The applied form may be rendered by inserting 
any preposition which vdM suit the context. Thus, 
knsJiuhudia is, to bear witness about, for, or against, as 
the case may be, and Jcunenea^ which means to speak 
about, may have to be translated by, to recommend, or 
to decry, to scold, or to describe. The simple word 
nena has in itself the force of to mention, so that it is 
not necessary to use the applied form as a translation 
of to speak of, where it means no more than to 

Sometimes the shape of the word will be a useful 


reminder to foreigners of its exact meanino: : thus, 
kupotea, which may be roughly translated to lose, is in 
the shape of an applied form, and really is one, its 
exact meaning being, to become lost to. If, therefore, 
we want to say, I have lost my knife, the construction 
must be altered into, my knife has become lost to me 
(kisu chancju Jcimenipotea), the subject and object having 
to change places. 

Where in English a preposition connected with the 
verb can stand by itself at the end of the sentence, the 
applied form must be used in Swahili. 

A knife to cut with, Msu cha Jcttjcatia. 

Stones to grind wheat with, mawe ye Jcusagia ngano. 

A place to come out at, maliali pa Jcutohea. 

A bag to put money in, mfuko wa hutilia fetha. 

In these sentences the use of the possessive particle 
-a for the English to, denoting a purpose or employ- 
ment, must be observed and remembered. This particle 
turns what follows into a sort of adjective in this, as 
in all other cases in which it is followed by a word 
which is capable of denoting a quality. It is somewhat 
like the English expressions, a man of sense, a huilding 
of great solidity, &c. 

When an applied form is followed by rrihali it conveys 
the idea that as a consequence of the action denoted by 
the simple verb something is put out of the way, or 
got rid of. 

Afile, or Ajie mbaJi, that he may die out of our way. 
Tumwulie mhali, let us kill him and done with it. 
Potelea mhali, perish out of my way = go and be hanged. 

The passive of the applied form has a meaning which 

VERBS. 161 

it requires some attention to remember and apply 
rightly, though it is strictly according to the rule that 
the object of the active becomes the subject of the 
passive voice. 

Kuletea, to bring to. Kuhtewa, to have brought to one, 

Kufanyia, to make for. Kufanyiwa, to have made for oiie. 

It is often difficult in English to express this passive 
without using an altogether different word. What 
suggests- itself at first to an English ear, that the 
passive of to bring to would be to he brought to, is wrong, 
and must be carefully avoided. Sometimes a change 
of prepositions will suffice to render the passive cor- 
rectly ; hupa may be translated to present to, and then 
kupewa is not to be presented to, but to be presented with. 

Passives made in -liiva and -lewa are used as the 
passives of both the simple and the applied form, 
Kufunguliwa may be used as the passive of kufungua, 
meaning, to be unfastened, or as the passive of hufun- 
gulia, meaning then, to have unfastened for one. It 
can never mean, to be unfastened for. If it is necessary 
to express a passive in that form it must be done by 
changing the construction. 

A cry was made at him, dlipigiwa uJcelele [he had made at him 

The door was opened for him, alifunguliwa mlango [he had 

opened for him the door]. 

2. The Causative form is made by changing the final 
•a into -sha or -za. 

Kupungua, to grow less. Kupunguza, to make to grow Jess. 
Kuzidi, to grow greater. Kuzidisha, to make greater. 


When the final -a is preceded hy a consonant the 
general rule is to use the applied form as the basis of 
the causative. 

Kupenda, to like. Kupendeza, to please. 

Kufanya, to make. Kufanyiza, to cause to make. 

Kupanda, to go up. Kicpaudisha, to make to go up. 

Verbs which end in the simple form in -ta end in 
the causative form in -sa, 

Kutakata, to be clean. KutaJcasa, to make clean. 

Verbs which end in -ha may be turned into causa- 
tives by changing -ka into -sha. 

Kuivaka, to be on fire. Kuwashay to set on fire. 

Kulainika, to be soft. Kulainisha, to make soft. 

Kutolta, to go out. Kutosha, to make to go out. 

Kushulca, to go down. Kushusha, to let down. 

The causatives of verbs ending in -e, -«, or -u are 
constructed on the applied form. 

Kulcaribu, to come near. Kuliaribuha^ to make to come near. 

3. The Neuter, or quasi passive form is made by 
changing the final -a into -ha, 

Kufungua, to unfasten. Kufunguka, to be unfastened. 

Kiwkoa, to save. KuoJcoka, to be saved. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a consonant the 
neuter is constructed from the applied form. 

Kuvunja, to break. Kuvunjiha, to be broken. 

Kuhata, to cut. KnJcatika, to be cut. 

VERBS. 163 

Cansatives in -sha may be turned into neuters by 
changing -sha into -ha. 

Kustusha, to startle. KustuTca, to be startled. 

Verbs in -e, -i, and -u, construct their neuters on the 
applied forms. 

Kusamehe, to forgive. KusameheJca, to be forgiven. 

Kufasiri, to explain. Kufasirika, to be explained. 

Kuliaribu, to destroy. Kuharihika, to be destroyed. 

The -ha form is used (like the English passive) to 
denote what is generally done or doable. 

Kulika, to be eaten, or, to be eatable. 

4. Eeciproeal forms are made by changing -a into 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendana, to love one another. 
KupigUj to beat. Eupigana, to beat one another, to fight. 

Verbs in -e, -i, and -u construct their reciprocals 
upon the applied forms. 

Kuharihu, to come near. Kuliarihiana, to come near to one 

The reciprocal form of the -ha foi-m may be translated 
by to be to be, &c. 

Kupafihana, to be to be got. 

Kujulikana, to be to be known, to be knowable 

Kuoekana, to be to be seen, to be visible. 

The derived forms are conjugated and treated in 
every way as though they were original words, and 
other derived forms may be made froia them to any 
extent that may be required. 

M 2 



The applied form of an applied form generally sig- 
nifies to do a thing to or for a person for a purpose. 
Doubling the verb gives an idea of thoroughness. 

Kukata, to cut. 
Kutafuta, to seek. 
KuclwfuM, to be in a mess. 

KupasuJia, to be torn. 

KukatilM, to be cut 

Enl:ataTiata, to cut up. 
Kutafutatafuta, to seek all about. 
Kiichafukachafuha, to be all in a 

Kiqjasukapasuha, to be torn to 

Kukatihakatikay to be all cut 


( 165 ) 


As it is necessary to put to before the English Verb to make the Infinitive, 
so it is necessary to prefix ku- to make the Infinitive in Swahili. Before 
Monosyllabic Verbs the kxi- bears the accent, and is retained in several o'f 
the tenses. See p. 149. 

Abase, thili. 

Ahhor, chukia. 

be Able, weza. 

Abolish, batili, tangua, ondosha. 

Abound with, jaa. 

Absorb, nwa, pass, nwewa. 

Abstain from, epuka, epushwa {to 

be kept from). 
Abuse (by words), tukana. 
Accept, kubali, takabali, pokea (re- 

he acceptable or accepted, kuba- 
Accompany, fuatana na, andamana. 

(part of the way), sindikiza, adi. 
Accuse, tuhumu, shtaki. 
Accustom, zoeza. 

become accustom^, zoea. 
Ache, uma. 

My head aches, kitwa chauma or 
Achnowledge, ungama, kubali, kirL 
Acquiesce, nyamaa, rithia. 
Acquit, acba. 

be acquitted, toka. 

Act, tenda. 

Adapt, fanya. 

Add to, ongeza, zidisha. 

Add up, jumlisha. 
Adjoin, tangamana. 
Adjourn, akirisha. 

stand over, akiri. 
be Adjudged, fetiwa. 
Adjure, apisba. 
Admire, penda. 

I admire him, ameni'^'^Tideza. 
Admit, ingiza, acba kuiugia. 
Adorn, pamba. 

Adorn oneself, fanya uzurL 
Adulterate, gbosbi. 
commit Adultery, zini, zinga. 
Advance, eudelea mbele. 

Advance money to a trader, ko- 
be Adverse, gomba, teta. 
Advise, pa shauri. 
Adze, cbonga. 
Affect to be, jifanya, jiona. 
Afflict, tesa. 

be Afraid, ogopa, cha (A.). 
Agitate, siikasaka. 



Agree (come to an agreement), pat an a, 
afikana, tuliliana, lekezanya, 
tuzanya (A.), 
(7)i3 mutually satisfied), rathiana. 
(he alike), elekea, lingana. 
Aim, twaa shabalia. 
Alarm, ogofisha. ogofya, tisha. 
be alarmed [ku-]wa na kliofu, 
itigiwa Da khofu. 
Alienate, farakisha. 

he alienated, farakana. 
Allege a defect in, umbua. 
Allot amongst many, awaza. 
Allow, acha, pa ruksa, ruhusu. 
Alter, (neut.) badili, badilika, geuka. 

(act.) geuza, badili. 
Amaze, ajaabisha. 

he amazed, tosliea. 
Amend, fanyiza, tengeneza. 

(of a person reforming), tulia. 
Amuse, zumgumza. 
Anchor, tia nanga. 
A7iger, tia hasira, ghathabisha. 
he Angry, [ku-]wa ua hasira, glia- 

he Angular, [ku-]wa na pembe- 

Announce, hubiri. 
Annoy, sumbua, sumbusha, taa- 

bisha, hatiki (A.). 
Amiul, tangua, batili, ghairi. 

be Annulled, tanguka. 
Answer, jibu. 

Answer when cdled, itika, itikia. 
Anticipate for, onea. 
he Anxious, taharuki, taabika. 
make Anxious, taharakisha, taa- 
Apostatize (become an infidel), ku- 

Appear, onekana (Ijecome visible), 
tokea (coifie out to). 

Apply oneself to, tenda. 

Appoint, nasibu, aini, chagua o» 

teua (select). 
Approach, karibia, jongea. 

Approach one another, karibiana. 
Bring near, jongeza, karibi&ha. 
Approve, kubali, penda, rathi. 
Argue, jadiliana, shindana (dispute 

Arise, ondoka. 
Arm, pa selaha. 

Arm oneself, twaa selaha. 
Arrange, panga, andika, pangisha, 

ratibu, fanya. 
be Arrogant, ghurika. 
Arrive, fika, wasili. 

arrive at one's destination, koma. 
m,ake to arrive, fikisha, wasilisha. 
reach a person, fikia, wasilia. 
Ascend, paa, kwea, panda. 
Ascertain, hakiki, uyuzi. 
he ascertained, kinika. 
he Ashamed, ona haya, tahayari. 
make ashamed, tia haya, tahaya- 
Ask, uliza, iiza, saili. 
Ask for, taka. 

Make inquiries on behalf of any- 
one, ulizia, iiuzia, sail i a. 
Ask how one does, uliza hali. 
Ask in marriage, posa. 
Assemble, (act.) kusanya, kutanisha. 
(neut.) kutana, kusanyika, kusa- 
Assent, kubali, itikiza, afikana, ra- 
Assert, sema. 

He asserts that he saw a ship, 

kamma aliona jahasi. 
He asxerts that he walked on the 
waU^r. kamma alikwenda mtoni 
kwa mguu. 



Astonish, ajabisha, taajabisha. 

be astonished, tosliea, sliangaa, 
taajabika, toshewa, btaajabu. 
Astound, shangaza. 
Atone for, setiri. 

Attach, gandamia, gandamiza, am- 

be attached, ambatana (of things), 
ambisana (of people). 
Attack, shambulia. 

Attach people wantonly, [ku-]wa 
na jeuri. 
Attend (wait upon), ngojea, fuata. 

Attend to, sikia, pulika (A.), si- 

not to attend, ghafalika. 

refuse to attend, jipurukusba. 
be Audible, sikiliana, sikizana. 
Avail, faa. 
Avoid, epuka. 

get out of the way of, epa. 

be avoidable, epeka, epukika. 
Avow, kubali. 
Awake (neut.), amka. 

waken (act), amsha. 


Backbite, cbongeleza. 
Betray, khini. 
Bake, oka. 

(pottery), tomea, chomea. 
Bale out water, vuta luaji, teka 

Banish, fukuza (drive away), ondo- 

sha (make to go aicay), haiuisha 

or tamisha (M.) or gurisba (A.). 

(to make to remove). 
Bar (a door), pingia. 
Bargain, fanya ubazazi. 
Bark (like a dog), lia. 
Barter, badili, awithL 

Batter (bruise\ chiibuapbubna. 
be battered {like an old coppet 
pot), cbubukachubuka. 
Bathe, oga. 

Be, wa. See Irregular Verbs, p. 1 o2. 
(to stay), kaa, 
be on one's guard, [ku-]wa na 

be off one's guard, tagbafali. 
Bear (fruit, children, &c.), zaa, 
(carry), cbukua, bimili. 
(toUrate), vumilia, stabimili. 
bear icith another person, chuku- 

Bear with me, niwie ratbi. 
bear witness, sbubudu. 

about, for or against, sbubiidia. 
Beat, piga, puta, menya (Kiyao). 
Beat up together, funda. 
Beat to pieces, pouda. 
Beat a roof or floor, pigilia. 
be well beaten, putika. 
be beaten upon (as a wreck by the 

waves), fuawa. 

See Conquer, Thresh. 

Beckon to, pungia nguo. 

The usual sign to beckon a person 
to come is to icave a cloth up 
and down. 
Become (befitting), sulibi. 
Nimekuwa, I am become. 
Simekiiwa, am I not become. 
The act of becoming is generally 
expressed by the present tense of 
the verb expressing the being in 
the state or possessing the quality. 
Become a fool, pumbazika. 
Beg, omba, bembeleza. 
(entreat), sihi, nasibi. 
I beg of you, tafatliaL 
Btgd. zaa. 



Brgin, anza. 

Begin upon, anziliza, 

Btgin a icorJc, maliki. 
Behave, tenda. 

Behave well, tenda vema. 

Behave ill. tenda vibaya. 

Behave like an invalid, jigo- 
Belch, ongulia. 

Belch out, kokomoka. 
Believe, sadiki. 

Believe in, amiiii. 
Bend, (act.) pinda, (neut.) pindana. 

Bend round, (act.) peta, (neut.) 
petatia, peteniana. 

^end down,(act.) inamisha,(?ieM<.) 
Benumb, faganza. 
Bequeath, wasia, achia. 
Besiege, husuru (Ar.). 
Bet, shindania. 
Beware, angalia, [ku-]wa na ha- 

Bewilder, tekea. 

Bewitch, fanyia uchawi, loga (Mer.). 
Bicker, papuriana. 
Bid. See Command. 

Make a first hid, risimu. 
Bind, funga. 

Bind hooks, jelidi. 

Bind oneself, fanya sharti. 

Bind round (as when a stick is 
sprung), ganga. 
Bite, uma. 
Blah, payuka. 

Blame, laumu, tia hatiyani, nenae 
(scold), patiliza (visit upon)^ 
karipia (call out at). 
Blaze, waka. 
Bleed, toka damu. 

(copiously), churuzika damu, tu2a 
damu (M.). 

Bless, bariki (see Copulate), barikit^ 

Blind, povua. 

become blind, povuka. 
Block, kingamisha, pinga. 
Blossom,iosi maua (put forth flowers\ 

funuka (to open). 
Blow (as the wind), vuma, vuvia. 

(with the mouth), puzia, puliza. 

(a horn, &c.), piga zomari, &c. 

(the nose), futa kamasi. 

(bellows), vukuta. 
Bloio away, peperusha. 
Blunder, kosa. 

The knife is blunt, kisu hakipati, 
kisu ni kivivu (A,). 
Blurt out, kokomoka. 
Blush, geuka (change colour). 

put to the blush, hizika. 
Boast, jisifu, jigamba, tamba. 
Boil (bubble up), che'mka, tutuma. 

cook by boiling, tokosa. 

be cooked by boiling, tokota. 

be well boiled, tokoseka. 

boil over, furika. 
Bore through, zua, pekecha (med 
also of boring with talk). 

with an awl, didimikia. 
Border, pakana. 
be Born, zawa, vyawa, zaliwa, vya- 

liwa, pathiwa. 
Borrow, azimwa, kirithi. 
Bother, sumbua, hatika (A.). 
Boio, (act.) inamisba, (neut.) inama. 
Box the ears, piga kofi. 
Braise, kaanga. 
Bray (like an ass), lia 

pound in a mortar, pen da. 

clean corn by pounding, twanga. 
Break, vunja, vunda (M.), (neut.) 
vunjika, katika. 



[Break'] through, toboa. 

into fragments, setaseta. 

by bending, ekua. 
to be sprung, ekuka. 

off the cobs of Indian com, goboa, 

down the branches of a tree, kwa- 
niia, pass, krwauyiika. 

wind, Jamba, ongulia. 
Breathe, pumua, puzia, tanafusi. 

inspire, paaza, pumzi. 

expire, shush a pumzi. 

hard, kokota roho, tweta (panf). 

breathe oneself (rest), pumzika. 
Breed, zaa, lia (M.). 
be Brilliant, ng'ara. 
Bring, leta. 

to or for, letea. 

Bring up, lea. 

Bring together, pambana. 

Bring near, jougeza. 

Bring to an agreement, pataui.slia. 

Bring to life again, fufua, huisha. 

Bring another! Na ije ngine ! 
Brighten (act.), katua 

be bright, katuka (polished),ug' si,ra, 
Bruise, chubua. 

be bruised, chubuka. 

(batter), chubuachubua. 
Brush (clean), sugua. 

Brush off, epua. 
Bubble up, che'mka, tutuma. 
Bud, chupuza (spring), chanua (put 

forth leaves), mea (grow). 
Build, jenga. 

in stone, aka. 

to point by putting in small 
stones, tomea. 

(ships), unda. 
Bully, onea. 
be a Burden to, lemea. 

Burn, waka (to be on fire), teketea 
(to be consumed), washa (to set 
on fire), teketeza (to consume), 
choma or chomea (to apply fire 
to), onguza (to produce a feeling 
of burning, to scorch). 

Burrow, fukuafukiia. 

Burst, pasuka, tumbuka. 

Burst out, bubujika. 

Burst into tears, bubujika ma- 

Bury, zika. 

Buy, nunua, zabuni. 
Purchase for, nunulia. 
Buy back, komboa. 

Buzz, like a bee, vuma. 

Cackle, like a hen, tetea. 
Call, ita, nena, taja (name), amkua 
(invite), lingana (A.). 
Call out to, pigia ukelele, pigia 

ukemi Qler,). 
Call for help, piga yowe. 
Call to prayers, athini. 
become Callous, faganza. 
Calm, tuliza. 

be very calm, zizima. 
Can (kuweza, to be able). 
Siwezi, I cannot, 
Xaweza, I can. 
Canter (of a horse), kwenka kwa 
mghad; (of a donkey) kwenu'a 
krwa thelth. 
Capitulate, selimu, sellim. 
Care (take care), angalia [ku-]wa 
na hathari. 
take care of, tunza. 
consider, waza, tafakari. 
be careless, [ku]wa mzembe, 
I don't care, iiaithuru, mamoja 



Carry, chukua. 

for, chukiilia. 

on a pole over the shoulder, chu- 
kua mpikoni. 

on the head or shoulders, pagaa. 

a child on the hack, beba. 

astride on the hip or hack, eleka. 
in front or on the lap, pakata. 

in a hundle or faggot, titika. 

off as spoil, teka. 

as cargo, pakia. 

on freight, takabathi. 
Carve wood, &c., kata nakshi, 

chora (adorn with carving), 

he carved, nakishiwa. 
Cast, tupa. 

upon or at, tupia. 

a glance, tupa natbiri. 

one's eyes, tupa macho. 

(in a mould), ita. 

off all shame, jipujua. 

cast lots, piga or fanya kura. 
Castrate, hasi. 
Catch, daka, nyaka. 

in a trap, nasa, tega. 

fish, vua samaki. 

put something to catch rain-water, 
kinga mvua. 

(see one who thinks himself unseen), 
fathebi, gundua. 

he in time to meet with, diriki. 
Caulk, kalafati. 
Cave in, pomoka. 
Cease, koma. 

make to cease, komesha. 

talking, nyamaza. 

(of pain), nyamaza. 
Cense, fukiza (uudi, &c.). 
he Certain about, kinika, tasawari. 
Change, (act.) geusha, geuza, badili, 
badilisha, (neut.) geuka, baJi- 

he changeable, badilibadili, ba« 

change one^s mind about, gbairi. 
change (a piece of money), vunja. 
Charge (direct), agiza, sisitiza (M.). 
Chase, win da, wiuga. 

away, fukuza. 
Chastise, atbibiL 
Chatter, puza. 

(of the teeth), tetemeka. 
Cheapen, rakbisisha. 
Cheat, danganya, hadaa, gbusubu. 
he cheated, danganyika, hadaika. 
Cheer, ondolea, huzuni. 
Cheiv, tafuna. 

Chirrup (as to a bird), fionya. Both 
woid and thing are used in 
Zanzibar to express contempt. 
Choke (throttle), kaba, sama. 

choke oneself with drink or spittle, 

palia na mate, &c., &c. 
irritate the throat, kereketa. 
Choose, chagua, teua, khitari, penda, 
toa (send). 
as you choose, ikhtiari yako, upe- 
nd a vyo. 
Chop, chanja (cut up), chiuja or 
(M.) tinda (cut), tema (slash), 
chonga or tonga (cut to a point), 
katakata (chop up small). 
Circulate (intelligence), tangaza. 
Circumcise, tahiri. 
Claim, dai. 

Cla}) the hands, piga makofi. 
Clasp in the hand, shikana, kamara. 
in the arms, kumbatia, kumba- 
Claw, papura. 

Clean, takasa, fanya safi, safisha. 
he clean, takata, safika, takasika. 
clean corn by poxiuding, twaiiga. 
clean a second time, pwaya. 



[Chaii] he quite clear of husks and 
dirt, pwayika. 

cotton, cloves, &c., chambiia. 

cocoa-nuts from the husk, fua. 

by scraping, paa. 

cleanse hy ceremonial ablutions, 

clean out from within a shell, 

clean out a man {get all his 
money), komba. 

be cleaned out (l)se all one's 
money), kombekf.. 
Cleanse. See Clean. 
Clear. See Clean. 

the sky is clear,Mw'mgu. umetakata. 

(riiake clear or plain), eleza, yuza, 
fafauua, fafaimlia. 

(be clear), elea, fafanuka, fafanu- 

ground in a forest, fieka mwitu. 
Cleave, (split), pasua, chensa. 

cleave to, gandama, ambatana. 
Click, alika, (act.) alisha. 
Climb, panda, kwea. 

a tree, paraga. 
Cling, ambata. 

together, guiana, ambatana, fu- 
ngamana, shikamana. 
Clip, kata. 
Close the eyes, &c., fuinba. 

the fist, fumbata. 

a door, shindika. 

a hook, funika. 
Clothe, vika. 
Coagulate, gandamana. 
Coax into, shawi:<lii. 
Cock (a gun), panza mtambo. 
Coddle, engaenga. 
Cohabit with, ingiliza. 
Cold. See Cool. 

be very cold, zizima. 

I have a cold in the head, siwezi 

Collect, kusanya, jamaa, (neut.) ku« 

sauyika, kutaua. 
Comb, chana, chaiiia. 
Come, ja, imp. njoo, pi. njooni. 
by, for, to, &c., jia. 
to a person on a business, jilia. 
(arrive), fika, wasili. 
out, toka. 
in, ingia. 

upon (meet with), knta. 
n-ear, karibu, karibia, jongea, fi- 

Come near ! or Come in ! Karib ! 
Come no further ! Koma usije ! 
close to, wasili, wasilia. 
together. See Assemble, 
to life again, fufuka, hui. buika. 
to an 671(7, isha, koma, tekeza. 
he fully come (of time), wadia. 
come to light, funuka, fumbuka. 
come to nothing (of plants, fruity 

&c.), fifia, pooza. 
come apart, katika. 
come out in a rash, tutuka, tutu- 

mka, tutusika. 
Comfort, fariji, tulizia roho (calm 

the soul), ondolea huzimi (tak6 

away grief). 
Phrases used hy way of comfort- 
ing .— 

Slmkuru Mimngu, thank God. 

Hemdi Mimngu, praise God. 

Itoe buzimi, put aicay sorrow. 

Usiwe na huzuni, don't grieve, 
be comforted, farajika, shukura 

Muuugu, pendezewa, tawakaii 

(trust in God and take courage), 
be Comfortable, tengenea. 

I cannot be comfortable in the 

house, nyumba hainiweki. 



Command, a'mru, ambia (tell). 
Commission, agiza. [amrisha. 

Commit. See Adultery. 
Compare, angalia kwamba ni sawa, 
pambanisha (bring together), 
pambanua (distinguish), linga- 
nisha (match), fafanisha (make 
Compel, juburu, lazimisha. 
Complete, timiza, timiliza, khati- 
misha, maliza (finish), 
complete one's education, hitimu. 
he complete^ timia, timilia, isha 
Comprehend. See Understand. 
jua (know). 
kutana (take in), 
he comprehended in, ingia. 
Conceal, setiri, ficha. 

he concealed, stirika. 
Concern, pasa. 
Conciliate, patanisha. 
Condemn, laani (damn). 
Amefetiwa kuuawa, he was ad- 
judged to he killed. 
Imempasa kuuawa, he ought to he 
Condescend, nenyekea. 
Condole, iiaua (Join in a formal 

Conduct, peleka, leta, chukua. 
Confess, kiri, ungama, lalama. 
he Confident, turaaini. 

have confidence, staamani. 
Confide in, amini, tumania. 
Confound, changanya (mix), batili 
he in Confusion, fathaika (of 
persons), chafuka (of things). 
Confuse, changanisha. 
put into confusion, fatbehi, 
hecome confused, fathaika. 

Congeal, gandamana. 
Congratulate, furahisha, shangilia. 
Connect, fungamaua (tie together), 

ungana, ungamana. 
Conquer, shinda. 
Consecrate, fanya wakf. 
Consent, kubali, rithia, penda, ra- 

Consider, fikiri, tafakari, waza. 
Console (see Comfort), tuliza, tulizia 

Conspire, wafikana. 
Construct, jenga, jenzi. 
Consult, taka sbauri (ask advice), 

fanya shaiiri (consult together). 
Consume, la, teketeza (by fire), 
he consumed, isha, lika, teketea 

Contain, chukua (contain as a hag 

does rice), 
he contained in, ingia, [ku-]\vamo, 

'mna (it is contained in it). 
Contend with, shindaua na, husumu. 
Content, rithika. 

he content, [ku-]wa rathi, kinayi 
Continue, dumu, kaa, shinda (stay 

at work, &c.). 
make to continue, dumisha. 
Contract, punguza (lessen), fupiza 

(shorten), fanya ndogo (make 

small), kaza (press together). 
Contract, fanya sharti (make a con- 
tract), fanya ubazazi (malce a 

Contradict, kanya wasa. 
Control, a^/iabitisha, zuia. 
Converse, zumgumza. 
Convert, geuza, fanya. 
Mwenyiezi Muungu amemwo- 

ngoa, God has turned him from 

Ms evil way. 
to he converted, ongoka. 



Convince, f^ubutisba, tumainisha. 

become convinced, tumaini. 
Cook, pika, audaa. 

cook with fat, kaanga, 

cook without fat, oka. 

cook muhogo cut into small pieces, 

to become cooked enough, iva. 
Cool, (neut.) poa, poroa, (^act.) poza 
(to cool by pouring backward 
and forward), zimua (cool hot 
water by pouring in cold). 
Copulate, jami, tomba (vulgar). 

for the first time, baviki. 
Copy, nakili, fanya nakl. 

copy from, twaa ya. 
Correct, sahihi, sahihisha, rudi. 
Correspond (write to one another), 

Corrupt, haribu. 

go bad, oza, haribika. 
Cost, wakifu, simama. 

cost to, wakifia, simamiei. 
Cough, kohoa. 

Count, hesabu, wanga (]\Ier.), ha- 
Cover, fuuika, setiri. [zibu. 

as with a flood, funizika. 

cover, with leaves, put into embers, 
&c.), vumbika. 

be covered, stirika. 
Covet, tamani. 
Crack, tia ufa. 

as the earth does in dry weather, 

become cracked, ufa. 
Crash, fanya kishindo. 
Craicl, tambaa. 
be Crazy, zulu. 
Crease, kunjia. 

be creased, kunjika. 
Create, umba. 

be created, hulukiwa. 

Creep, tambaa. 

Crinlde up, finyana. 

be Crooked, potoka, komboka. 

Cross (lie across), pandana. 

(cross a river), vuka, kweuda 
ng'ainbo ya pili. 

(cross a room), kwenda upande 
wa pili. 

get cross, vima. 

be cross at having anything to do, 
Crow, wika. 

Crucify, sulibi, sulibisha. 
Cruize, viiijari. 

Crumble, (act.) fikicha, (neut.) fu- 
Crush, seta, ponda. [jika. 

crush and bruise one another, 

crush up, setaseta. 

crush in, (act.) bonyesha, (neut.) 
Cry, lia. 

cry about, lilia. 

cry out at, pigia, ukelele, karipia. 

cry for help, piga yowe. 

cry for mercy, lalama. 
Cultivate, lima. 
Cup, umika. 
Curdle, gandamana. 

curdled milk, maziwa mabiYU. 
Cure, ponya, poza, ponyesha. 

make better, fanya ashekali. 

be cured, poa, pona. 

cure fish, &c., ng'onda. 
Curse, laaui, tukana. 
Cut, kata. 

cut obliquely, kata hanamu. 

vut for, cut out for, katia. 

cut up, chanja, chenga 

cut to shreds, pasukapasuka. 

be cut off from one another, ti- 



Dab, chachaga. 
Damage, baribu. 
Damn, laani, laanisha. 
Dance, cheza. 

dance for joy, randa. 
Dare, fftubutu, weza, jasirisha. 
Darken, tia giza. 
Darn, tililia. 
Dash, cbupia. 
Daub, paka. 

kuna kweupe, to be grey dawn. 

pambazuka or pambauka, become 
Dazzle, choma. 

the eyes are dazzled, macho yame- 
fanya kiwi. 
Deal in (trade in), fanya biashara 
ya, &c. 

Deal cards, gawa karata. 
Decay, haribika, oza. 
Decease, faviki. 
Deceive, danganya, padaa. 

deceive by promises, ongofya. 

be deceived, hadaika. 
Decide, kata maneno. 
Deck out, hamba. 
Declare, thihirisba, yuza. 
Decoy, patia or twalia kwa che- 

Decrease, pungua, punguza, pu- 

Dedicate, fanya or wekea wakf. 
Defeat, vunja, kimbiza (put to 

to be defeated, vunjika, kimbia. 
Defend, linda. 

guard oneself, kinga. 
Deflower, bikiri, vunja ungo. 
Defraud, thalimu. 
Deign, kubaii, nenyekea. 

Delay, (neut.) kawia, kawa, fawiti 

(act.) weka, kawisha. 
be Delirious, papayuka. 
Deliver, okoa, viia, toa. 

be delivered, vuka, okoka. 
Demand, taka. 

demand in marriage, posa. 
Demolish, vunja, haribu. 
Deny, kana, kanisha. 

deny to a person, nyima, hinl 

(refuse), kataa. 

deny all credence to, katalia. 
Depart, ondoka, toka, enda zangu, 
zako, &c. 

Depart from me! Ondoka mbele 
yangu ! 

depart from (be alienated from\ 
Depend upon, [ku-]"wa na. 

Kunaye, depending upon Mm. 

fungamana na, be connected with. 

fuata, be a dependant. 

tuDgikwa, hang from. 
Depose, uzulu, uzulia. 
Depreciate (act), khashifu, umbua. 
Deprive of, twalia. 
Deride, cheka, chekea, kufuru, 

fanyizia mzaha. 
Descend, shuka. 

Describe, andika, fafanulia (by liken- 
ing), pambanulia (by distin' 
Desert, acha, hujuru. \jguishing. 
Deserve, stahili. 

deserve ivell of, fathili. 
Desire, taka, ipa, tamani (long for), 

penda (like). 
Desolate, vunja, haribu. 
Despair, kata tamaa. 
Despise, tweza, tharau (pass. Iha- 

rauliwa), hakirisha. 
Destroy, haribu, vunja. 

be destroyed, haiibika, vunjika. 



Detain, kawislia, weka. 

Deter, kataza, zuia. 

Determine, yakinia, azimu, kaza. 

determine a matter, kata maneno. 
Devise, fanya shauri. 
Die, fa, fakiri, ondoka katika uli- 
mwengu, toweka (A.), tekeza. 
make to die, fislia. 
lose by death, fiwa na. 
Dig, chimba. 

dig out or away, chimbua. 
fiiktia, cut a small hole fit to 
receive a post. 
Dignify, tukuza. 

become dignified, or be raised to 
dignity, tukuka. 
Dilute, tia maji. 
Dim, tia giza. 

Diminish, (neut.) pungna, punguka, 

tilifika, (^act.), punguza, tilifi- 

Dip, chovya. [sha. 

dip and leave in, choveka. 
Direct, agiza {commission), ambia 
(tell), amuru (order), fundisha 
(instruct), vusha (put into the 
right way). 
Disagree, gombana, tetana. 
Disappear, toweka. 

(as a scar, &c.), fifia. 
Disarrange, chafua. 
Discharge from an obligation, feleti. 
Discover, vumbua. 
Discriminate, pambanua. 
Disemboicel, tumbua, tumbuza. 
Disgrace, aibislia, hizika. 

be disgraced, aibika. 
Disgust, chukiza. 

be disgusted, chukiwa. 
Dish up, pakua. 

Tf7tew you idsh a meal to be served 
you should say, not pakua, but 
lete cLakula. 

Dislocate, teuka. 
Disquiet, fatljaisha. 

be disquieted, fatliaika. 
Dismiss, likiza, ondoa. 
be dismissed, tolewa. 
Disobey, asL 

Disorder (put things in disorder), 
put an army in disorder, fathaislia. 
be in disorder or dishabille, clia- 

be all in disorder, chafukachafuka. 
Dissipate, tampanyatapauya. 
Distinguish, pambanua. 
Distort, popotoa. 

Distress (put in low spirits), kefya- 
he in distress, thii. 
Distribute, gawanya. 

DonH disturb yourself! Starehe! 
Disunite, farakislia. 

be disunited, epukana, farakia-.ia. 
Dive, zama. 
Divide, tenga, gawa, gawanya, kata, 

Divorce, acha, tokana, tangua udoa. 
Do, fanya, tenda. 

I have done nothing, sikufanyu 

He has done nothing at all, haku- 

fanya lo lote. 
be done ar doable, tendeka. 
do (be of use), faa. 

It won't do, haifai. 
do anything slowly and carefully, 

do wanton violence, husudu, fanya 

he done (finished), isba. 
be done (coohtd), iva. 



Bote, piswa. 
Double, rudufya. 

Dovht, fdixxya. tashwishi [ku-]wa na 

There is no doubt, hapana shaka. 
Doze, sinzia. 

wake up suddenly from a doze, 
zinduka, ziudukana. 
Drag, kokota, burura (JwmI along). 

drag out of one^s hand, chopoa, 
Drain out, cliurukiza, churuzika. 
Draw, vuta. 

Draw water, teka maji. 

Draw together, kunyata. 

Draw near, karibu, karibia, kari- 

Draw a line, piga mstari. 

Draw out nails, &c., kongoa. 

Draw breath, taiiafusi. 

Draw in the breath, paaza pumzi. 

Draw up the earth round growing 
crops, palilia. 

Draw the end of the loin cloth 
between the legs and tuck it in, 
piga uwinda. 
Dread, ogopa, ogopa muo. 
Dream, ota. 
Dress, vika. 

Dress in, vaa, jitia. 

Dress up, pamba, jipotoa. 

Dress ship, pamba inerikebu. 

Dress vegetables for the market, 
Drift, chukuliwa. 

Drink, nwa, or ny wa ; pass, nwewa. 
Drip, tona. 
Drive, ongoza (lead, conduct), cbu- 

nga (as a shepherd), fukuza 

(drive away), fukuzia (drive away 

from), kimbizia (make to run 

away from). 

Drop (doivn), (neut.) anguka, (act.) 
into, (neut.) tumbukia, (act.) tiim- 

(like leaves in autumn), pukutika. 
(fall in drops), tona. 
drop from, little by little, dondoka. 
Drown (act.) tosa, (neut.) tota, fa 

he Drunken, lewa. 

Dry, (neut.) kauka, nyauka, (act.) 
become dry hy tvater leaving it, 

pwa, pwea, pwewa. 
be left high and dry, pweleka. 
put out to dry, auika. 
dry or cure fish, ng'onda. 
Dupe, danganya. 
Dust, futa vumbi. 
Dwell, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 
Dwindle, kunjana, pimguka, anga- 

mia (go down in the world). 
Dye, tia rangi. 

kutona hina, to lay on henna so 
as to dye the part red. 


Earn, pata. 

Ease, fariji, sterehisha. 
become easy, farajika. 
Ease oneself, kunya. 
Eat, la. 

in, with, for, &c., lia. 

be eaten or eatable, lika. 

have eat&n enough, shiba. 

eat at the expense of each one in 

turn, la kikoa. 
eat where each contributes some- 
thing to the feast, la kwa ku- 
eat all the food away from others, 



Ametuirna, he has eaten it all up 

before ice came, 
overeat oneself, vimbiwa. 
make a person eat too much, 

eat without hounds, papia. 
eat over voraciously, la kwa pupa. 
Ebb, pwa. 
be Eclipsed, patwa. 
Educate, funda, fundisba, alimisha, 

adibu, or tia adabu (teach good 

manners), lea (bring up). 
Elongate, ongeza urefu. 
Embalm, tia madawa asioze. 
Embarh, panda (go on board), ta- 

hassa (go on board with the 

intention of sailing). 
Embrace, pambaja, kumbatia, ku- 

Embroil, tia matata. 
Emerge, zuka. 

Employ, tuma (send about), tumia 
■ (make use of), tumika (be 

Empty out, mwaga, mwaya. 
Enable, wezesba, jalia. 
Encamp, tua (put down loads). 
Encourage, tia moyo, ^/iMbutislia. 
End, (neut.) isba, koma, (act.) mali- 

za, komesha, kbatimisha. 
Endow with, wekea wakf. 
Endure, ishi (last), vumilia (bear 

with), stabimili. 
Enervate, tboofisha. 
Engage, afikana, twaa, fanya sharti. 
Engender, zaa, vyaa. 
Enjoy, furahi, ona raba, furabiwa na. 
Enlarge, ongcza, zidisba. 
Enlist (act.), tia asikari. 
be Enough, tosba, toshelea. 
It is enough, bassi. 
have had enough food, sbiba. 

Enquire, uliza (ash), huji (enqu ? 

fn/o), bakiki (make sttre about), 

ulizia (enquire on account of). 
Enrage, ghatbabisba. 

be enraged, gbatbabika. 
Enrich, pa utajiii. 
Enslave, tia utumwanL 
Ensnare, tega. 
Entangle, tia matata. 
Enter, ingia. 
Entice, vuta kwa cberevu, twaa kwa 

Entreat, omba, sibi, nasibi. 
Entrust, wekea amana, amini mtu 

na kitu. 
be equal to (an undertaking, &c.), 

Equalize, sawanisba, sawazisba, 

faiiya sawasawa, linganisba (by 

Erect, simikisba. 
Err, kosa, kwenda bapa na bapa 

Escape, okoka (Jbe delivered), pona 

(to get well), vuka (to get across), 

kimbia (run away), fiatuka (to 

escape as a spring, to get free). 
Establish, tengezeka (?). 
Estimate, kadiri, kisi. 
Evaporate, nwewa. 
Exalt, inua (lift), tukuza, atbiraisha. 
be exalted (great), tukuka, athi- 

Examine, onja (taste), tafiti, fatiislii, 

sa}dli (by questions). 
Exceed, pita. 
Excel, pita. 
Except, toa, tosba. 
Exchange, ba lili. 
Excite, tabarrakisba, fitini. 

be excited, bangaika. 
Excuse, utburu. samebe (pardon). 



Exercise, zoea. 

exercise auihority over, hukumu. 
Exert oneself, fanya juhudi, jitahidi. 
E.rhort, onya, nabihisba. 
Exorcise by music, &c., punga. 
Expand, tanua, kunjua (unfold), 

zidi (increase), I'unuka or 

kunduka (become open). 
Expect, ngoja, ngojea, tumaiui. 
Expel, toa, fukuza. 

expel an evil spirit by music, &c., 

punga pepo. 
Expend upon, be at the expense of, 

Explain, eleza, pambanua, fasiri, 

tafsiri, fumbulia, pambanulia 

(explain to), tambulisha (make 

to recognise). 
Explode, pasuka (burst), waka 

Explore, fatiislii, jasisi, angalia. 
Export, toa. 
Express, tbahiri, baini. 

(press out), kamua. 
Extend, (act.) nyosha, (neut.) fika 

(reach to), kunjuka, euea (be 

spread over). 
Exterminate, ng'oa pia yote (root up 

Extinguish, zima, zimia. 

to go out, zimika. 
Extort, pokonya. 
Exiol, sifu. 
Extricate from, toa na, namua 

Exult, furahi. 


Fade, fa, kaiika, fifia (pine away), 
pukutika (wither and drop), 
thoofika (groio weak and thin). 

Fail, punguka. 

Faint, zimia roho. 
Fall, anguka. 
fall like rain, nya. 

cause rain to fall, nyesha, 
fall into, tumbukia. 
let fall into, tumbukiza. 
fall flat on the ground, lala incliL 
fall in (cave in), pomoka. 
fall short, punguka, tindika (A,), 
fall sick, ugua, 
Falter, shangbaa, sita. 
Fan, pepea. 
Fancy, kumbuka, fikiri. 

fancy oneself, jiona. 
Fast, funga. 
break a fast, or eat after a fa sty 
Fasten, funga. 
Fatten (get fat), nona (of animals), 

nenepa (of men). 
Fatigue, chosha, taabisba. 

be fatigued, choka, taabika. 
Favour, pendelea. 
Fear, ogopa, cha (A.), [kii-Jwa na 
be fearless, peketeka. 
Feast, kerimu. 
Feed, lis ha. 

cause to be fed, lishisba. 
put morsels into a friend's mouth, 
Feel, ona (perceive), papasa (touch). 
Feign, ji fanya. 
Fell, kata. 
Fence, fanya ua. 
Fend off a boat, tanua mashua. 
Ferment, cbacha. 

Ferry over, vusha, vukisha, abirisha. 
Fetch, leta. 
Fight, pigana. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 



Fill, jaza. 
fill in [a hole], fukia. 
beconi* full, jaa. The passive is 

used for heiny filled with some 

extraneous substance. Mtungi 

umejaa maji, the jar is full of 

water, hut, maji yamejawa na 

dudu, the water is full of 

he half full (by remaining), shi- 

nda, maji yashinda ya mtungi, 

the jar is half full of water. 
Jill up, jaliza. 
fill with food, shibisha. 
to be full, to have had enough, 

Find, ona, zumbua, vumbua, pata, 

be to be found, ziunbukana, pati- 

find out in a trick, fathehi, 

he found out, fetheheka. 
find fault with, tia liatiyani. 
Finish, (act.) maliza, (neut.) isha, 

finish off, tengeneza, tengeleza. 
finish ajmirney, koma. 
finish a scholar, bitimisha. 
Fire (set on fire), tia moto, wasba 

(apply fire to in any icay), choma. 
a gun, &c., piga buuduki, &c. 
Fish, vua samaki. 

fii^h a spar, &c., ganga, tia gango. 
Fit, faa (do well). 
Ni kiassi changu kama nalika- 

tiwa mimi, it fits as though it 

had been made for me. 
Fix, kaza. 

fix the eyes upon, kodolea. 
Flame, Avaka, toa ndimi za moto. 

Flap, piga 

maJce a sail flap by going too near 
the wind, pigiza tauga. 
Flash (lighten), piga umeme. 
Flatten, tandaza. 
Flatter, sifu, sifu mno, jipendekeza 

(ingratiate oneself with). 
Flavour, to get the right flavour 
Flay, chuna, tuna (M.). [kolea^ 

lose the skin, chunika, tunika ( M. ). 
Flee, kimbia. 

he Flexible, pindana, [ku-]wa laini. 
Flicker, sinzia. 
Flinch, jikunja, ruka. 
Fling, tupa. 
Float, elea, ogolea. 
Flog, piga. 

J'ZoofZ, gharikisba,furika,tawanyika, 

he flooded, gliariki. 
Flourish, sitawi, fana, fanikiwa. 

malie to flourish, sitawisha. 
Flow, pita (flow by), toka (flow 
out), bubujika (to burst and 
bubble out). 
Flower, toa mana. 
Hurry, zulisha. 
Flutter, papatika. 
Fly, ruka. 

fly off, punika. 
Fold, kunja. 

fold together, kimjana. 

fold in the arms, kiunbatisL 
Folloto, fuata, andama (M.). 

follow a pattern, oleza. 
become Foolish, pumbazika. 
Forbid, gombeza, kataza. 
Force (see Compjel), tia nguvu. la- 

He was forced to ao, alikwenda 
kwa nguvu. 

Force open, pepefua. 

xN 2 



Foretell, agua, ial3iri, bashiri. 

How has this year been iwedicted 
o/? Mwaka huu umeaguli- 
waje ? 
Forfeit, lazimishwa. 

he forfeited hy, potea. 
Forge iron, &c., fua chuma, &c. 

weld on a new point or edge, tam- 
Forget, sahau. 

he forgotten, sahauliwa. 
Forgive, samehe, acbilia, mwafa. 

Forgive me, niwie ratbi. 
Forsake, acha. 

Fortify, tia boma {put a rampart). 
Foster, lea, lisba. 

Free {from slavery), weka or acba 

{from prison), acba, fungiia. 

he set free {from prison), tokana. 
Freeze, ganda, gandamana. 

pay freight for, takabatbisba. 

carry on freight, takabatbi. 
Frighten, ogofya, tia kbofu, ogo- 
fisba, khofisba, tisba. 

hecome frightened, ingiwa Da 

startle, stusba, kutusba. 
Front, kabili, lekea. 

put in front of, lekeza. 
Froivn, kunja uso, kunja vipaji. 

He has a frowning face, uso una- 
Frustrate, batili, vunja. 
Fry, kaanga. 
Fulfil, timiza, timib'za. 

fulfil a promise, fikiliza abadi 
Furl sails, kunja matanga. 
Furnish a house, paniLa uyumba. 


Gain, pata, pata fayida. 

Gallop, piga mbio. 

Gape, piga nyayo, funua kinwa. 

Garble copal, &c., cbagua sanda- 

rusi, &c. 
Gather {fruit), cbuma 
into a heap, zoa. 
together {act.), kusanya, kutani- 

sba, jamaa, jamiisba. 
together {neuL), kusanyika, kuta- 

upi into a small space, finyana. 
oneself up for an e^orf , jitutumua. 
little by little, lumbika. 
up one's courage, piga moyo 
Geld, basi. 
be Genial {good-humoured and 

merry), cbanga'mka. 
Get, pata. 
get better, pona. 
get a little better, [ku-]wa asbe- 

get drunh, lewa, jilevya. 
get dry, kauka. 
get fire by working one stick 

against another, pekecba 
get for, patia. 

get foul of one another, pambana. 
get goods on credit in order to 

trade with them, kopa. 
get into, ingia. 
get into a well, a scrape, &c., {act.) 

tumbukiza, {neut.) tumbukia. 
get into a passion {neut.), ingiwa 

na gbatbabu or hasira. 
get into a quarrel {act), vumbilia 

get {seeds'] into the ground, vu- 

get mouldy, fanya ukungu. 



get out, toka. 

get out of the icay, jitenga. 
Out of the icay ! Similla ! 
get out of one's sight, tokomea. 
get palm wine, gema. 
get ripe, iva. 

get thin and watery, poroa. 
get through, (neut.) penya, (act.) 

get up, ondoka. 

rise to (a person), ondokea. 
get up or upon, panda. 
get loell, pona, poa. 
he Giddy, levyalevya. 
Gild, chovya. 
Give (a thing), toa. 
(to a person), pa, ptass. pewa, to 

give a complaint to, ambukiza. 
give a taste, an inlding, or a little 

specimen, dokeza. 
give back, rudisha. 
give into the hand, kabithi. 
give leave to, pa ruksa or ruhusa, 

give light to, tia mwangaza. 
give mutual gifts, pana. 
give presents to, tuuza, tunukia. 
give rations to, posba. 
give room or space, naiisisba. 
give to drink to, nywtsha. 
give to eat to, lisba. 
give trouble, taabislia, fanya inda, 

give way under one, bonyea. 
Give way (row) ! Vuta ! 
Glance, nathiri, tupa macho or na- 
tbari (cast the eyes or a glance). 
Glare at, ng'arisa. 
Gleam, mulika, ng'ara. 
Glide, tii-irika, teleza. 
Glisten, zagaa. 

Glitter, metameta, mekameka, me* 

rimeta, mulika. 
Glorify, tukuza, sifu. 
Glow, ng'ara. 
Gnaw, guguna. 
Go, enda, enenda. 
you can go, ruksa. 
go after or for, endea. 

(follow), fuata. 
go alongside, pambana. 
go ashore (of a ship), panda. 
he left high and dry, pweleka, 
pwe-^a na maji. 
go ashore (of a person), shuka. 
go away, enda zangu, zako, zake, 
zetu, zenu, zao, according to 
the person. 
toka ondoka. 
go away from, acha, toka. 
go hack, rudi, regea. 
go hackward, endelea njnima. 
go had, oza. 
go hefore, tangulia. 
go hefore a judge, enda kwa 

go hehind, fuata. 
go hy, pita. 

go crooked, patoa, potoka. 
go forward, endelea mbele. 
go free, toka. 
go into, ingia. 
go marketing, enda sokoni. 
go of (like a spring), fiatuka. 
go on (not to stop), fuliza, luza, 

go on (with a work), shinda. 
go on hoard, panda. 
go on hoard in order to sail, ta- 

go on uoith hy turns, pokezana. 
go out, toka. 

(like a candle), zimika. 



He has gone out for the day, 
amekwenda sliinda. 
go over, viika. 
go past, pita. 
go quicTdy down a steep place, 

go running, enda mbio. 
go to expense about or upon, gha- 

go to meet, laki. 
go to meet icith shouting and joy, 

go to law with, teta. 
go up (neut.), paa. 
(act.) kwca, panda. 
be Good of its hind, fana. 
Gore, piga pembe. 
Govern, tawala, miliki. 
Grant to, pa, jalia, ruzuku. 
Grapple, kamatana, shikana. 
Grasp, shika, fumbata. 
Grate, paruga, pamza. 
Graze, paruga, kwaruza. 

graze one another, paruzana. 

become Great (of a person , tukuka. 

become great to or hard for, kulia. 

be Greedy, [ku-]wa na rolio or 

choyo, fanya tamaa (6e greedy 


Greet, salimu, salimia, amkua, ba- 

Grieve, (act.) sikitisha, tia huztmi. 

(neut.) sikitika, ingiwa na huzimi. 
Grin, toa meno. 
Grind, saga. 

grind coarsely, paaza. 
Groan, ugua. 

groan at, zomea. 
Gro^pe, papasa. 

Grow, ota, (o/_pZa7i<s),kua (tobecome 
large), mea (of plants, to grow 
or he growaUe). 

What is to be groivn here ? Kili- 
mo cha nini ? 

grow to its full size, pea. 

become full-groicn, pevuka, komaa. 

grow up quichly, vnvumka. 

not to grow (of seeds), fifia. 

grow large enough to bear fruit, 

grow fat, nenepa (of persons), 
nona (of animals). 

grow thin and lean, konda. 

groiv larger, kua, kitbiri. 

grow less, pungua, tilifika, 

make to grow large, kuza. 
Growl, ngurnma. 
Grudge, bini. 

grudge at, hnsudu. 
Grumble, nung'unika. 
Grunt, guna. 
Guarantee payment of a debt, ba- 

a residt, tadariki. [will. 

Guard, linda, tunza, bami, ngojea. 

guard oneself against a blow, 
Guess, babatisba, kisi, thani. 
Guide, onyesba njia (show the way), 

peleka (tahe). 
Crulp, gugumiza. 

gulp down, ak'ia. » 

Halt, tna (put down burdens), si- 
mama (stand), sita (go lame, or 
to stop), cbecbemea {to put one 
foot only flat on the ground). 

Hammer, gongomea (hammer in), 
fua pass, fuawa (beat as with a 

Hang, angika (as against a wall), 
tungika (be suspended), tu- 
ndika, aliki. 
(strangle), nyonga, songa. 



Happen, tiikia. 

Which happened to him, Idlicho- 
Harass, surabua, uthi, utliia, clio- 
koza, siimbusha. 
be harassed, sumbuka, uthika. 
Harm, thuru, liasara. 

No harm 1 Haithuru ! 
Harpoon, paga. 
Hasten, (act.) harakisha, himiza. 

(iieut.~) fanya hima, liaraka. 
Hatch, ongua, zaliwa, onguliwa (he 
hatched), angua (break the 
Hate, chukia, buothu, zira (M.). 
Have, [ku-]wa na (see p. loi). 
(possess), miliki. 
on hoard, pakia. 
power over, weza. 
in one's debt, wia. 
To have things done for one, is 
expressed hy the passive of the 
applied form (see p. 161). 
Hatch about, tembeza. 
Heal, poza. 

he healed, poa, pona, ongoka. 
Heap tip, kusanya, fanya fungtu 
Hear, sikia, pulika (A.). 

hear one another, sikilizana, pu- 

he to he heard, sikilikana. 
Hearhen, sikiliza, pulika. 
Heat (get hot), pata moto. See 

Heave the log, tia batli. 
he Heavy. See Wrigh doicn. 
Help, sayidia, aimi. 
Hem, knnga. 

Hesitate, shangaa, sita, ingiwa na 
shaka (get into doubt), 
in spealdng, babaika. 
Hide, ficha, settiri, sita (A.). 

You have hid the cap from me, 

umenifieha kofia. 
You have hid my cap, umenifi- 
cbia kofia. 
Hinder, zuia, pinga, fawiti. 
Hint, dokeza. 

Hire, ajiri, panga (to rent). 
Hit, piga, pata. 

tcith a spear or arrow, furaa. 
Hoard, weka, weka akiba. 
be Hoarse, pwelewa sauti. 

I am hoarse, sauti imenipwea. 
Hoe, lima. 
hoe up, palia. 

oause to he hoed, palililiza. 
Hoist, tweka. 

Hold, sbika, kamata, fumbata 
(grasp), zuia (hold in), zuilia 
(hold off from), 
hold in the mouth, vuata. 
hold one's clothes or hands be- 
tween one's knees, fiata. 
hold a public audience, or council, 

hold up (not to rain), anuka. 
hold in contempt. See Scorn. 
Hollow out, fukua. 
Honour, heshimu, pa heshima, 

Hop, rukaruka. 

Hope, taraja, tumaini (feel con- 
I hope, robo yatumai. 
Humble, tbili, bakiri. 

he humble, nenyekea. 
Hunger, [ku-]wa na njaa. 

be ravenously hungry, rapa, lapa. 
I am very hungry, njaa iuauiu- 
Hunt, winda, winga. saka. 
Hvrry, liaraka, bimiza. 
Hurt, luna, umia, umiza. 



Eush {Indian ^>rn), menya, ambua 
(cocoa-nuts), fua. 
(or shell), papatua. 

he III or unicell. Illness is expressed 
by the use of the negative present 
of the verb kuweza, to be able. 
Siwe2i, I am ill. Hawezi, he is 
ill, &c. Nalikuwa siwezi, I 
was ill. Alikuwa hawezi, he 
was ill, &c. 
I have been ill for two monihsi 
siwezi yapata miezi miwili. 

Imitate, oleza, iga, fuata. 

Immerse, zamisha, chofya. 

Implore, pembeleza. 

he Impossible, toa kufanyika. 
It is impossible, haiyamkini. 

Imprecate against, apiza. 

Imprison, tia gerezani, funga. 

Improve, tengeleza, sililii, sitawisha. 

recline, (neut.) inama, (act.) ina- 
incline to (like), penda. 

Increase, (act.) ongeza, zidislia. 
(neut.) ongezeka, zidi, kitliiri. 

be Indebted to, wiwa na. 

Indulge in, zoeza, jizoeza. 

Infect, ambukiza. 

Inform, arifu, hubiri, pa habari. 
In letter-writing arifu is alicays 
employed, on other occasions 
kupata or kuwa na habari is 
generally used for to be in- 
formed, and ambia (tell) for to 

Ingratiate oneself, jipendekeza. 

Inhabit, kaa, keti. 

Inherit, xiihi. 

Injure, hasira, hasiri, hasirisha 
be injured, hasirika. 

Innovate, zua. 

be Inquisitive, tafiti. 

Inspect, kagiia. 

Instruct, fundislia, funza, elemisha. 

Insult, shitumu, tukana, chokoza. 

Intend, kusudia (purpose), azimu or 
azimia, or yakinia (resolve), 
nia, or ania, or nuia (Jiave in 
one's mind). 

Inter, zika. 

Intercede for, ombea. 

Interpret, fasiri, tafsiri. 

Interrupt, znia, kutiza, hanikiza, 
uthia (bother). 

Intoxicate, levya. 

become intoxicated, lewa. 

Intrude, fumania. 

Going into another person's house 
for an unlaivful purpose (ku- 
fisidi), or without lawful pmr- 
pose (ku-fumaniana), bars by 
the law of Zanzibar any claim 
on the part of the intruder in 
respect of any assault or injury 
ivhile there. 

Inundate, gharikisha, furika (swell\ 
tawanyika (spread). 

Invade, shambulia. 

Invent, buni, zumbua. 

Invite, ita, alika. 

invite to come in, karibisha. 

Irrigate, tia maji, nywesha. 

Irritate, tia hasira, ghathabisha, 
kasirisha, chokoza. 

Itch, — cause to itch, nyea. 
I itch, imeninyea. 


Jam, kwamisha. 

become jammed, kwama, sakama. 



Jar the teeth, like grit in food, 

kwaza meno. 
Jerk, kutua. 
Jest, fanya ubishi or mzaha, thi- 

Join, (act.) unga, (7iez(f.)iinganana. 
Judge, hukumu, hukumia, amua. 

The original meaning of amua 

is to separate, and it is used of 

separating two persons who have 

been fighting. 
Jumble together different languages 

or dialects, goteza. 
Jump, ruka. 


Keep, weka or cheleza {put away), 
tunza {tahe care of), linda 
{guard), bifatbi {preserve), sbi- 
ka {hold), fuga Qieep animals), 
weka or kawisba (delay). 

be kept gossiping, piizika. 

be kept tame or in a cage, fugika. 

It cannot be kept, i.e., it icill 
either run away or die, hafu- 

keep aicake, {neut.) kesba, {act.) 

keep from, epusba, zuilia. 

keep in order {a person), rudi. 

be kept, or capable of being kept, 
in order, rudika. 

keep on at. sbinda. 

Keep your distance ! Koma usije ! 
Kick, piga teke. 

Kill, iia. pass, uawa, waga {Mer.), 
fisba {to cause to die). 

kill with, &c., ulia. 

kill for food, cbinja, tinda (M.). 
be Kind, tenda mema. 

do a kindness to, fatbili. 
Kindle, wasba, tia muto. 

Kiss, busn. 

lift to the lips and kiss, sogeza. 
Knead, kanda. 
Kneel, piga magote. 
Knit the brows, kunja vipaji. 
Knock, gonga, gota, piga. 

at a door, or to cry Hodi ! if the 

door be open, bisba. 

Knoio, jua. Kujua is often used in 

the sense of to know of, about, 

how, &c. 

I know where he is, namjua aliko 

(J know of him, ivhere he is). 
I know how to speak the language 
of Zanzibar, najua kusema kiu- 
I can dc blacksmith^ s work, najua 

kufua cbuma. 
{to recognize), tambua. 
be knowable, julikana. 
make to know, julisba, juvisha. 
become known, tangaa. 
know what to do, tanababL 


Lace in the rope or matting across a 
native bedstead, tanda, wamba. 
Lacerate, papura. 

be lacerated, papurika. 
be Lame, tegea, cbecbemea, tetea, 
kwenda cbopi, tagaa {icalk icith 
the legs far apart). 
Land, {neut.) sbuka, {act.) shusba. 
Last, isbi. 
Laugh, cbeka. 

laugh at, cbekelea. 
Launch, sbua, pass, shuliwa. 
Lay, tia, weka. 

lay a icager, pinga, sbindania. 

lay by, weka akiba. 

lay doion, laza. 



lay eggs, atamia, or zaa, or nya 

lay hold of, sbika. 

lay open, funua, weka wazi. 

lay out, andika, tandika, toa. 

lay out money, gharimu, gbarimia. 

lay the beams of a roof, ikiza. 

lay the table, andika meza. 

lay ujjon the table, weka mezani. 

lay to anyone's charge, tuhumu. 

lay iqjon some one else, kumbisha. 
he Lazy, [ku-]wa mvivu. 

to be cross at having anything to 
do, kimwa. 
Lead, ongoa, ongoza, peleka, fikisha 
{mahe to arrive). 

lead astray, kosesha. 

lead devotions, somesha. 
LeaTi, vuja, fu'mka (to open at the 

Lean upon, tegemea, egemea. 

lean upon a staff, jigongojea. 

become lean, koiida. 

make lean or thin, kondesha. 
Leap, ruka. 
Learn, jifunza, pata kujua. 

learn manners, taadabu. 
Leave, acha, ata (M.), toka. 

leave by death, fia. 

leave to (bequeath), achia. 

leave go of, aeha. 

Leave off! Wacha! Bass! 

leave off fasting, fungua. 

leave till fit or ready, limbika. 

leave (cause to remain), saza. 
be left (remain), saa, salia, baki. 

ash leave, taka, ruksa. 

give leave, nihusu, pa ruksa. 

give leave about, amria. 

take leave of, aga. 
take letive of one another, agana. 

Leaven, chacba. 
Lead, azima, kiritlii. 
Lengthen, ongeza urefu, 

make long, fanya mrefu. 
Lessen, (act.) punguza, (neut.) pu- 

Ljet (2)ermit),aGha, pa ruksa, kubali, 

let alone, acha. 

let a house, pangislia nyumba. 

let down, shusha, tua. 

let down a bucket, puliza ndoo. 

let free a spring, fiatua, fiatusba. 

let go an anchor, puliza. 

let loose, fungua. 

let on hire, ajirisba. 

let water, vuja. 
Level, fanya sawasawa, tandaza, 

be level ivith, lingana na. 

make level with, linga, linga- 

level a gun at, lekeza bunduki. 
be Liberal to, kerimu. 
Liberate, fungua, yass. funguliwa. 

from slavery, weka, or acba huru. 
Lick, ramba. 
Lie (tell lies), sema uwongo 

(to be), kaa, [ku-]wako. 

lie across, kingama. 

a tree lies across the road, mti 
umekingama njiani. 

lie across one another, pandana. 

lie doicn, jinyosha, jilaza, lala, 

lie heavy on, lemea. 

lie on the face, wama, fuama (M.). 

lie on the side, jiinika. 

lie on the back, lala kwa tani, 

lie in wait for, otea. 
Lift, inua, tweka. 

lift up the voice, paliza sautL 



Light, washa. tia moto. 

he light, angaza. 

show a light, miilika. 
Lighten (lightening), piga umeme. 
Like, penda. 

he an object of liking, tamauika. 
Liken, fafanisJia. 

reach its limit, pea. 
Linger, kawia, kawilia. 
Lis2J, [ku-]wa ua kitemlte. 
Listen, sikiliza, pulikiza. 

listen secretly, dukiza. 

Live, kaa (sta^j or he), isLi (continue), 

[ku-]wa hayi (he alive), [kil-] 

wako ulimwenguui (be in this 

Load, chukuza. ^world). 

a person, twika. 

a ship, pakia. 

a gun, sumiii, shindilia. 

he laden iciih, pakia (of a ship), 
chukua (carry). 
Lock, funga. 

with a native lock, gomea. 
Loiter, kawilia. 
Loll, tandawaa. 
Long for, tamani. 
Look, tazama. 

look out, or look carefully, angalia. 

Look out I Angalia ! Jiponye ! 

look out for, tazamia. 

look for, tafuta. 

look after, tunza. 

look over a propeiiy, aua. 

look up to see what is going on, 
Loose, fungua. 

he loose, regea. 
Loosen, regeza. 
Lose (money), pata hasara. 

potea (to he lost to). [nipotea. 

I have lost my knife, kisu kirne 

lose hy having taken from one, 

lose hy death, fiwa na. 

lose one's senses, rukwa na akili. 
Love, peuda, asliiiki. 

he loved hy, kora. 
iLoicer, shusha, tua. 
Lull, pembeza, tumbuiza. 
Lurk for, otea. 
Lust after, tamanL 


Magnify, kuza, tiikuza. 

magnify oneself, jiiapa. 
Make, fanya, fanyiza. 

make to do or he. See p. 162. 

make a floor or roof, sakifn. 

make a pen, chonga kalamu. 

make a sign to, a<liiiia. 

make a will, wasia. 

make another love one, pendeleza. 

make hrilliant, ng'aza. 

make cheap, rakldsisha. 

make clear, tMliirisha, eleza, weka 

make confident and hopeful, tu- 

make crazy, zulisha. 
mahe dear, ghalisha. 
make delirious, papayuza. 
make equal, like, &c., sawanisha, 

make for, fanyia. 
make [clothes] for, katia [ngun]. 
make game of, tbiliaki, fanyizia 

make haste, lanya hima, euda 

make ill, gonjVeza. 
make into a ring, peta. 
make lawful, lialilioha. 



make ligM of a matter, jipuru- 

mahe like, oleza. 

make metal things, fua, fulia. 

make over talkative, payuza. 

mMke pastry, andaa, andalia. 

make peace 'between, suluhisha. 

make plain, thahiri, eleza, tliihi- 
risha, weka wazi. 

make pottery, finyanga. 

make raw, chubua. 

make room for, nafisisha. 

make sorry, sikitisha. 

m^ke sure, hakiki. 

make to agree, isatanisha. 

make to he at peace, suluhisha. 

make to enter, ingiza. 

make to go up, pandisha, kweza. 

make to grow lean, kondesba. 

make to hear or understand, sikiza. 

make to weep, liza, lizana. 

make unlawful, harimu, hara- 

make up afire, chochea moto. 

make up one's mind, tanababi, 

make verses, tunga masbaiii. 

make water, kojoa. 

m.ake weak, thoofisha. 

make well, ponya, ponyesha. 

Bon't make a noise ! Tulia ! 
Manage, amili, fanya. 
Mark, tia alama. 

}Iarry, oa (of the hushand), olewa 
{of the wife), oana (0/ the 
couple), oza (of the parents). 

ask in marriage, posa. 
Master, ghelibu, shinda. 

he master of, weza, tamalaki. 
Match, lingana 

make to match, linga, linganisha. 

he a match for, weza. 
Mean, taka, nia, kusudia. 

j Measure, pima, twaa cheo. 

measure together, enenza. 
Mediate hetween, selehisha. 
Meditate, tafakari, waza. 
Meet, onaua, kutana, kutanika, ku* 

meet with, kuta. 

go to meet, laki. 
2Ielt, (neut.) yeyuka, ayika, (act.) 

Mend, fanya, fanyiza. 

(sew up), shonea. 

(darn), tililia. 

(hind up), ganga. 
3Iensfruate, [ku]wa na heth. 
Mention, nena, taja. 

he all in a mess, chafukachafuka. 

make a mess of one's work, boro- 
Mercy (have or shoio), rehemu. 
Mildew, fanya kawa. 
Milk, kama. 

Mind, tunza (take care of), angalia 
(take care), kumbuka (hear in 

Never mind, haithuru, usitie 

I don't mind, mamoja pia. 
Mingle, changauya. 

he mingled, changanyika. 
Miscarry, haiibu miniba. 
Miss, kosa. 

(to go near to without touching), 

(not to go direct to), epea. 

to he missed (not found), kosekana. 
Mislead, poteza, kosesha. 
Mistake, kosa. 
Mix, changanya. 

mix up hy knocking and heating^ 



Mock^ iga, thihaki, koraaza, kufuru. 
he Moderate, [ku-]wa kadiri. 
Molest, sumbua, chokoza, liasirisha. 
Mould (cast in a mould), ita, fanya 
kwa kalibu. 
groiv mouldy, fanya ukungu. 
Moulder, fujika, furijika, haribika. 
(go info lumps like spoilt flour), 
fanya madonge. 
Mount, panda, kwea. 
Mourn (in a formal manner), kaa 
join in a formal mourning, 
Move, (neut.) jongea, (act.) jongeza. 
Move into the shade, jongea 

(as a carpet does when a mouse is 

under it), furukuta. 
(shake), tukusa, tiki^a, siikasuka. 
(change place of dxcelling), liama, 

tama (M.), gura (A.). 
cause to remove, hamisha, tamisha, 
Multiply, (act.) zidisha, ongeza, 

(neut.) zidi, ongezeka. 
Murder, ua, pass. nawa. 
Murmur, nung'unika. 
Must, lazimu, sharti, hana buddi 

See p. 155. 
Mutilate, kata. 

Name, taja, nena, ita, pa jina (give 

a name to). 
Need, taka, ihtaji, ihtajia. 
Negleot, gliafilika (not to attend to), 

achilia (leave undone). 
Nibble, tafuna. 
Nod, sinzia (f?02;e),asLiria kwa twaka 

(as a signal). 
Notice, ona, angalia, nathiri. 

notice a defect, toa kombo. 

take no notice, taghafali. 
Nourish, lisha. 
Nurse (a child), lea, lisha. 

(a sick person), uguza. 

Obey, tii, fuata, sikia, tumikia. 
Object to, kind ana, shindana, Indi- 
Oblige (compel), lazimisha, juburu, 
he obligatory upon, lazimu. 
hold under an obligation to do, 

&c., juzu. 
(by kindness),fa.thi[i, tendca zeu;a. 
Observe, angalia. 
Obstruct, kataza, pinga. 
Obtain, pata. 

O'-cupy (keep cnjaged), fawiti. 
Offend, chukiza, tia ghaiii, tia 
be easily offended, [ku-]wa na 

not to be offended, ku-wa rathi. 
don't be offended with me, niwie 

rathi, kunrathi. 
I am not at all offended, rathi 
Offer to, tolea, jongeleza (bring near 
offer for sale by auction, tembeza. 
make a first bid, rissimu. 
Omit, acha. 
Ooze, tiririka. 
ooze out, vujia, tokeza, tokea. 
(act.) funua (uncover), fungiia 
(unfasten), panna (make wide), 
fumbua (unclose the eyes, &c.), 
sindua (set open a door), pepe- 
tua (force open), 
(neut.) [ku-]«a wazi (to lie clear). 



funuka or kimduka (to open 
like a flower), panuka {become 
wide), fuuguka (to get un- 
Oppose^ gomba, khalifu,kataza, teta, 
shindania, ingia kati. 
he opposite, lekea, kabili, elekea, 

elekeana, kabilia. 
put opposite, lekeza, kabilisha, 
Oppress, onea, lemea, thelimu. 
Order, amuru, amrisha, ambia, 
agiza (commission), 
arrange in order, panga, tunga. 
put into good order, fanyiza, 
tengeneza, ganga. 
Ought. See p. 155. 

ihtajia, taka, pasa. 
Overbear, by loud talking, &c., pa- 

mbanya, pambanyiza. 
Overburden, lemea. 
he Overcast, tanda [wingu]. 
Overeat oneself, vimbika, vimbiwa. 
Overfeed, vimbisha. 
Overflow, miminika, tawanyika, 

ghariki, furika. 
Oversee, simamia, angalia. 
Overturn, pindua. 

he overturned, pinduka. 
Overtake, pata. 
Overwhelm, gharikisba. 
Owe, wiwa. 
I owe him, aniwia. 
to have in one's debt, wia. 
Own, miliki (possess), kiri (confess), 
ungaina (acknowledge). 

Pack up, fanga. 

Paddle, vuta kwa kafi or kapi. 

Pain, uma, umia. 

Paint, tia raugi 
Pant, tweta. 
Paralyse, poozesha, 

be paralysed or paralytic, pooza. 
Pare, ambua. 

Pardon, samehe, afu, gbofira, gho 

Forgive me, nipe hisa yangu. 

Ask mutual pardon and so take a 
last farewell, takana buriauL 
Parry, bekua. 
Part out, gawa, gawanya. 
Pais, pita, pisha. 

make to pass, pitisha. 

pass going in opposite directions^ 
pish ana. 

pa$s through, penya. 

pass over (a river), vuka. 
(a fault), achilia. 

pass close to without touching ^ 

be passable, endeka. 
Pasture, chunga, lisha. 
Patch (thatch, &c.), chomelea. 
be Patient, vumilia, subiri. 
Paw [the ground'], parapara. 
Pay, lipa. 

pay to, lipia. 

cause to be paid, lipiza. 

pay freight for, takabathisha. 
Peck, dona, dondoa. 
Peel, ambua, puna. 
Peep, chungulia, tungulia (M.). 
Pelt, tupia. 
Penetrate, penya. 
Perceive, ona, sikia, fahamu. 
Perfect, kamilisba. 

he perfect, kamilika. See Com- 
Perforate, zua, zua tundu. 
Perform a promise, fikiliza ahadi. 

ablutions^ toliara. 



devotions, sali. 
a vow, ondoa nathiri. 
Perish, fa, potea, potelea, haribika. 
Perjure oneself, apa uwongo, shu- 

hudia zuli or aziir. 
Permit, ruhusu, pa ruksa, acha. 
Perpetuate, dumisha. 
Perplex, tia matata, eliatiganvisha. 
become perplexed, ingia matata, 
Persecute, fukuza, thulumu. 
Persevere, dumu, dumia, dawamu. 
Perspire, taka baii. 
Persuade, shawishi, kinaisba, pa 

Pick {as with a knife point), 
(gather), cbuma. 
stalks, &c., from cloves, &c., cba- 

pick out (select), cbagua, teua. 
pick up, okota. 
pick up hit hy bit, dondoa, lum- 

pick holes in one another's cha- 
racter, papu liana. 
Pickle, fanya acbari. 
Pierce, zua, peuyeslia, penya. 
Pile up [plates, <fcc.], andikanya. 
Pinch, finya. 

be pinched up, finyaua. 
Pine away, fifia. 

Pity, burumia, sikitikia, rebemu. 
Place, weka. 

an arrow on the string, a knife in 

the belt, &c., pacbika. 
TJtere is no place for me in the 
house, nyumba bainiweki. 
riait^ suka, sokota. 
Planey piga randa. 
Plant, panda. 
Plaster, kandika. 

prepare a icallfor the ichite plaster 
by smoothing it and tapping in 
small stones, tomea. 

put on a plaster, bandika. 
Play, cbeza, laabu. 

play the fool, peketeka. 

play upon an instrument^ piga 
zomari, &c. 
Please, pendeza, furabisba. 

(like), penda. 

as you please, upendavyo. 

Please I Tafatbali ! 

be pleased, pendezewa. 

make pleasing, pendekeza. 
Pledge, weka rabaui. 
Pluck, cbuma (gather), nyakua 
(snatch), nyonyoa (pick off 

pluck up a courage, piga moyo 
Plug up, ziba. [konde. 

Plunder, teka, twaa nyara. 
Point, cbonga ; fanya 'ncba. 

p)oint out, onyesba, aiuisba. 
Poison, pa sumu. 
Poke, cboma. 
Polish, katua. 

Ponder, fikiii, waza, tafakari. 
Possess, miliki, [ku-]wa na. 

(of an evil spirit), pagaa. 

be possessed by an evil spirit^ 
pagawa na pepo. 
be Possible, Piu-]\va yamkini, weze- 

kana, fanyika, teudeka. 
Postpone, akiiiblia. 
make Pottery, finyanga 
Pound, ponda, funda. 

clean corn by pounding, twanga. 
Pour, mimina. 

pour away, mwaga, mwaya. 
have Power over, weza. 
Practise, jizoeza, taala. 

practise witchcraft, I'anya uchawL 



Praise^ sifu, hemidi. 

praise oneself, jisifu, jigamba. 
Prate, puza. 

Pray, omba, sal: {'perform the fixed 
devotions), abudu (worship). 

pray for, taka (ash for), ombea 
(intercede for). 
Preach, klmtubu, ayitbi. 
Precede, tangulia. 
he Precipitous, cbongoka. 
Predict, agua, basbiri, tabiri. 
Prefer, penda, kbitari, stahiba. 
he Pregnant, cbukua mimba, bamili. 
Prepare, weka tayari, 

food, andaa, and alia. 
Present to, tunikia, pa. 

make presents to, pukusa, pa 
basbisbi, tunza. 
Preserve, bifathi, afu. 

he preserved, bifatbika, 
Press, kaza, sbindilia, siuikiza. 

press out, kamua. 

press upon, kandamiza. 

press heavily upon, lemea. 

press with the teeth, vuata. 

make an impression (as with the 
fingers), bonyesba. 

press and crush food for invalids 
or children, vinyavinya. 

press against one another, like 
sheep in a flock, songanaso- 
Pretend to he, jifanya. 
Prevent, zuia, kataza. 
Prick, cboma. 
Pride oneself, jisifu. 
Print, piga cbapa. 
Prize up, tekua. 
Proceed, enenda, fuliza. 
Proclaim, tangaza, bubiri, nadi, 
Procure for, patia. [_eleza. 

he procurable, patikana. 

Profess, ungaraa. 

Profit, pata fayida, fayidi, cbiima. 

tuma (M.). 
Prognosticate, basbiri. 

hy the stars, piga falaki. 
Prohibit, kataza, gombeza. 
Project, tokeza, tukiza. 
Prolong, ongeza urefu, tuiliza, en- 

Promise, abidi, toa aliadi. 

give a promise to, pa abadi. 
Pronounce, ta'mka. 
Prop up, tegemeza, sbikiza. 
he propped, tegemea. 
prop up a vessel to prevent its 
falling over when left hy the 
tide, gada. 
Propose, nena, toa sbauri. 
Prosecute, sbtaki. 
Prosper, fanikiwa, sitawi, kibali, 

Prostrate oneself, sujudu. 
before, to, &c., sujudia. 
Protect, bami, linda, Mfathi, kinga 

(ward off). 
Prove, thubutiiiha,. 

he proved, thuhntu. 
Provide, weka akiba. 
Provoke, kiribi, kirihisha, tia liasira, 

Prune, cbeDga, feka. 
Pry, dadisi, fatiishi. 
Puff, puliza. 

he puffed up, tuna, fura, jetea, 
Pull, vuta. 
pull out, ng'oa. 
he pulled out, ng'oka. 
Moyo unaning'oka, my heart has 
jumped into my throat, used of 
a person tnuch startled, 
pidl out feathers, nyonyoa. 



puU out of ones hand, chopoa. 

pull up [roots'], ngoa. 
Vump, piga bomba. 
Punish, atbibu, atbibisba, tesa 
(afflict), sumbusba (give annoy- 
ance to), patiliza (visit upon). 
Purify, takasa, safisba. 

by ceremonial ablutions, tobara. 

be purified, safika, takasika. 
Purpose, kusudia, ania. 
Pursue, fuata (folloio), winda 
(chase), fukuza (drive away), 
tafuta (seek for). 
Push, sukuma. 

push against, kuinba. 

push aside, piga kikumbo, 

push off upon, kumbisba. 
Put, tia, weka. 

put across [a river'], vusba. 

put a pot on the fire, teleka. 

put an end to, komesba, gbairi. 

put aicay, weka. 

put down, tua. 

put forth leaves, cbanua. 

put in a line, panga. 

put in order, tunga. 

put in under anything, vumbika. 

put into, tia. 

Tia motoni, put it in the fire. 
Tia moto, set it on fire. 

put into the right way, vusba. 

put off, akirisba. 

put off upon another, sukumiza. 

put on [clothes], vaa. 

put on his guard, tabatbirisba. 

put on a turban by winding the 
doth round the head, piga 

put out, toa. 

put out [fire], zima, zimia. 

put out of joint, sbtusba, sbtua. 

put ready for use, sogezea. 

put ropes to a native bedstead 
tanda wamba. 

put to (shut), sbindika. 

put to flight, kinibiza. 

put to rights, tengeneza, tengeleza 

p^it to straits, tbiiki. 

put through, penyesba. 
Putrify, oza. 
Puzzle, tatanisba. 

be puzzled, tatana, tatazaua. 


Quake, tetemeka, tetema. 
Quarrel, gombana, nenana, nazi- 

with, teta, gomba. 
Quarry [stone], cbimba, vunja. 
Quell, tuliza. 
Quench, zima. 
Quicken, bimiza (make quicker). 

be quick enough (be in time), 
Quiet, tuliza. 

become quiet, tulia, nyamaz.i, 
Quit, acba, toka. 
Quiver, tetema. 

Race, sbindania. 
Rain, nya. 

It rains, mvua inakunya, mvua 

yanya (M.). 
cause it to rain, nyesha. 
leave off raining, anuka. 
Raise, inua (lift), paaza (make to 
rise), tweka, kweza, pandisha, 
raise the eyebrows by way of Bigi^ 

J 94 


raise the eyebrows hj way of con- 
tempt, kuuia. 
Ua7ige together, pangana. 
Bansoin. komboa, fidi (of the price), 

fidia (of the person). 
Rap with the knuckles, piga konzi. 
be made Baiv, chubuka. 
Eeach. See Stretch. 

(arrive at), fika, wasili, pata. 

reach a person, fikia, wasilia. 

cause to reach, fikisha, wasilisha. 

put within his reach, [raw-]eiieza. 

reach its limit, pea. 
Read, soma, fyoma (M.). 

teach to read, somesha. 
Reap, vuna. 

(break off the heads of Indian 
corn), goboa. 
Rear [a child'], lea. 
Reason, tefua. 
Rebel, asi, khalifu, taghi. 
Rebuke, nenea, laumu, law an a. 
Rebut, dakuliza. 
Receive, pokea, pewa, twaa. 

(accept), kubali, takabali. 

receive for some one else, pokelea. 

receive a stranger, karibisha. 
Reckon, hesabu, wanga. 
Recite, karirisha. 
Becline, jinyosha, tandawaa, pu- 

Recognize, tambua, tambulia, fafa- 

be recognizable, tambulikaua. 
Recollect, kumbuka, fahji.nm. 
Recommend, neuea, agiza, arifu, 

Reconcile, patanisha, selehidia. 
Redeem, koml^oa, fidia. 
Reduce, punguza. 
Reef a sail, punguza tanga. 
Refer to, itgea. 

Reflect (think), kumbuka, waza, 

Reform, silihi, silihisha, saliilii, 

Refresh, burudisha, sterehisha, ta- 

Refuse, kataza, kataa, iza. 
refuse to, nyima, hini. 
refuse to believe, katalia. 
Refute, batili. 
Regret, juta, sikitika. 
Rehearse, karirisha. 
Reign, miliki, tawala. 
Reject, kataa, kania. 
Rejoice, (neut.) furahi, furahiwa. 
rejoice in, furahia. 
make to rejoice, furahisha. 
shout and triumph, shangilia. 
Relate, hadithia, nena, toa, pa. 
Relax, regeza. 

be relaxed, regea. 
Release, acha, likiza. 

from an obligation, feleti. 
Relish, ona tamu, ona luththa. 
Rdrj upon, fungamana, jetea. 
Remain (stay), kaa, kaa kitako, 
keti (M.). 
be left, saa, salia, baki. 
remain awake, kesha. 
remain quiet, starehe. 
to remain as he wishes, kumkalia 
Remedy, poza. 
Remember, kumbuka, faharau. 

remember against, patiliza. 
Remind, kumbusha, fahamisha. 
Remit [^sins], ghofiri. 

remit to, ghofiria, ondolea. 
Remove, ondoa, tenga, ondolea. 

from an office, uzulu. 
Rend, rarua, pasua. 

be rent to pieces, pasukapasuka. 



Renounce, acha, kana. 

Rent, panga (hire), pangisba (let). 

Repair, fanyiza, fauya. 

Repay, lipiza. 

Repent, tiibu. 

repent of, tubia. 
Reply, jibu (give an answer), itika 

(answer when called). 
Repay, regeza, lipa. 
Reproach, sbutumu, kamia, taya. 
Request, taka. 
Rescue, toa kunako hatari, toa 

mnamo hatari, okoa. 
Resemble, fanana na. 

make to resemble, fananisha. 
Resent, fanya gbathabu, ingiwa na 

Resign, jiuzulu, jitoa katika. 
Resist, khalifu. 
Resolve, yakinia, azimu. 
Rest (neut.) pumzika, tulia, starehe. 

(act.) pumzisha. 

He never rests, hana zituo. 

I cannot rest in the house, nyumba 
Restore, rudisha, rejeza. 
Restrain, zuia. 
Resuscitate, fufua, huisha. 
Retaliate, twaa kasasi, lipia sawa, 

Retire (go back), endelea nyuma. 
Return, (neut.) rudi, regea. 

(act.) rudisha, regesha. 
Reveal, funua. 

Revenge, nahma, lipia maovu, toa 

revenge oneself, jilipiza (or lipia) 
Reverence, nenyekea. 
Reverse, pindua. 
Revile, shutumu. 
Revive, (neut.) fufuka, hui, buika. 

Revive, as a plant in water, chuj)uza. 

(act.) fufua, huisha. 
Revolt (disgust), kinaisha. 

revolt at, kinai. 
Reward, jazi, jazih'a, lipia, fathili 
Ride upon, panda. 
Ridicule, fanyizia mzaha, thil.aki. 
Ring a bell, piga kengele. 
Rip, pasua. 
Ripen, iva. 
Rise (ascend), paa. 

(get up), ondoka. 

(stand up), simama, inuka. 

(rise to, or out of respect for\ 

(come to the top of the water), 

(of the sun), [ku-]cha. 
Roar, lia, nguruma, fanya kishiiido 

(make a crash). 
Roast, oka. 
Rob, ibia (steal from), nyang'anya. 

(take by force), poka. 
Rock, pembeza. 
Roll, (act.) fingirislia. 

(neut.) fingirika. 

(of a river, time., ({-c), pitsu 
Root out, ng''oa. 
Rot, oza. 

be Rough, paruga, paruza. 
be Round, viringa. 

(spherical), viringana. 
Rouse from sleep, ainsha. 
Row, vuta makasia. 

be in rows, pangana. 

put in a row, panga. 
Rub, sugua. 

the skin off, chubua, tuna, 

rub to pieces, fikicha. 

rub in ointment, &c., j)aka. 
Ruin, angamisha, potezii, vuna 




he ruined, angainia, tilifu, filisika 
(he sold up). 
Bule, tawala. 

rule a line, paga mstari. 
Ruminate, teuka. 
Bun, piga mbio, rukhuthu. 
run a risk, hatirisha. 
run against, fulia. 
run away, kimbia. 
mahe to run away, kimbiza. 
run away from a master, home, 

&c., toroka. 
run ashore, panda, tekeza. 
run down, like water, or like a 
person down a steep place, te- 
run down with blood, churuzLka 

run hard, kaza mbio. 
run over, furika. 
run icith a shuffiing noise like a 

rat, gugurusha. 
run (in sewing), piga bandi. 
Rush along, enda kassi. 
Tiust (neuL), ingia kutu. 
Rustle, piga mtakaso. 

Salute, salimu, sulimu, amkua, 
amkia, salimia. 
fire a salute, piga mizinga ya 
Salve, bandika. 
Sanction, toa ithini. 
Satisfy, rithika. 

be satisfied or content, [ku-]wa 

satisfy with food, shibisha. 
he satisfied, shiba. 
he never satisfied, nyeta. 
be self-satisfied, kinai. 
he enough, tosha. 

he of use to, fa a. 

satisfy lust, timia ngoa. 
Save, okoa, ponya, vuslia. 

he saved, okoka, pona, vuka. 

(put away), weka. 
Saiv, kata kwa msumeno, kereza. 
Say, sema. 

say to, ambia. 
Scald, onguza, unguza. 

he scalded, ungua. 
Scare, fukuza, tia khofu. 

scare hirds from corn, &c., linda 
Scatter, tawanya, tapauya (M.),- 

he scattered, tawanyika. 

scatter about, tawanyatawauya, 
tapanyatapanya (M.). 
Scent (put scent to), sioga. 

smell out, nukiza. 
Scold, fanyizia ukali, nenea, laumii, 

Scoop up, wangua. 
Scorch, unguza, onguza. 

he scorched, ungua, ungulia. 
Scorn, tharau, tweza, pcketeka. 
Scour, sugua. 
Scrape, kuna. 

scrape along, kwaruza. 

scrape for, with, &c., kunia. 

scrape into a coarse meal, ]>aaza. 

scrape off, puna. 

scrape off hark, dirt, scales, &c.^ 
to clean by scraping, paa. 

scrape on the ground, para. 

scrape out, komba. 

scrape up, kwangua. 
Scratch, kuna, kunyua. 

(make a scratch), piga mtai 

scratch deeply, papura. 

scratch like a hen, pekua. 
Scream, piga kiowe, piga yowe. 



Scrubs sugua. 

Search for, tafuta, tefua. 

search all about, tafutatafuta. 
Seal, tia muhuri. 
Seduce women, tongoza. 
See, ona. 

he seen, or visible, onekaiia. 
see any one off, safirisha, 
Seelc, taka. 
seek advice, taka shauri. 
seek out, huji. 
seel:, for, tafuta, zengea. 
seek out for, look out for, tafutia. 
It seems to me, naiona, 
seem sweet to, kora. 
Seize, kamata, guia, shika. 
seize for debt, filisi. 
go quietly and secretly up to any- 
thing in order to seize it sud- 
denly, nyemelea. 
Select, chagiia, teua. 
Sell, uza. The u- of this word is 
very unimportant, it is generally 
merged in the -u of ku-, the 
sign of the infinitive, ivhich is 
retained in most of the tenses, 
sell to, liza. 

he ordinarily sold, uzanya. 
Send, peleka, leta. 

to a person, pelekea, letea. 

cause to reach a person, wasi- 

send away, ondosha, toa. 
send hack, rudisha, rejeza. 
send upon some business, tuma. 
Separate, tenga, weka mbali. 

(leave one another), achana, ataua 

(M.)j tokana. 
(alienate), farakisha. 
become alienated, farakana, ta- 

separate people xcho are fighting, 

(distinguish), pambanua. 
he cut off from one another, like 

friends separated by great dis- 
tances, tindikiana. 
be Serene, [ku-]wa saff, tiiliks 

Moyo wake umekunduka, hi 

heart is at peace. 
Serve, tumikia, hudumia. 
he a servant, tumika. 
serve for, faa kwa. 
Set, weka. 

(plant), panda. 

(of the sun), chwa, twa (M.). 

The sun is not yet set, jua hali- 

set a dog on one, tomesha mbwa. 
set a trap, tega. 
set aside, tangua, ondoa. 
set fire to, tia moto, washa, knka 

set in order, panga, tunga. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 

set open \a door'], sindua. 
set out on a journey, safiri, shika 

set the teeth on edge, tia gauzi la 

set up (put upicards), panza. 
(make to stand), simikisha. 
set wide apart, panulia. 
Settle, (neut.) tuana. 

settle an affair, kata ma»eno. 
settle down, tulia. 
settle in one's mind, yakinia. 
Seiv, shona. 

sew through a mattress to confine 

the stiiffing, tona godoro. 
Shade, tia uvuli. 



Shake, (act.) tikisa. 

(neut.) tikitika. 

shake of, epua, kupua. 

shake out, kung'uta, kumunta 
become Shallow, pun^uka. 
Shame, tia haya, tahayaiisha. 

he put to shame, fetheheka, aibika. 
Shampoo, kanda. 
Shape, umba. 
Share, gawanya. 

part out in shares, gawa, hussu. 

he partners in, shariki, sharikiana. 
Sliarpen on a stone, noa. 
Shave, nyoa. 

shave round the head, leaving hair 
on the crown only, kata denge. 

shave all save one long tuft, kata 
Shed, pukutika. [kinjunjm-i. 

Shell, papatua. 

shell heans, &c., pua baazi, &c. 

shell nuts, &c., hy heating, banja, 
Shelter, tia kivuli. 
Shift a hurden from one to another, 

shift over a sail to the other side, 
kisi tanga. 
Shine, ng'ara, zagaa, mekameka. 
Shiver (neut.), tapatapa, tetema, 

tetemeka, tapa. 
Shoot [with a gun'], piga [kwa 

(as a plant), chupuka, cbupuza. 
Shorten, fupiza. 

he short and small, kundaa. 

fall short, punguka, tindika (A.), 
Shout, piga kelele. 
Shove out of the way, piga kikumbo. 
Show, onyesha, onya. 

show a light, mulika. 

show one's teeth, toa meno. 

become Shrewd and knoiving, ere* 
make Shrewd, erevusha. [vuk;*. 

Shriek, piga kiyowe. 
Shrink (become smaller), pungua. 
(from something), jikunja. 
shrink up, jikunyata, fingana. 
Shrivel (neut.), nyauka, finyana, 

Shrug the shoulders, inua mabega. 
Shudder, tetemeka. 
Shun, epuka. 
Shuffle along, gugurusha. 

shuffle cards, tanganya karata. 
Shut (put to), shindika, 
(fasten), funga. 
(close), fumba. 
shut against, fungisha. 
he Sick or ill, ugua, [ku-]wa mwoli, 
[ku-]wa hawezi, &c. See III 
and Vomit. 
He feels sick or sea-sick, moyo 
wamcbafuka, moyo umemwelea 
(M.), ana ng'onga (A,). 
Sift, cbunga (by shaking), peta or 
pepeta (hy tossing), pepua 
(separate large and small, ichole 
and broken grains). Sifting is 
always done by tossing and 
shaking in a round fiat basket. 
Sigh, ugua, kokota roho (draw 

breath with an effort). 
Silence, nyamazisba. 
become silent, nyamaza. 
continue silent, nyamaa. 
be Silly, piswa. 
Sin, fanya thambi, kosa. 
Sing, imba, tumbuiza (lull). 
Sink (act.), zamisha, tosa (drown), 
didimisha (i^ito a solid sub- 
(neut.), zama, tota (drown), didi- 
mia (sink into a solid substance). 



Sip, nywa funcla (? to take in by 

Bit, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 
Take a seat, kaa kitako. 
sit like a lien, atamia. 
Sldii, chuna, tuna (M.). 
Slander, singizia, Utiiii, amba, thu- 

Slap, piga kofi. 

Slash, tema. j 

Slaughter, chinja (to kill hy cutting \ 
the throat), tinda (M.). It is 
not lawful to eat any meat that 
has not been so killed. 
Sleep, lala. 

Sleep well ! Lala unono ! 
doze, sinzia. 

I am sleepy, ninao uzingizL 
be slept upon, lalika. 
Slide, teleza. 
Sling, tupa kwa kombeo. 
Slip, teleza. 

It is slippery, pana utelezi. 

slip down a steep place, poromoka, 

slip away grain by grain lijce 

sand or corn, dondoka. 
slip} off, or out of one's hand, d;c., 
chopoka, ponyoka. 
Slit, pasua. 
Slope, iiiaraa. 
be Sluggish, pumbaa. 
Smart, waka. 

make to smart, nyonyota. 
Smear on, paka. 

Smell (emit a smell), uuka, nusa. 
I smell amherg^-is, inaninuka 
ambari (ambergris makes a 
smell to me). 
Bo you not smell it 9 Huisikii 
ikinuka? (Do you not perceive 
it making a smell ?) 

Smell at, nukiza. 

Smile, tabassam, clieka, kuuj^ 

Smoke, toka moshi. 

smoke tobacco, vuta tumbako. 

smoke (meat, &c.), piga mvixke. 
Smoothe, lainisha. 
Smoulder, vivia. 
Smuggle, iba ushuru. 
Siiap, alika (neut.), alisha (act.). 
Snare, tega. 
Snarl, toa meno. 
Snatch, nyakua, pokonya. 
Sneeze, chafya, shamua, enda or 

piga chatya. 
Snore, koroma, piga misouo (make 

a ichistling sound). 
Snort, piga pua. 
Snub, kemea. 
Soak, "woweka. 
Sob, ingia na shake la kulia. 
Sober, levusha. 

become sober, levuka. 
Soften, lainisha. 
Solve, wathaisha, weka wazi 

Soothe, tuliza, pembeza, tumljuizu. 
be Sorry, sikitika, kasiiika (be 
vexed), juta (regret). 

I am sorry for it, sioni vema. 
Sound, pima naaji. 

It sounds hollow, panalia wazi. 
Sow seeds, panda, yaa (A.). 

sow discord, fitini. 
Sparkle, merimeta, mekameka, me- 

metuka (A.). 
Speak, nena, sema (say), tamka 
(pronounce), ambia (say to). 

speak about, at, for, or against, 

speak against, amba. 

speak distinctly, pambazua. 



Speak out ! Sema sana ! 

inaJce a speech, tagusa, lumba. 

speak Arabic, sema Kiarabu. 

speak a jumble of different lan- 
guages or dialects, goteza. 

not to speak, nyamaa. 
Spell, endeleza. 
Spends tuniin, kharij. 

spend upon or about, harijia, glia- 

spend time, ongea. 
Spill, mwaga, mimina. 

he spilt, mimiiiika. 
Spin, sokota. 
Spit, tenia mate. 
Splash, (joict.) rushia. 

(neut.) rukia, tawanya. 
Sptlice [a rope'], unga. 

[a spar], ganga. 
Split, {act.) pasua. 

split up, (neut.) pasnkapasuka. 

split down (branches), (act.) 

he split down, as when any one has 
been trying to climh up by them, 
Spoil, haribu, vunja. 

(neut.), haribika, oza. 
Sport with, laabu. 
Spout out, rxika. 

The whale spouts, nyamgumi 
anatoa moshi. 
Sprain, shtusha mshipa, teuka. 

he sprained, shtuka mshipa. 
Spread, (neut.) enea, farishi. 

(act.) eneza. [ka. 

he opened and spread over, kunju- 

spread a cloth or a bed, taudika. 

spread out, tanda. 

spread [neios], tangaza. 

(become known), tangaa. 
Sp'inlde, nyuuyiza. 

Sprout, mea, cliupuka, tokoza (show 
itself), cbanua (put forth 
Spy out, peleleza. 
Squabble, bishana, gombana. 
Squander, fuja, tapanyatapanya. 
Squeak, lia. 
Squeeze, kamua. 

(grasp), fumbata. 

squeeze together (act), songa. 

(neut.) songaua. 

squeeze oneself into a hedge or 
against a wall to let others pass^ 
Squint, [ku-]wa na makengeza. 
Stab, choma. 
Stagger, pepa. 

be staggered, toshea, shangaa. 

(astonish), shangaza. 
Stain, tia waa, tia madoadoa (spot). 
Stalk {_an animal], nyemelea. 
Stammer, [ku-]\va na kigugumizi. 
Stamp, piga cbapa. 
Stand, simama, kaa. 

up or still, simama (of persons). 

make to stand, simamisba, simiki- 

stand aghast, ghumiwa. 

stand by, simamia. 

stand in the way of, kindana. 

stand over, akiri. 

stand staring, sbangaa. 
Stare at, kodolea. 
Start (he startled), sbtuka, gutuka. 

(set out), ondoka, safiri. 

start out of the way, kwepa. 
Startle, shtua, atusba, kutusha. 
Starve, (neut.) fa kwa njaa. 

(act.) fisha kwa njaa. 
Stay, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 

He stayed all day, alishinda 



(ti-aif), ngoja, subiri. 
(loiter), kawia, ka^ilia. 
(remain over long), hajirika. 
(sto'p) (act), zuia. 
be Steady, tungamaua, tulia. 
Steal, iba, jepa (A.). 

steal from, ibia. 
Steep, choveka, owamisha. 

he steeped, owama. 
Steer, shika shikio. 

Steer northwards, shika majira ya 

[a vessel], andika. 
Step over, kiiika, kia. 
Stick, (neut.) shika, gandama, a- 
(act.) ambatiza, ganda. 
stick together, ambatana, ganda- 

mana, giiiana (Mer.). 
stick fast, kwama, sakuma. 
stick into [the emhers to he roasted^, 

stick out, (neut.) tokeza. 
(act.) benua. 
Stifle, zuia pumuzi. 
Still, tuliza, nyamazisha. 

he very still, ziziuia. 
Stimulate, taharrakisha. 
Sting, tuna. 

Stink, nuka, nuka vibaya. 
Stir, boruga, vuruga, kologa. 
stir up and knock about, tibua. 
stir up, turn over, and press 

together, songa. 

stir up (fire, strife, &c.), choche- 

Stoop, iuama. [lezea. 

Stop, (act.) zuia (hold in), komesha 

(make to cease), kingtimislia 


(neut.) simama (stand), koma 

(leave off), 
stop and stagnate, vilia. 

stop short of its purpose or per- 
fection, via. 
stop up, ziba. 
Store up, weka akiba. 
Stow, pakiza. 
Straddle (icalk with the legs far 

apart), tagaa. 
Straighten, nyosha. 

be straight, nyoka. 
Strangle, nyonga, songa. 
Strain (a liquid), chuja, tuja (IM.). 
See Sprain, popotoa. 
(make a violent effort), kakamuka. 
Stray, potea, zunguka. 
Strengthen, tia nguvu. 
Stretch, nyosha. 

stretch up to reach anything, chu- 

stretch one's legs, kunjua miguu. 
stretch the threads for weaving, 

tenda nguo. 
stretch across an opening (act.), 
tanda, wamba. 
Streic, mwagia, nyunyiza. 
Strike, piga. 

strike on the ground, piga na nchi. 
strike the foot against anything, 

strike with the hoof, piga kwata. 
strike out (in writing), futa. 
strike a sore place, tonesha. 
String (beads, &c.), tunga. 
Strip off, ambua, pua, menya, 
\ (branches, leaves, &c.), pagua. 
I Strive with, shindana na, teta, hu- 
i sumu. 

1 (make an effort), fanya bidii or 

I strive for breath, tweta, 
i Stroke, papasa. 
1 Stroll about, zungukazunjruka. 



he Strong and well-knit, pirtkuna, 

Struggle^ fanya juhudi. 
Study, taali. 

meet in a class for study, durusi. 
Stumble, jikwaa. 

make to stumble, kwaza. 

he stunned, potea na akili, rukwa 
na akili. 
Stunt, viza. 

he stunted, via. 
Stutter, [ku-]wa na kigugumizi, 

Subdue, tiibha, shinda. 
Submit to, tii, fuata. 
Sv/iceed {follow), ja mahali pake. 
Such a one succeeded Mm, baada 

yake alikuja na fullani. 
(prosper), fanikiwa, kibali. 
succeed in doing, pata kufanya. 
Such, nyonya, aniwa (M.), fyonda, 
suck up, nwa. 
suck out, sonda. 

I have sucked him dry {got all the 
information, &c., I can out of 
him), nimemzua. 
Suckle, nyonyesha, amwislia (M.). 
Sue for {at law), dai. 
Suffer, teswa, taabika, umwa. 

what he suffered, mambo yalio- 

suffer loss, pata hasara. 
Suffice, toslia, tosheleza, kifu. 
Suggest, nasiha. 

Suit, faa (fee of use to), lingana 
{match), wafiki {be suitable to). 
Sum up, jumlislia. 
Superintend, simamia, angalia. 
Supply, awini, ruzuku {used es- 
pecially of God). 

supply a trader with goods on 
credit, kopesha. 
Support, tegemeza, himili, chiikua. 
he supports his parents, awacliu- 
kua wazee wake. 
Suppose, thani {think), thania {think 

of), kisi {guess). 
Supjpurate, toa uzaha. 
become Surety, thaminL 
Surpass, pita. 

Surprize, tosliea, taajabisha. 
he surpjrized, taajabu, toshewa, 
{come upon suddenly), fumania, 
Surrender, sellira. 
Surround, zunguka, tandama (?), 

Survey, aua. 

Survive, [ku-]wa hayi baada ya. 
Suspect, thania, tuhumu. ingiashuka. 
Sicagger, taniba, wayawaya. 
Swallow, mtza. 
Sway, punga. 

sway about, like a drunken man, 

lewalewa, umbaumba. 
sway backwards and forwards, 

sway like a tree loaded with fruit, 

sway about in the wind, ynmba. 
Swear, apa. 

swear at, apiza. 
make to swear, afya, apish a. 
Sweat, toka hari, fanya jasho. 
Sweep, fagia, pea (M.). 
sweep together, zoa. 
sweep away all there is, kumba. 
Swell, fura, vimba, tuna, vuna. 
rise into little swellings, tutuka, 
tutumka, tutusika. 
Swim {of a man), ogolea. 
i {float), elea. 



moyo unaelea (M.), I feel dis- 
turbed in my inside. 

(make to float), eleza. 
Swindle, punja. 
Swing. See Sway (neuL), ning'inia. 

(act.'), uing'iniza, bembesha. 

swing the arms, which is reckoned 
an elegance in a woman's car- 
riage, punga mikono. 

swing round the head in dancing, 


Ta/:-k (in sewing), piga bandi. 

(in sailing), pindua kwa gosliini. 
Take, twaa. 
(receive), pokea, pewa. 
(to a person), pelekea. 
(to a place), peleka, clmkiia, fikiza. 
take a portion from the dish in 

eating, mega, ambua. 
take a piece in chess, la. 
take a walk, tembea, enda tembea. 
take across, vua, vukisha, vusha. 
take as spoil, teka. 
take away, ondosha, toa. 
take away from a person, twalia. 
take away from, or off from, epua, 

take au-ay the desire of anything 

more, kinaisha, 
take by force, nyang'anya. 
take care, angalia. 
take care of, tunza. 
taice civet from the ngawa, zabidi. 
taJce courage, tawakali, piga moyo 

take down, angua. 
take leave of, aga, agana na. 
take off (clothes), vua. 

(the fire), ipua. 
take one's due, jilipizt,. 

take one's revenge, jilipiza kisasi. 

take out, opoa, ondosha, toa. 

take out of a trap, namua (Mer.). 

take out of the sun or rain, anua. 

take out of the pot, pakua. 

take suddenly and violently, poka. 

take the responsibility, tadariki. 

take to pieces, kongoa. 

take up, tweka. 

take up a little at a time., chota, 

take upon oneself the obligations 

of another, hawili. 
Talk, nena, sema, jizuragiimza. 
talk about, to, of, at, for, or against, 

talk against one another, nenana. 
talk a person over into doing or 

telling something, nyenya. 
talk and murmur in one's sleep, 

talk English, &c., sema Kiingrezi, 

talk nonsense, puza, puzika. 
talk scandal about, amba, izara. 
talk through the nose, semeapuani, 

[ku-]wa na king'ong'o. 
Tangle, tia matata, tatanisha. 
be tangled, tatana, tatazana. 
Tap, gota, gonga, chapa. 
Tarry, kawa, kaa. 
Taste, onda, onja, thuku, limbuka 

(taste a new crop, &c., for the 

first time). 
Tax, fanya ushuiu (?). 
Teach, fundisha, funza, ftmda, ele- 

mislia (instruct), jnyja, juvislia 

or julisha (make to know). 
Tear, rarua, babua, papua, papura. 
be torn, raruka, babuka, papuka. 
tear down [brauches, &c.J, kwa- 




he torn down and hrolcen, kwa- 

Teaze, chokoza, kefyakefya. 
Tell, arabia. 
tell a tale, hadithi, hadithia, nena 

or toa hadithi. 
tell tales about, chongeleza. 
Tempt, jaribu (try), shawishi (per- 
Tend to, lekea. 
Tend (sheep, &c.\ chunga, tunga 

(M.), lisha. 
Terrify, ogofya, tisha, khofisha. 
Testify, shuhudu, shuhudia, sema 

Tether, funga. 
Thank, ambia asanti, shukuru (very 

seldom used except of God). 
Thank you, assant, marahaba 

(this last is the proper answer 

to a slave's salutation). 
Thatch, vimba, ezeka. 
Think (consider), aza, fikiri, tafa- 

kari, kumbuka. 
(suppose), thaui, thania. 
think oneself, jiona. 
think oneself a man, jipevua. 
think of, tia maanani, kumbuka 

(remember), nia, ania, or nuia 

(have in one^s mind). 
Thirst, ona kiu (feel thirst), [ku-] 

wa na kiu (have thirst). 
Threaten, ogofya, ogofisha, khofisha, 

kamia (?). 
Thresh, piga, pura (heat out corn), 

fikicha kwa miguu (tread out), 

fikicha kwa mikono (ruh out). 
Thrill, tetema. 
Thrive, sitawi, fanikiwa (of persons 

Throb, puma. 
Tfirottle, kaba. 

Throio, tupa. 

throw a rider, rusha. 

throw a stone, &c., vurumis^ia. 

throw about, tawanya, ta|jai)ya 
(M.), chafua, tefua (M.). 

throw at, tupia. 

throw away, tupa. 

throw down, angusha. 

throw overboard, tosa. 

throw up, or off, rusha. 

throw a burden off the shoulder, 
&c., bwaga. 
Thunder, [ku-]wa na ugurumo (dis- 
tant), piga radi (near). 
Thwart, halifu. 

Tickle in the ribs, tekenya, shtua. 
Tie, funga. 

tie a knot, piga fun do. 

tie up into a bundle or faggot, 
Tighten, (act.) kaza, tia kassi, (neut.) 

kazana, kazika. 
Tingle, ona kinyenyefu. 
Tip off the head, shoulder, &c., 

he Tipsy, lewa, jilevya. 

make tipsy, levya. 
Tire, chosha, taajazi. 

become tired, choka. 

be tiresome, refuse to he pleaded. 
Toast, oka. [deka. 

be Together. 

We are Together, tu sote. 
Tolerate, stahimili, vumiha. 
Torment, athibu, uthi, athibisha. 
Toss, rusha. 

Totter, tetemeka (tremble), pepe- 
suka (be shaken), kongoja 
(totter in ones walk). 
Touch, gusa. 

touch gently, papasa. 

touch up, tengeneza. 



Tout for custom, &c., sapa. 
Toic, fungasa. 
Track, fuata nyayo. 
Trade, fauya biashara. 

trade in a small way, hee}) a stall, 
Train up, adibu, lea. 
Trample, finyanga, kanyaga. 
Transcribe, nakili. 
Transform, geuza, badilL 
be Transparent, ng'ara. 
Transgress, tagbi, baiifu. 
Translate, tatsiri, fasii-i, geuza. 
Trap, tega. 
Travail (of a woman), sLikwa na 

Travel, safiri. 

Tread, kanyaga, vioga (M.), finya- 
nga (trample). 
Treat, tendea. 

he treats me badly, hunitendea 

he treats me icell, hunitendea zema. 
Tremble, tetema, tetemeka, tapatapa. 
TricMe, tiriiika. 
Trim, tengeneza. 

trim vegetables, &c..for sale, cha- 

irim (sail), rausi. [mbua. 

Triumph, shinda, fanya shangwi. 
Trot, enda masbindo (of a horse), 

enda matiti (of an ass). 
Trouble, taabisha, sumbua. 

be troubled, taabika, sumbuka, 

be troubled in mind, fathaika. 
Trust in, amini, jetea, tumania. 

entrust to, aminisha, vreka, amini. 

(have confidence), tumaini. 

trust in God and take courage, 
Try, jaribu. onja (taste). 

try hard, jitahidi, fanya biJiL 

Tuck into the girdle, d-c, futika. 
Tumble, anguka, pomoka. 

tumbukia (fall into). 
Turn or turn into, (act.) geuza, geua. 
(neut.) turn, turn into, turn itself, 

turn over, or the other way, 
pindua (act.), pinduka (neut.). 
turn round something else, zu- 
nguka (neut.), zungusba (act.). 
He turned round, aligeuka. 
The river turns, mto unazunguka. 
The ship turned, meiikebu ilipi- 
turn (prevent its going on in the 

same direction), pinga. 
turn aside (neut.), potoa, potoka. 
turn bottom upicards, fudikiza. 
turn in a lathe, kereza. 
turn out well for, fanikia. 
Ticeak, nyukua. 

Twist, (act.) nyonga, songa, popotoa. 
(neut.) potoka. 

[a rope"] sokota, suka, pakasa 


Unclose, fumbua. 

be Uncomfortable, taabika, sumbuka, 

toa kuona raha. 
Uncover, funua. 
Unfasten, fungua. 
Understand, sikia, jua, fafanua, 

tambua (recognize). 
I understand, yameniclea, yame- 

make to understand, sikiza. 
to be rnutiially intelligible, maJce 

one another understand, siki- 

Undertake, thamaiui, jilazimisha 




Undervalue, rakhisisha. 
Undo (unfasten), fungua. 

untie a knot, fimdua. 

(ruin), poteza. 
Undress, vua nguo. 
Unfold, kunjua. 
Unite, unga, ungaiia. 
Unpick or Unrip, fumua. 

become unsewn, fumuka. 
Unroof, ondoa sakafu (take off a 
stone roof), ezua paa, or zu- 
mbua paa (A.), (take off thatch). 
Unsew, fumua. 

come unsewn, fumuka. 
Unthatch, ezua, zumbua (^A.) 
Untie, fungua. 

a knot, fundua. 
Upbraid, nenea, tuhumu, taya. 
Upset, pindua. 
Urge, sukuma, kaza. 
Urinate, kojoa. (make use of), tumia. 

To have been used for something, 
kiilikuwa na kitu. 

he of use, faa. 

he of use to one another, faana. 

use bad language to, tukana. 

use words well and correctly, 
Use (accustom), zoeza. 

become used to, zoea. 
Utter, tamka. 


Value, tia kima (put a price upon), 
penda (like). 
he valuable, faa, faa sana, [kii-] 
wa na manfaa. 
Vanish, toweka, toa kuonekana, 
potea, tokoiiira (get out of one s 
Go and hide yourself! Tokomea ! 

Venture, hatirisha, f^ubutu. 
Vex, kasirisha. 

be vexed, kasirika, chukiwa. 
be Visible, ouekana. 
Visit, enda kuangalia, kutazama, 
or kuzuru, jia (come to), endea 
(go to). 

he visited, jiwa. 

visit upon, patiliza. 
Vomit, tapika, kokomoka (Ijelch out). 

make to vomit, tapisha. 
Void, taugua, batili. 

be made void, tanguka. 
Vow, weka nathiii (make a voic), 
perform a vow, ondoa natliiri. 


Wail, omboleza. 

Wait, or wait for, ngoja, saburi, 

Wait a bit, ngoja kwanza. 

icait upon, ngojea. 
Waive, (neut.) a'mka. 

(act.) amsha. 

remain awake, kesha, angaza. 

he awake, [ku-]\va macbo. 

wake up suddenly with a start, 
zinduka, zindukana. 
Wale, alia. 
Walk, enda, enda kwa miguu. 

(of a horse or ass), enda delki. 

walk about, tembelea. 

take a icalk, tembea. 

walk up and down, enda masia. 

icalk lame, chechea, enda chopi. 
Wander, zunguka, potea. 

in mind, papayuka. 
Want (need), taka, ihtajia, ihtaji. 

(icish to have), taka, ipa. 

be icanting, ibtajiwa, pungnka. 
Ward off, kinga (receive on some- 
thing), bekua (knock off again) 



Warm up, kanga moto, pasha moto. 
Warn, onya, ambia, nasi, batlia- 

lisha (put on ones guard). 
Warp, Lenuka (as wood does in 
Wash, osha. [drying), 

wash clothes, fua; by dahbing 

gently only, cliachaga. 
oneself, nawa. 

wash one's hands, nawa mikono. 
Waste, (act.) tilifu, tilifislia, fuja, 
thii. haribu, tawanya, tapanya 
(neut.) pungua, tilifika. 
Watch, (act.) vizia, ngojea, angalla. 
keep watches, ngojea kwa zamu. 
watch over, linda. 
(not to sleep), kesha, angaza. 
Water, tia maji, nyweslia majL 

make water, kojoa. 
Wave, (act.) punga. 

(neut.) tangatanga. 
Waver, shangaa. 
Waylay, otea. 
Weaken, thoofisha, toa nguvu. 

become weak, thoofika. 
be Weaned, acha ziwa (leave the 

breast), shishwa. 
Wear, — the past tenses of kuvaa, 
to put on, are used to express 
He wears, amevaa. 
He wore, alivaa. 
Wear away, (neut) lika, pungua, 
(act.) la, punguza. 
Wear out, (neut.) chakaa (by age or 
He wore out my patience, alinonde- 
lea saburi. 
Wear ship, pindua kwa damalini. 
Weary, chosha. 
become Weary, cboka. 

Weave, fuma. 
tenda nguo, to stretch the threads 

ready for weaving. 
tarizi, weave a border on to a piece 
of cloth. This is the only kind 
of weaving done in Zanzibar. 
Weed (hoe up weeds), boruga, pali- 
Weep, lia. [Ha. 

weep together, lizana. 
burst into tears, bubujika macbozi. 
Weigh, pima. 

weigh down, lemea, topeza. 
Weld on a piece of steel or iron, 

Wet, tia maji, chofya majini (dip in 

Whet, noa. 
Whisper, nong'ona, uong'onezana, 

Wliistle, piga mbinda, niiunzi, mi- 
sono, or miao. Most, if not all, 
of these refer to an involitntary 
whistling sound ; to whistle 
voluntarily is regarded in Zan- 
zibar as profane. 
Widen, panua (act.), panuka (pass.). 
Will, taka, penda. 
If God will, insballab, Muuiigu 
akinijalia (if God gives me the 
Win, pata. 

W^ind (neut), zongazonga, zungu- 
icind thread, kunja uzi. 
Wink, kopesa, pepesa, pesa. 
Kukonyesba, to raise the eyebrows : 
this is a sign used ds winking 
is in England. 
Wipe, futa, paugusa. 

wipe the nose, futa kamasL 
Wish, taka, penda 
1 Wither, nyauka, fa, fifia. 



Withhold from, nyiraa, bini. 
Witness, oua (see). 

bear witness, shuhudu. 

witness about, for or against, sbu- 
Wonder, taajabu, staajabu. 
Work, fanya kazi, tenda kazi. 

work in metal, fua. 

{ferment), cbacba. 
Worry, sumbua, sumbusba. 
Worship, abudu, abudia. 
he Worth, pata kima {get a price'). 

What is it worth ? Cbapataje ? 
Wound, umiza. 

he wounded, jerubi. 

wound hy striking or piercing un- 
awares, vuaza. 

Wrap, kunja. 
Wreck, vunja. 

he wrecked, vunja, vunjika. 

go on shore, panda. 

he on shore, pweleka. 
Wrestle, pigana kwa mbavu. 
Wriggle, nyonganyonga. 
Wring, sonjoa, kamua, popotoa. 
Wrinkle, nyeuka. 

become wrinkled, kunjana. 
Writhe (like a ivounded snake\ 
Write, andika. [fingirika 

Wrong, tbulumu. 


Yaicn, enda, or piga miayo, funua 

C 209 ) 


Adverbs in Swaliili follow the words they qualify. 
Sema sana, speak out. Njema sana, very good. 

Adjectives may be used as Adverbs by prefixing vi- 

or vy-. 

Eunuha vihaya, to smell badly. 

Verbs in the Infinitive and Substantives generally 
may be made to serve as Adverbs by the use of the 
Preposition liwa. 

Kwa uicongo, falsely. Kica Tiujua, knowingly. 

Many English Adverbs may be translated by sana 
(very), which intensifies the action or quality expressed 
by the word to which it is subjoined. 

Vuta sana I Pull hard ! 
Shiha sana 1 Hold tight I 
Enda sana ! Go fast I 


There are in Swahili very few Prepositions. Indeed 
there are scarcely more than four, na, ya, kwa, and hatika, 



KatiJca has tlie same force as the case in -ni, it denotes 
locality in nearly every form in which locality can 
require to be expressed. Kiva denotes instrumentality 
and object. Na is and or with, and hy of the agent after 
a passive Verb ; in this last sense ni is used at Mombas 
and in other dialects. Ta, or rather -a with a variable 
initial letter, denotes possession ; it is treated as a pos- 
sessive pronoun, and changes its first letter according 
to the class of the noun which precedes it, that is of the 
person or thing possessed ; it can very nearly always 
be translated by of. Its forms appropriate to each class 
of substantives are : — 


See p. 209 in original. 

Many of our Prepositions are exjjressed by a Xoun or 
Adverb followed by -a. Many others are expressed by 
Verbs in their simple or applied forms (p. 159). Some 
can scarcely be expressed at all. The Preposition from 
seems to be almost wholly wanting in Swahili. It is 
sometimes implied in the Verb, as in kutoka, to come or 
go from, or to come or go out of, but generally it is 
marked only by katika or the case in -ni, which denote 
merely the locality in which the action commenced. 
From, of time, may be translated by tangu, or by toka, 
or tokea, which do not seem to be used of space or deri- 
vation, but to be b^t translated by siiice or heginning 


sing, wa, 

pliir. ica. 

Class V. sing. 7a, plur. ya. 


„ v:a. 

„ ya. 

„ VI. ,, ica, „ za. 


„ ya, 

„ za. 

„ VII. „ pa, „ j:>a. 


„ cha. 

„ vya. 

„ Vin. „ kwa, „ kica. 


Until to, as far as, of time and space, are frequently- 
translated by hatta, and (less elegantly) by mpaka, 
followed by a substantive. 


Conjunctions are often dispensed with by the use of 
the tenses witli -ka-. And, hut, or any other mere con- 
nective in a narrative, is unnecessary where the -ka- 
tense is employed, as in all ordinary cases it must be. 
The Imperative and Subjunctive may also have -ka- 
prefixed with the force of the Conjunction and, 

Katupa I And throw it away. 

Enenda sokoni kcdeta ndizi ! Go to the market and fetcli some 

Vone, uhasadiki, that you may see and believe. 

If and other Conjunctions introducing a state are 
generally expressed by using the -ki- tense of the Verb 
(see Verbs, p. 136). 

In order that is generally expressed only by putting 
the Verb which expresses the purpose into the sub- 

P 2 





About, (near) karibu na, kama 
(in the neighbourhood of),u 

Above, (adv.) juu. 
(prep.) juu ya. 
Abundantly, tele, sana. 
After, (adv.) nyuma, baada. 
(prep.) nyuma ya, baada ya. 
Nyuma is more correctly used of 

place, and baada, of time. 
After this, akiisba Qie finishing), 
akaisba (and he finished). 
Afterwards, nyumaye, baada yake, 
baadaye, tena, kiisha, halafu, 
Again., mara ya pili, tena. 
Against, juu ya. Against is com- 
monly expressed by the use of 
the applied form of the verb. 

long ago, zamani za kale, zamani, 

How long ago ? Tangu lini ? 
ten days arjo, leo siku kumi, kwa 
siku kumi, tangu siku kiuni. 

Alike, sawasawa, ginsi moja, ma- 

Almost, karibu na. 
Alone, peke yake, &c. (by himself, 

&c.), tu (only). Tu always 

follows the word or phrase 

qualified by it. 
Along, kandokando ya. 

along with, pamoja na. 
Alongside, mbavuni. 
Aloud, kwa sauti kubwa. 
Already, mbele (before), sasa (norc). 
He is already gone aicay, ame- 

kwisha kwenda zake (p. 155). 
Also, na, tena. Na always precedes 

what it is connected loith. 
Although, kwamba, ikiwa. 
Altogether, pia yote, kabisa. 
Always, sikuzote, dayima, abadan, 

kipindi, milele (for ever). 
Amidst, katikati ya. 
Among, katika. 

among themselves, wao kwa wao. 
Anciently, zamani za kale, kwanza 
And, na. 

And he, and 1, &c. See p. 103. 



And is very often ex-pressed by the 
use of the -ka- tense. See p. 134 
and p. 141. 

And folloived by a negative must 
be translated by wala. 

And so, and then, &c., bassi. 
Any is expressed by using the word 

Anywhere, po pote. 

1 don't see anything, sioni kitu. 

Anything whatever, kitu cho chote. 
Apart, mbali. 

Around, pande zote, mzingo wa. 
As (ivhen, or if), -■po-,-ki-. Seep. 136. 

(as if), kama, kana, kwamba. 

(like), -vyo, -vyo-, added to or 
inserted in the verb. 

As you please, upendavyo. 

As it ivas formerly, yalivyokuwa 

As followed by as is generally 

As big as a house, kubwa kama 

As it stands, slielabela. 
A-<hore, pwaui. 

go ashore, panda (of a ship), shu- 
ka (of a person). 

be ashore (of a ship), pwelewa. 
Aside, kando. 

At, kwa, katika ; case in -ni, folloived 
by pronouns in p-, when it de- 
notes nearness only, but by pro- 
nouns in kw- when it is inde- 

At first, awali, kwanza. 

At home, kwangu, kwako, kwake, 
kwetu, kwenu, kwao, nyumbani. 

He is not at home, hako. Hayuko 
is commonly used by slaves in 
Zanzibar, but is wholly incorrect. 

At last, mwisho, hatima, hutta. 

At length, hatta, hatima. 

At night, iisiku. 

At once, mara, mara moja. 

At the top, juu. 

At the bottom, chini. 

go away, enda zangu, zako, &c., 

according to the person going, 
come away, ja zake, &c. 
He is away, hako. 


Bach, nyuma. 

He went bach, alirudi nyuma. 
upon the bach, kwa tani, chali. 
Backwards, kingaligali (M.j, 
Because, kwa sababu. 

because of, kwa sababu ya, kwa 
ajili ya, kwani (for). 
Before, (adv.) mbele, kwanza. 
(prep.) mbele ya or za, kabla ya. 
Kabla is used preferably of time , 
mbele of place. 
To go before, tangulia. 
Before he goes to sleep, asijelala. 
Before I die, kabla sijafa. 
Behind, (adv.) nyuma. 

(prep.) nyuma ya. 
Below, (adv.) chini. 
(prep.) chini ya. 
Beside, kando la, kandokando ya, 

zayidi ya (more than). 
Besides, tena, zayidi ; na (also), pre- 
ceding the thing mentioned. 
Better, afathali, heri or kheiri. 
You had better go, afathali uene- 

nde, u heri uenende. 
Afathali is preferably, heri means 
it would be a good thing. 
Between, katikati ya, beina. 
Beyond, (adv.) kwa kuko. 
(prep.) zayidiya, juu ya. 



beyond (of place), upande wa 
pili wa. 

Both — and — , na — na, 

Both of them, wote wawili, zote 
mbili, &c., &c. 

But, lakini, wallakini (andhowever), 
illakini (^except however), ilia, 
ball. In many cases but may 
he best translated by the use of 
the -ka- tense of the verb. 

By (after a passive verb), na, ui 

(of an instrument), kwa. 
(near) katika), case in -mfolloived 

by pronouns in p-. 

Certainly, yakini, hakika, hapana 

You certainly, &c., Hakika yako, 

ChohefuU, tobtob. 
Constantly, abadan, dayima. 
Crookedly, kombokombo, misliithari. 


JJa ily, killa siku, siku kwa siku. 
Directly. See Now. 
Distinctly, kiada. 
Down, cliini. 
During, wakati wa. 

Dv/ring his journey, alipokuwa 
akisafixi, akiwa akisaliri. 


Early, mapema. 

Easily, upesi. 

Either — or — , ao — ao — , ama — 

ama — . 
EUeichere, panginepo. 
Entirely, pia, kabisa, yote, pia yote. 
Ere, kabla ya, mbele ya. See Before. 

Even, hatta. 

Even if, -japo. See p. 138. 
Ever, sikuzote, dayima, kipmdi. 

for ever, milele. 
Everyichere, mahali pote. 
Exactly, halisi, kbassa, bawaba. 
Exceedingly, 'mno subjoined to the 

word qualified, saiia. 
Except, ilia, ela (M.). Except may 

often be expressed by the use 

of the tense with -sipo. See 

p. 146. 
except by, billa. 
Excessively, 'mno subjoined to the 

word qualified, ciiapa, chapara, 


Far or far off, mbali. 
First, kwauza, mbele. 

to go first, kutangulia. 
Fluently, kama maji. 
For, (conj.) kwani. 

(prep.) kwa. For is generally 
expressed by the use of the ap- 
plied form of the verb. 

(in the place of), mahali pa. 

for the space of, muda wa. 

for the salce of, kwa ajili ya. 

for my sake, unipendavyo (as you 
love me). 
Formerly, kwanza., zamani. 
Forth, 'nje. 

to go forth, kutokar 
Forward, mbele. 

go forward, endelea mbele. 
Forwards (upon the face), fulifuli, 
fudifudi, kwa kufahamia (M.). 
Frequently, mara nyingi. 
From, katika, case in -ni. 

from among, miongoni mwa. 

from time to time, mara kwa mara. 

(since), tangu, toka, tokea. 



I had it from (of) the SheiM, 
nalipokea ya Sheikh. 
Further, ten a. 
Further on, mbcle. 


Gently, polepole, taratibu, tahafifu. 

Gladly, furalia. 

Gratis, burre, attia, bilashi. 


Hard, kassi. 

to work hard, kutenda kazi sana. 
to run hard, kaza mbio. 
Eustily, hima, kwa haraka. 
Here, hapa, huku. 
He is here, yupo. 
I am here, mimi hapa. 
Here and there, hapa na hapa. 
Hereafter, baadaye. 
Hither, hatta hapa, hapa. 

Hither and thither, kuku na 
Hitherto, liatta leo, hatta sasa. 
How"? -je suhjoined to the verb. 
Seep. 123. 
kamaipi? Kwaje? 
How is it ? Ginsi gani ? 
Hoio often ? Mara iigapi ? 
How much ? Kassi gani ? Kadri 
How, ginsi with -vyo- joined with 
the verb ; ginsi is often omitted. 
How he was, &c., ginsi alivyo- 
kuwa, &c. 
However, lakiui. 

Tf, kana, kwaniba, kama; -ki- or 
-po- inserted in the verb. See j 
pp. 13d, 146. 1 

Immediately, mara, mara moja. 

noio immediately, sasa hivi. 
In, katika, case in -ni followed by 
pronouns in m-. 
in the shoulder, ya bega. 
in front, pambele, mbele. 
[J] i7i going, nikienda, nikiwa 

m good time, at its proper time, 

in heaps, chungu chuugu. 
in order that, ilh. See p. 141, 
in place of, mahali pa. 
in the middle, katinakati. kati, 

in the middle of, kati ya, katikati 
in the morning, assubui. [ya. 

Indeed, kusema kweli. 

great indeed, kubwa sana. 
Inside, ndani. 

inside of, ndani ya, case in -ni 

followed by pronouns in m-. 
He is inside, yumo ndani. 
Into, katika, case in -ni followed by 
pronouns in m-. 


Just, see p. 116, halisi. 

Tliat is just it, ndiyo yalio. 

Lastly, kwa rawisho, mwisho. 

at last, hatima, mwisho. 
Late, kasiri. 
Less, duDi. 

to become less, kupungua. 

Less by, kassa. 
Like, kama, methili, hesabu j 

People like us, kina sisi. 
Little, kidogo. 

a little more, punde. 

a little longer, -refu punde. 




Merely, tn, bassi. Both words foUoio 
the word or phrase they qualify. 
Moderately, kadiri. 
More, zayidi. 

more than, zayidi ya. 
a little more, punde. 
Moreover, tena, na. 
Much more, or much less, sembuse, 


Near (adv.'^, karibu. 

Near to, karibu na, karibu ya. 

Nearly, karibu na or ya, kadri ya. 

Necessarily, of necessity, kanuni la- 
zim, ukwasefu. 

Neither — nor — , wala — wala — . 

Never, kabisa (icith a negative pre- 
ceding), kamwi (IVI.). 

Next, -a pill yake, kiisha. 
next to, -a pili ya. 

No, ahaa, hahaa, la, siyo, bakuna, 
hapana, bamna. These last 
three words mean, tbere is not, 
or tbere is none. 
No, by no means, hasba. 

Nor, wala. 

Not,s\. See Negative Tenses of Verhs, 
p. 143. 

Not only — , hut also — ; si — bassi, 
— lakini tena ; si — tu, ilia — . 

Not yet, bado, asitasa, baitassa, &c. 
(M.). These words are used to 
denote incompleteness, whatever 
the subject referred to may be. 
Not yet may generally be ex- 
pressed by the negative tense 
with -ja- (seep. 145), after which 
tense bado is generally added. 

Now, sasa, leo (to-day), wakati buu 
{at this time), zamani bizi {in 

these times), zamani zetu (in our 
times), siku bizi (in these days). 
Now directly, sasa bivi. 


Obliquely, banamu. 
Of, -a, icith a first letter varying 
according to the class of the 
preceding word, that is of the 
thing possessed. 
I. Mtu wa Ali, Alt's man. 
Watu wa Ali, AH's people. 
Mbuzi wa Ali, All's goat. 
Mbuzi wa Ali, Ali's goats. 
II. Mnazi wa Ali, All's cocoa- 
nut tree. 
Minazi ya Ali, Ali's cocoa- 
nut trees. 
m. Nyumba ya Ali, Ali's house. 
Nyumba za Ali, Ali's 
IV. Kisu cba Ali, Ali's knife. 

Visu vya Ali, Alt's Ttnives. 
V. Kasba la Ali, Ali's chest. 
Makasba ya Ali, All's 
VI. Uimbo wa Ali, AKs song. 

Nyimbo za Ali.AKs songs. 
vn. Mabali pa Ali, Ali's place. 
VIII. Kufa kwa Ali, Ali's dying. 

1. Nyumbani mwa Ali, in Ali's 


2. Nyumbani pa Ali, by Alis 


3. Nyumbani kwa Ali, to Ali's 

Ya is sometimes pronounced a. 

saa a sita, twelve o'clock. 

Where it is intended to mark specia II y 

the individuality of the possessor 

the possessive pronoun may he 

u^ed instead of the preposition -a. 



Kiti chake Sultani, means the 
chair in which no one hut the 
Sultan sits, or the Sultan's own 
Of is included in some words ichich 
are therefore not followed hy -a. 
Kina Abdallah, Ahdallah's people, 

or people like Abdallah. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed's 

Binti Mohammed, Mohammed's 

In, some common phrases -a is 
omitted apparently for shortness 
Often, mara nyingi. 
On, juu ya, the case in -ni. 
Put it on the table, weka mezani. 
Put it on the top of the table, weka 

juu ya meza. 
on both sides, pande mbilL 
on every side, kotekote. 
on foot, kwa miguu. 
on one side, onesidedly, pogo. 
on pwrpose, makusudi. 
on the part of, miougoni mwa. 
Once, mara moja. 

at once, mara moja, mara. 
once only, mara moja tu. 
Only, peke yake, &c. (by itself, 
alone), tu, bassi, both following 
the word or phrase qualified. 
Orderly, taratibu. 
Out, nje. 
out and out, tama. 
SpeaTi out, sema saua. 
Outside, nje, kwa nje. 

•outside of, nje ya. 
Outwardly, kwa nje. 
Over, juu ya (0/ place)^ zayidi ya 
(of quantify). Over in the sense 
of excess may be expressed by 

kupita, to pass ; and in the sense 
of finished, by kuisha, to come 
to an end. 
Tlie battle is over, mapigano ya- 

Patiently, stahimili. 

Perhaps, labuda, hwenda, kwenda, 
kwa nasibu, inshallah. 

Perpetually, dayima, abadan. 

Possibly, labuda, yamkini (it is pos- 
sible), kwa yamkini (by possi- 

Presently, halafu. 

Properly, vema, halisi, bawaba. 
-to, u^sed as an enclitic subjoined 

to verbs and substantives. 
Amejiwekato, he has placed him- 
self properly. 

Quickly, hima, himahima, kwa ha- 

raka, upesi, mbio (running). 
Quietly, taratibu, polepole. 
Quite, kabisa, pia halisi. 


Bather, zayidi (jnore), afathali (pre- 
much rather, sembuse, seuze. 


Secretly, kwa siri,ndani kwa ndani. 
Side by side, kandnkando. 
Silently, kimyakimva. 
Since, tangu, toka, tokea. 
Slowly, polepole, taratibu, kiada. 
So, ichen folloiced ly as is generally 
omitted, ichen standing alone it 



may he expressed hy ginsi, and 
-vyo inserted in the verb. 
He is 7iot so tall as you are, si 

mrefu kama wewe. 
I did not know he was so tall, si- 

kumjua ginsi alivyo mrefu. 
So far as, hatta. 
Smnetimes, niara, mara kwa mara. 
Sometimes he laughs, sometimes he 
cries, mara hucheka, mara hulia. 
Soon, hivi (immediately), upesi 
(quicldy), bado kidogo (yet a 
little), karibu (near). 
Still, ten a, hatta leo. 
Strongly, kwa nguvu. 
Suddenly, ghafala, mara moja, tha- 
ruba moja. 


Tliat (how that), kwamba, ya kwa- 

(in order that), illi. See p. 141. 
Then, is often expressed by the use of 

the -ka- tense, or by the verbs 

kwisba, to finish, or, kwenda, 

to go. 
Akiisha akatoka, having finished 

this, he went out = then he went 

Akaenda akamkamata, and he 

went and seized him = then he 

seized Mm. 
(after this), baadaye, baada yake, 

nyumaye, nyuma yake. 
(then it was), ndipo. 
(in those days), zamani zile, siku 

(at that time), wakati ule. 
There, pale, huko, kule. Pale 

points to ichat is nearest, kule 

to what is farthest off. 
Therefore, kwa sababu hii. 

Tliough, kwamba ; the -ki- tense, 
p. 136, ivhen the case is put as 
an existing one ; the -nge- tense, 
p. 138, ivhere the case is put as 
not existing. 

Tliough he is, akiwa. 

Though he be, angawa. 

(even if), -japo, i). 138. 
Thus (in this way), hivi, hivyo. 

just thus, vivi hivi, vivyo hivyo. 

(in the same way), vivyo. 
Till, hatta, mpaka wa. 
To (as the sign of the infinitive), 
ku- ; the u becomes w before a, e, 
or i, and is often omitted before 
o and u. 

Kwisha = ku-isha, to finish. 

Kwenda = ku-enda, to go. 

Knga = ku-oga, to bathe. 

To before a verb where it expresses 
the purpose or the object aimed 
at, is expressed by the use of the 

I stood up to look, nalisimaiua 

Tell him to help you, mwamljia 

I leant him to go, namtaka aende. 

J want to go, nataka kwenda. 
(In such cases as this the verb 
in the infinitive is used as a 

(unto) w generally contained in 
the verb, kupa = to give to (not 
to give). If not contained in 
the meaning of the original verb, 
it may he expressed by the use of 
the applied form. In the few 
cases in which to cannot be 
brought into the meaning of the 
verb, it must he rendered by 



(as far as), hatta. 
(to the house of), kwa. 
Together, pamoja, wote. 

When joined icith persons together 
is expressed hy forms of -ote, 

twende sote, let us go together. 
mwende nyote, go together. 
wende wote, let them go together, 
both together, wote, wote wawili. 
Topsy-turvy, Mtwakitwa, vitwav - 

Totally, kabisa, pia. 
Truly, kweli, hakika, yakini, inna. 
Twice over, kuwili. 


Unawares, ghafala. 

Under, chini ya. 

Until, hatta. 

Up, juu. 

Upon, juu ya, case in -ni. See On. 

Upicards, juu. 

Utterly, kabita. pia yote, tikitiki. 

Vainly, burre. 

Very, sana. Sana ahcays foUon\< 

the word qualified hy it. 
Vigorously, kwa nguvu, sana. 
Violently, kwa nguvu, kassi. 


Well, vema, sana, -to. See Properly. 

What ■? See p. 122. 

What do you icant 1 "Wataka nini '■ 
What tree is it ? Mti gani huu ? 
What man ? Mtu yupi ? 

What = that which. See Relatives, 
p. 117. 

When ■? Lini ? 

When (if, as soon as, &c.), the -ki 
ten!ie,p. IciG. 

(at the time ichen), -po, treated as 

a relative particle and joined 

with the verb, p. 119. 
(during the time), wakati wa. 
ichen it rains, wakati wa mvua. 
When the harvest comes, wakati 

wa kuvuna, [wa]vunapo. 
(even if), -japo, p. 138. 
Whenever, wakati wote, killa -po. 

Whenever I go, killa nendapo. 
Where ? Wapi, api, p. 123. 
WTipre are you going'? Wenda 

Wlitvt, po, ko, mo, treated as relative 

particles and joined with the 

verb. Po implies nearness, and 

mo the being inside. 
1 don't know ichere he is, simjui 

I don't know ichere I am going, 

sijui ninapokwenda. 
1 donH know ichere I came from, 

sijui ninakotoka. 
Where the tree is (or icas), penyi 

IMierever, po pote, ko kote, mo mote. 
W?ierever I go, killa nendako. 
Wherever I enter, killa ningiamo. 
Wherever I am, killa nilipo. 
Wherefore, kwa sababu hii or hiyo. 
Whether — or — , ao — ao — . 
Whether it be, licha. 
(if), kwamba. 
While, maadam, maazal. 
While, is generally expressed by 

the use of -ki- prefixed to the 

verb, p. 136. 
While it is yet early, kungali na 

mapema bado. 
Why 7 Mbona? Kwani? Kwa 

nini ? Ya nini ? Kwa sababu 

gani ? Giusi or Gissi gaiii ? 



With, na, pamoja na. 
(^as an instrument), kwa. 
(containing, having), -enyi See 
p. 97. 
Within, ndani. 
Without, nje. 

Without Qprep.), pasipo {where there 
is not). 
Without is generally expressed ty 
the -sipo- tense (p. 146). It 
may he represented hy a simple 
Se is without shame, hana haya 

= he has no shame. 
Without, followed in English hy 
the participial or verbal in -ing, 
may he rendered hy the negative 
subjunctive of the verb. 
Without seeing him, asimwone. 
Without there being, paslwe. 
Wonderfully, ajib, ajabu. 


Yearly, mwaka kwa mwaka. 
Yes, aee, eee, naam, vema, njema, 
yakini, ndio, kweli. 

Ewaa or Ee wallah are often used 
hy slaves or inferiors to expret's 
a willing assent. 

Inshallah is used as a promise to 
do something. 

Lebeka or Labeka, cojitracted 
into lebek, ebbe or even be. is 
used hy inferiors as an ansioer 
when called. Superiors or 
equals generally v^e naam,. tlie 
Arabic yes. 

Ndiyo yalio, that is just it. 
Yonder, kule, kulee, p. 115, 116. 

Zigzag, upogoupogo. 

( 221 ) 


There are in Swahili, as in all langnages, some 
Bcarcely articulate Interjections, and many of the natives, 
especially of the lower class, use a great deal of action, 
often joined with half-articulate exclamatory sounds, 
to illustrate and enforce their meaning. The following 
are the most usual Interjections, and those which can 
best be written. The words used for Yes and No are 
given in the preceding list, pp. 216 and 220. 

The ordinary salutations are in practice a sort of 
Interjections, not being very easily explained under 
any other head. 

A slave addressing a superior says Sikamoo or Nasika- 
moo, for nashiJca miguu, I embrace your feet. The 
superior replies MaraJiaha, thank you, or welome, the 
word being originally an Arabic form of congratulation 
and well-wishing. 

Equals very commonly say when they meet Jambo or 
Tamho, to which the reply is Jambo or Jambo sana. There 
is a playful or very affectionate way of continuing the 
dialogue thus — Jambo. Jambo. Jambo sana. Jambo sana. 
Sana sana. Sana sana. Kama lulu (like pearls). Kama 


marijani (like coral), &c., &c. The more correct expres- 
sions are — Su jamho ? Are you well ? and the answer, 
Si jamho, I am well. It is difficult to explain these 
phrases intelligibly. Hu jamho ? is literally, Are you 
not a matter or affair? or still more strictly, Are you 
not a word ? The meaning is very nearly that of the 
English, Is nothing the matter with you ? Sometimes 
Ha jamho is used to express, He is well, or Ha jamho 
kidogo, He is not very ill, or He is a little better. One 
may ask, U hali gani f What state are you in ? i.e.. How 
are you ? to which a proper reply is, Njema, hemd il Hlahi^ 
Good, praise be to God. The Arabic Sahalkheir, Good 
morning, and MasaWieir, Good afternoon, are often 
heard. The more elegant forms are Suhalik Allah hilh- 
heir and MasaTc Allah hilklieir. It is not usual to inquire 
about the health of a wife or of the women of a house- 
hold, unless among very intimate friends, or for some 
special reason. When necessary, one should say, Hu- 
jamho mjumhani ? or U hali gani nyumhani ? How are 
you in the house, i.e.. How are your household, or 
those in your house ? It is proper, if you are asked 
how you are, always to answer, well, for the sake of 
the omen ; and similarly if you are asked Hahari gani ? 
What news? to answer Njema, good, and then after- 
wards to give a true account of the matter. 

In Swahili Interjections a final h is often distinctly 
heard. It requires much practice to enable a European 
to make this sound properly. 


Ah! An exclamation of mingled 
grief and surprize. The final 
h must be distinctly sounded. 

Ahsdnt or asanti, thank you. Ah- 
sdnt is an Arabic word mean- 
ing, You have done well. It is 
sometimes used profusely by 
way of mere compliment. 

Amina. Amen, used at the end of 
a prayer. 

Ati ! Look you ! I say 1 It is 
used generally as a means of 
calling attention to what has 
been said, or is about to be said. 
It is a sort of vocal note of 


Bassi! or Bass! That will do! 
Enough ! Stop ! No more ! 


Chub! An exclamation of impa- 
tience and contempt; the ch 
is the sound most heard, the 
vowel being very short and in- 


Ee! 01 The interjeftion of in- 

Ewe ! plur. Enyi ! You there ! A 
rather contemptuous way of 
demanding attention. It is 
used for Hi I I say ! and any 
exclamation merely meant to 
attract notice. It must not be 
used to a superior and rarely 
only to an equal. It is custo- 
mary to call to them Bwana ! 
i.e., Master ! The answers 
will be found in the previous 
list, p. 220, under the word 

Haya! An exclamation borrowed 
from the Arabic ; it means, 
give your attention to this, go 
on with it. It is used where 
we say, Come along 1 Look 
sharp ! Be quick ! Go on I 
If it has been proposed to do 
anything, Haya ! means, I^et 
us set about it. Haya! is 
commonly used by a master oi 



overlooker to hasten men about 
their work. 

Eima ! Quick I Be quick ! Make 
haste 1 Often doubled, Hima 
hima I 

Eddil with a great stress on the 
0. It is not right to enter any 
house or room (not your own) 
without first crying Eddi ! and 
waiting for some one to come, 
or at least to answer, Kdrih^ 
Come in ! 


Je! or Ye! Hnllo! What now! 
Well ! What is it ? 


Jf '/iJ^<-^rihd i.e., come near I It is used 
to mvite people into a house, 
to join a party, or to sit down 
and put themselves at their 
ease. Kdrib^ may generally 
be translated, Come and sit 
with us ! and a common answer 
is, NimekcLa kitaho, I am set 

Kefulel An exclamation of con- 

Kua heri ! Good-bye ! Farewell ! 
Sometimes a plural is made, 
Kudherini, though it seems to 
be an incorrect form. 

Sometimes a special friend 
adds, Ya Inionana, as much as 
to say, May we soon meet again. 

Kuvibe I What I What then ! An 
expression of surprize, espe- 
cially used when things turn 
out not to be as they were 
represented to be. 


Laitil Oh that! Would that! 
An exclamation of regret, a 
wish that things had been 

Looo I An exclamation of surprize ; 
the o is more dwelt upon in 
proportion to the amount of 


Marahaha! Thank you I It is 
well ! used by way of acknow- 
ledging a gift or a compliment. 

Miye ! Me I I ! I am the one ! 

Mwenyewe 1 You did it yourself I 

Ole! An exclamation foreboding 
evil. Woe ! Ole wenu ! Woe 
unto you ! Ole wangu ? Woe 
is me I 


Saa ! You I I say ! It is put 
after a word to give emphasis 
to it. NJoo saa 1 Come on, do ! 

Salaam I Peace ! IT ail ! It is 
used as a salutation by the 
Indians. The regular Arabic 
Salaam aleikum! Peace be 
with you ! and the answer, TFa 
aleik salaam! And with yon 
peace ! is not very commonly 
heard. Salaam is often used 
in the sense of compliments : 
Salaam Bihi! With the mis- 
tress' compliments, — said in 
presenting anything. 

Similla! Out of the way! Ori- 
ginally, as it is said, Bismillah, 
In the name of God. It is now 



th e common cry by which people 
are warned of something com- 
ing. Similla punda! Make 
way for a donkey ! Similla 
vhau ! Take care of the plank ! 
Two servants frequently go 
before a great man to clear the 
way for him, and call out to 
any one in the road, Similla ! 
Similla ! 

A plural Similleni ! is some- 
times made as though it were 
the imperative of a verb. The 
more correct phrase for Get out 
of the way I is Jitenge 1 
Starehe I Don't disturb yourself I 
When a new-comer enters, the 
rest rise to do him honour, 
which he tries to prevent by 
saying, iStorei^ / Starehe i It 

is properly used to deprecate 
any trouble or disturbance on 
the speaker's account. 



Go on I 

Let us go ! 

Probably theimperative of hu- 
tenda, to do or to be employed 
Tutu 1 Don't touch 1 Used to a 
child meddling with what he 
had better leave alone. 


Vema ! Very well ! So be it J 
That wni do I 

Weye ! You ! 
It's you I 


You are the onel 



The formation and introduction of new words go on 
BO freely in Swahili, that no guide to the language 
would be complete without a section on the subject. 

Foreign words are adopted in a shape as nearly like 
their own as the rules in regard to Swahili syllables will 
allow. At first indeed a word may be used in its crude 
original shape, but it soon has vowels introduced into, 
and subjoined to it, so as to bring it into a regular form. 
Arabic words seldom present great difficulties when 
once the gutturals have been toned down. Thus Jchdhar 
(news) softens into hahdri, wakt (time) becomes first 
wdkti and then ivaMti, Jcahr or gahr (a grave) is softened 
and expanded into hahuri. It is seldom that an Arabic 
word presents so much difficulty as did these three. 
Portuguese has furnished some words, as TcasJia (caxa), a 
large box ; meza, a table ; mvinyo (vinho), wine. French 
gives a few, as hweta (boite) a box; divai (du vin) 
claret. An instance of English adaptation occurs in 
manowari, which is the current designation of an Englisb 



Some rales have been given at tlie end of tlie section 
on Verbs for tbe formation of several derived forms 
(p. 157). Verbs in tbe causative and neuter forms may 
be made from other parts of speech, especially from 
foreign Adjectives, by changing their final syllable 
into -isha or -esha, -ika or -eka, as though they had been 
originally Verbs. 

Ghali, dear. KughalisTia, to make dear. 
Laini, smooth. Kulainisha, to make smooth. 
Kulainika^ to be made smooth. 

Beside those formations which are in daily use, it is 
a great help to the understanding of the language to 
bear in mind the traces of formations not now ordinarily 
employed. In regard to Verbs it is a constant rule that 
those ending in -ua reverse the meaning of similar verbs 
ending in -a only. 

Kufunga, to fasten. Kufungua, to unfasten. 

Kufuka, to fill in a hole. Kufukua, to clear out a hole. 

Several verbs show traces of a rule, which prevails in 
some other African languages, that the change of -a into 
-ya gives the Verb a causative meaning. 

Kupona, to get well. Euponya, to cure. 
Kiiogopa, to fear. Kuogofya, to frighten. 

There are many questions about the form of Verbs 
which need much more investigation. What is the rule 
by which some causatives are made in -sJia and some in 
-za f Has the -sJia termination the effect of to make to 
be, and -za that of to make to do f What is the explana- 
tion of the apparently neuter form of some active Verbs, 



sucli as hifuniha, to cover ? "What is tlie effect of tlie 
terminations -7na and -ta, as in huungama and hufumhata f 
"What dialect did they originate in? Wliat are the 
rules for the termination -anya, which seems to be 
common in the most northerly SwahiK ? 

It has heen sho^vn in the section on verbs how some 
* tenses are formed by the nse of an auxiliary, and some 
by a tense prefix which has no independent meaning. 
An example of the transition between the two is sup- 
plied by the three forms of the negative infinitive : 1. 
kutoa hujpenda ; 2. hutoa penda; 3. Icutopenda. In the 
first form both words have a substantial independence ; 
in the second the principal verb, penda, is already 
drawn out of its proper form, and depends for its 
meaning upon the first verb, toa, as upon a prefix ; in 
the third it has swallowed up the final of the first verb 
and appropriated its prefix leu-. The form of the future 
prefix which is used with relatives points to taJca as the 
original form, and the verb hutaka is so like our own 
word to will that one can hardly be wrong in supposing 
that in both cases the change from a verb expressing 
volition to a mere sign of tense expressing futurity has 
proceeded in a similar manner. Now, if the tense pre- 
fijxes were ever independent words, the principal verb 
must have been in the infinitive ; and, if so, the presence 
of the Im- before monosyllabic verbs, wherever the accent 
requires it, is fully explained ; it was dropped wherever 
it served no purpose, and retained where it was con- 
venient to retain it. The original independence of the 
tense prefix and of the principal verb would also go to 
account for the way in which the objective prefix clings 


to tlie principal verb; it would then have originally 
followed the leu-, and so been severed by it from all the 
other prefixes. The only cases in which the natives 
separate the prefixes from the verbs in writing seem to 
be where a particle of relation is joined with the -ria-, 
-U-, and -taka- prefixes, and in the j)ast conditional or 
-ngali- tense. It is curions to have in snch a word as 
atakayehuja the same letters exactly used to form a 
tense prefix and to express an independent verb. Ata- 
haye huja means, who desires to come, atakayehuja, who 
will come, in the sense of a simple future. 


Adjectives are made from Verbs in correct Swahili by 

substituting -vu or -fu for the final -a. AVhere the final 

is preceded by a consonant the Adjective is made from 

the applied form. 

Kunyamaa, to remain silent. -nyamavu, silent. 
Kuharihu, to destroy. -harihifa, desiruetive. 

Verbs that end in -ka chano;e this into -vu in makino- 
the Adjective. 

Kueliolca, to become tired, -chovii, tired. 

These forms do not now appear to be freely made or 

used in the common dialect of Zanzibar. A somewhat 

similar meaning may be expressed by the use of the 

variable Preposition -a followed by the Infinitive of the 



Substantives may be freely made by prefixing to the 
simple form of the Verb the initial letters proper to the 
first, or to the fourth class, according to whether it is 


a living being or a thing which does what the Verb 
expresses. It must be observed, that this form is so 
purely verbal that it takes an object after it just as a 
Verb would. 

Mfanya hiashara, a trade maker, i.e., a merchant. 
Vifaa, things which are of service, necessaries. 
Kifungua mlango, the door opener. 

The final letter is sometimes changed into -i, and the 
word ceases to govern an object. 

Msemi, a speaker. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a -h- it becomes -v-, 

Kvnba, to steal. Mwivi, a thief. 

Kugoniha, to quarrel. Mgomvi, a quarrelsome person. 

Where the above rules would produce a common 
word with another meaning, the hu of the Infinitive is 

Kulima, to cultivate. Mliulima, a cultivator. 

Mlima, a mountain. 

There are a few traces of a formation of verbals by 
changing the last letter into -e, as in -teule, chosen, from 
hiteull]a, to choose. 

The habitual doer of an action may be denoted by 
adding -ji to the simple form of the Verb and prefixing 
the initial letters proper to the first Class. 

Kuomba, to beg. Mwomhaji, a beggar, 

Kuiba, to steal. Mwibaji, an habitual thief. 

Another way of denoting a person who does what the 
Verb expresses is formed by changing the final letter 
into -si J -shi, or -zi, and employing the usual j)refixes. 


When the Yerb ends in -lea the -ka becomes slii ; where 
the Yerb ends in -ta the -ta becomes -si. 

Kuohoa, to save. MicoTiozi, a saviour. 

Kununua, to buy. Mnunuzi, a purchaser. 

Kuaha, to build (in stone). MwasM, a mason. 

Kufuata, to follow. Mfuasi, a follower. 

The result of the action denoted by the Yerb may be 
expressed by changing the final -a into -o and using 
some appropriate prefix. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Mazao, fruit, produce. 

Kutenda, to do. Kitendo, an action. 

Kwenda, to go. Mwendo, a journey, or gouig. 

Of the Substantival prefixes those of the fourth (Ki-) 
Class are most often used. 

The same forms especially in the fifth Class are used 
to express the place where an action is generally done. 

KiLohx, to bake. Joko, a baking place. 

KukusanyiJca, to he SLSsemhled. MaJciisanyiho,a. gathering place, 

or an assembly. 

Words of similar meaning are also made by the termi- 
nations -zi -shi, -si. See above. 

Mavao, or Mavazi, dress, garments. 
Kizao, or Kizazi, birth, a generation. 
Pendo, or Penzi, love. 

Where the Yerb and Substantive are both borrowed 
from the Arabic, it is useful to remember that the Sub- 
stantive has generally a where some other vowel occurs 
in the Yerb. 

Kuahudu, to worship. Ibada, worship. 

Kusafiri, to traveL Safari, a journey. 


Sometimes both, tlie Arabic and the Swabili forms 

Kujibu, to answer. Jawahu and majihu, an answer. 

Verbs joined witb relatives, or with tbe particles of 
place or time, may be treated as Substantives. 

WendaJio Jcote, whithersoever thou goest. 
Killa nendapo, every time I go. 
Zikerezwazo, turnery, turned goods. 

Substantives of place may be made from Adjectives 
by putting them into the form required by JSIahali, 
place (Class VII.). 

Panyamavu, a quiet place. 

The place where something is may be expressed by 


Penyi mtende, where the date tree is, or was. 

The place for doing anything may be expressed by 
joa followed by the Infinitive of the Verb. 

Fdkutokea, a place to go out at, an outlet. 

Abstract Substantives are ordinarily formed by means 
of the prefix U- or W-, 

Karimu, generous. Wtarimu, generosity. 

-eupe, white. Weupe, whiteness. 

Mioizi, a thief. Uizi, thievishness. 

3Iuuaji, a murder. Uuaji, murders. 

Waziri, a vizier. TJicaziri^ viziership. 

An instance in which both Arabic and Swahili forms 
are used occurs in the word for enmity. 

Adui, an enemy. Wadui or Adawa, enmity. 

Kations, their country and language, are regularly 


expressed by tlie prefixes of tlie first, sixth, and fourtli 

Mgala, a Galla. Ugala, Galla land. Kigala, the Galla 

Mzungu, a European, Uzungu, the native country of the 

Europeans. Kizungu, the language which Europeans 


It is to be observed that the JJ- form would also 
express the being a Galla, European, &c., and that the 
Ki- form denotes the sort or kind of anything, not of 
language only. It is seldom used absolutely except of 
the language, but when preceded by -a (of) its true 
meaning becomes evident. 

Mavao ya Kizungu, European dress. 
Viazi vya Kizungu, potatoes. 

The Ki- form may be made from other substantives. 

Mavao ya kifaume, royal robes (form mfaume, a king, and 
ufaume, kingdom or kingsliip). 

The formation of Adverbs and Prepositions has been 
described in the section on the smaller parts of speech. 

( 234 ) 

k 3 




A A 

s: c3 s C^ .O .O .O .C" .O ct :; .O s 

v.^ v^^ v_/ v,^ ^^ \_^ s_/ v.^ \„/ v^/ \w^ s_y s,^ 



i <^ i .A 

i ^ 

>-i o ^; 

i ^S'ii'i'^i^ \ i S^> S SS 




g ^ g ^ 12; 1^ i5 ■>! 

i .i< . ^ i 

H^ ;z; K W W C> 

^Sg^liS^ l^^;i!^£t!l 

s* ^ ,e ^ .S ^ .g ^ .s ^ .g ^ -5 -S 

a a > 
^ a HH 

^* d H Ci 

> ? = a 

( 235 } 

Table of the Preposition -a (of) 
in four Languages. 

S-wAHiLi. Shambala. NTAsm'Ezi. Tao. 




































• Cha 




















































Part II. 



In using the following Vocabulary it is necessary to remember that 
Swahili words change very much at the beginning and not often at 
the end. 

In searching for the meaning of a word, which is not to be found 
exactly as written, it is well to examine first the final syllable, so as to 
correct, or remove, any termination or enclitic which may be attached 
to it. These are as follow : — 

1. The passive of the verb is made by changing -a into -wa. Verbs 
ending in two consecutive vowels frequently use as their passive the 
passive of the applied form which ends in -liwa or -lewa. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendwa, to be loved. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. Kufunguliwa, to be unfastened. 

Kuzaa, to hear. Kuzaliwa, to be born. 

Kukomboa, to buy back. Kuhombolewa, to be bought back. 

2. Verbs ending in -a change the -a ii^to -e in the subjunctive and 
imperative, and into -* in the negative present. 

Pende, love thou. 
Apende, that he may love. 
Hapendi, he does not love. 

The change of the final vowel distinguishes hapendi, he does not 
love, from hapenda, a contracted form of nikapenda, and I loved. 

3. The plural of the imperative is made by adding -ni to the 

Pendani or Pendent, love ye, 
Sifuni, praise ye. 
Fikirini, consider ye. 

B 2 


4. Substantives form the locative case by adding -ni, 

Nyumhani micangu, inside my house. 
Nyumhani hwangu, to or at my house. 
Nyumhani pangu, by or near ray house. All from Nyumha. 

5. -ni may stand for nini ? What ? 

Watakani ? What do you want ? 

6. Je? How? is subjoined to the verb expressing the action in- 
quired about. 

Asemaje f How does he speak ? i.e., What does he say ? 

7. mno, exceedingly, always follows the word it qualifies, and may 
be treated as an enclitic. 

8. -to, which, however, rarely occurs in the dialect of Zanzibar, 
denotes goodness and fitness. 

Kuwelia, to place. Kmcehato, to place properly. 
Manuka, smells. Manukato, scents. 

9. The relative signs and the particles denoting time and place are 
&ubjoined to the verb when there is no tense prefix, otherwise they 
follow the tense prefix. 

Tulala-po, when we sleep. 
Tuna-po-lala, while we are sleeping. 

The particles denoting time and place are, 

-po, when or where. 
-ko, whither or whence. 
-mo, wherein. ^ 

These preceded only by the personal prefix imply the substantive 
verb to he. 

Yupo, he is there, not far off. 

Zipo, &c., &c., they are there, not far ofi", &c., &c. 
Tuko, he is there, far off. 

Ziko, &G., (fee, they are there, far off, &c., &c. 
Yiimo, he is there inside. 

Zimo, (fee, (fee, they are there inside, &c., &c. 

The relative signs are, -clio, -lo, -o, -po, -vyo, -wo, -ye, -yo, -zo. 
Those syllables with na prefixed have the meaning of and, or icith 
hinij her, it, or them. 


10. The possessive pronouns may be used in enclitic forms. 

Thy, or your, may be expressed by subjoining, according to the 
class of the substantive, -cho, -lo, -o, -pn -vyo, -ivo, -yo, or -zo. 

His, hers, or its, may be expressed by subjoining -che, -e, -le, -pe, 
rye, -we, -ye, or -ze. 
Other enclitic forms of the possessive pronouns are,— 

'Tigu, or -angu, my. -etu, our. 

-ko, or -alio, thy. -enu, your. 

-he, or -ake, his, &c. -ax), their. 

The final letter of the substantive generally merges into the initial 
of the pronoun. 

Mwanangu, my child. Mwanetu, our child. 

Mwanako, thy child. Mwanenu, your child. 

Mwanake, his child. Mwanao, their child. 

11. New verbs may always be formed when wanted by changing the 
final vowel into -ia or -ea, -lia or -lea, to make the applied form ; into 
-za or -sha, -iza or -eza, -isha or -esha, to make a causative form ; into 
-ana, to make a reciprocal form ; and into -ha, -iha, or -eka, to make a 
neuter or quasi-passive form. 

12. In old and poetical Swahili the object of the verb is sufiixed as 
well as prefixed, as in TJ-ni-hifathi-mi, Do thou preserve me; where 
both the ni and the mi denote the object of the verb. 

The syllables thus used are -cho, -lo, -ni, -nyi, -o, -po, -81, -vyo, -we, 
-ICO, -ye, -yo, -zo. 

Having cleared the word of all adventitious terminations it wil 
probably be found at once ; if not, look for the first syllable, and so 
on, taking syllable by syllable until the word, its number, person, and 
tense, will all have been explained. It must, however, be borne in 
mind that nouns in u- or w- generally drop the initial letter in the 
plural and frequently substitute for it n- or ny-. 

Verbs and adjectives are here indexed under the first letter of the 
simplest form, or of that to which the prefixes are joined. 

Kupenda will be found as Penda Jcu-, to love. 
Mahaya will be found as -haya, bad. 

Words wliicli may be used as adjectives or as substantives, but from 
their nature can liardly be applied to any but animate beings, will be 
found under m- or mw-, &f they can very rarely in the singular take 
any other prefix. 


Substantives are indexed by the prefix with which they are generally 
used. It must be remembered, however, that the use of particular 
prefixes may be nearly always varied to suit any particular shade ot:' 
meaning, so that if the word is not to be found under one, it may 
happen that its meaning can be found under some other. 

Where no plural is mentioned, it is to be understood that the plural, 
if used at all, is in the same form as the singular. 

The following table of prefixes may be found useful. The use rif 
each will be explained in the Vocabulary. 



























































Verbal prefixes. 

1. Personal or subjective prefixes, which take precedence of all 

A- *Ki- *Mw- Si- *Vv- Yu- 





*\V- *Z- 





*\Va- *Zi- 











2. Tense 

prefixes which 

precede all except 

the signs of person, 





-si- -ta- 





-sije- -taka- 






• The<^p may all be preceded by Ha, to form negative tenses in the indicative mood, 
and personal prefixes followed by -si- make negative subjunctives. 


o. Particles of place, time, and relation, which follow the teuse 
prufix, or, if there is no tense prefix, are subjoined to the verb. 













ses. which always immedi 

















A suppressed i or r always exists between two consecutive vowels. 
It is often heard in the Merima dialect, and frequently appears where 
otherwise three or more vowels would follow one another. However, 
the more classical the Swahili, the less tolerant it is in any case of an 
I between vowels, or even as an initial letter. 

Tieee = keleJe. ete = lete. 

TJie following letters are interchanged ; 

I and r, s and sh, and vulgarly M and chi, and th and z. 

Zanzibar ch = t (M.). 
a (M.). 

d (M.), y (A.) (N.). 
ch (Ozi.). 
V (Mer.), th (Patta and Ozi.), j (vulgar). 

The letters enclosed in parentheses denote the various dialects. 
(M.) = Mombas (kimvita). (Mer.) = Southern Coast dialeit 

(A.) = Lamoo (kiamu). (Ar.) = Arabic. 

(N.) = Poetical Swahili (kingozi). 














The sound of a in Swahili re- 
sembles that of a in the English 
word "father." It is, perhaps, — 
except when doubled — somewhat 
sharper and lighter. 

"When the final a of any prefix — 
except the negative prefix ha — is 
brought by composition to precede 
immediately eitherr e or i,it coalesces 
with them and produces the sound 
of a long e. 

Aka-enda is pronounced aJcenda. 

Akawa-ita is pronounced akaweta. 

A and u have a tendency to 
coalesce into an o sound. 

Arabic substantives incorporated 
into Swahili have often been made 
by changing -i- in the verb into -o- 
in the substantive. 

Kubarizi, to hold a public 
audience. Baraza, a public 

Kusafiri, to traveL Safari, a 

A occurs in some dialects where e 
is used in Zanzibar. See E. 


A = t/a, of. 

-a with a varying initial letter, 

of. -a is used in such phrases 

as the following for in : TJnitie 

wa macho, put it in my eyes. 

Akamchoma ya kitovu, and he 

stabbed him in the navel. 
A-, the sign of the third person 
singular prefixed to verbs when 
governed by substantives which 
denote animate beings — he, she, 
or it. 

Where the tense prefix begins with 
a, one of the a's disappears. 

The following are instances of the 
way in which this a occurs. 

A-penda (for a-a-penda), he loves. 

A-na-penda, he is loving. 

A-m-penda, he has loved. 

A-li-penda (for a-ali-penda), he 

A-ka-penda, and he loved. 

A-ta-penda, he will love. 

A-ki-penda, he being in the con- 
dition of loving. 

A-nge-penda, he would love. 




A-ngali-penda, he would have 

A-japo-penda, even if he loves. 
A-sipo-penda, he not loving. 
A-pende, let him, or that he may 

A-si-pende, let him not, or that 
he may not love, or without his 
-0-, the sign of the present in- 
definite; it follows the prefix 
denoting the person of the 
subject or nominative, and 
precedes that denoting the 
object or accusative. 
N-a-m-penda, I love him (I do 
him love). 
Aali, choice, good. 
Aasi, disobedient, rebellious. 
Abadan, or dbadi, always, constantly. 
Ahiri ku-, to pass over, go across (a 
Ahhia, passengers. [river, &c.). 

Ahirisha hu-, to put across, to ferry 

Ahudia ku-, to give worship to. 
Abudisha ku-, to cause to worship. 
Abudu ku-, to worship. 
Acha ku-, to leave, leave alone, let 

be, let go, allow, acquit, divorce. 
Achana ku-, to leave one another, to, 

Achari, pickle, a relish made of 

lemon-juice and red pepper. 
Achia ku-, to leave to or for, to be- 
queath to. 
Acliilia ku; to pass over what a 
person has done, to forgive, to 
Ada, a custom, especially a customary 

Adabu, good manners, politeness. 
Kutia adabu, to make polite, to 
teach good manners. 

Adamu, Adam. 

Mwana Adamu, or Bin Adamu, a 
human being, a man. 
Adawa, enmity. 
Adi ku-, to accompany a person part 

of his way. 
Adibu ku-, to educate, to teach 

Adili, right, right conduct. 
Adiliku-, to learn to behave rightly. 
AdiUsha ku-, to teach to behave 

Adui, plur. Adui or maadui, an 
Aee, Yes, [enemy. 

Afa, plur. maafa, an enemy. 
Afathali, rather, better of the two, 

best, preferably. 
Afia, health, good health. 
Afikana ku-, to come to an agree- 
ment, agree. 
Afiuni, opium. 
Afu, wild jasmine. 
Afu ku; to save, to deliver, to par- 
don, to preserve. Also, to get 
Afya. See Afia, health. [well. 

Afya ku-, to make to swear. 
Aga ku-, to take leave of, to agree 

Agana ku-, to take leave of one 

another, to make an agreement. 
Agga ku-, to be lost, to perish. 
Agiza ku-, to commission, direct, 

give in charge, appoint to. 
Agizo, plur. maagizo, commissioni 

Agua ku-, to predict. 
Agulia ku-, to predict ofc 
Ahaal No! 
Ahadi (vulgarlyioafcodt), a promise, 

Ahadiana ku-, to promise mutually, 

Ahili, family, relations. 




Ahera, in the grave.under the earth, 
after death, at the end of the 
world. [Ar. akhr, the other.] 

Ahidi ku-, to promise. 

Ahsdnt, or Ahsanti, or Asanti, 
thanks ! thank you ! 

Aihiha ku-, to be disgraced, to be 
put to shame. 

Aihisha ku-, to disgrace, to put to 

Aihu, a disgrace, a reproach. 

Aina, kind. 

Aini ku-, to appoint. 

Ainisha ku-, to show, point out. 

Aitiwalo, pronounced Etiwalo, what 
he is wanted (or called) tor, a- 

Ajabisha ku-, to astonish, amaza 

AJabu, a wonderful thing, wonder- 

Ajali, fate, death. 

Kusalimika ajali, to be altogether 
come to an end (to be saluted 
by its fate;. 

Ajara, merit. 

Ajib ! or 'Ajah ! Wonderful ! Won- 

Ajili, or djili, sake, cause. 

Kica ajili ya, because of, for the 
sake of. 

Ajiri ku; to hire. 

Ajirisha ku-, to cause to hire, to let 
on hire. 

^Ajjemi, Persian. 

Aka ku-, to build in stone, to do 
mason's work. 

Akali, some few, some. 
Akali ya icatu, ya vitu, &c., some 
few men, things, &c. 

•ake, or -akice, his, her, or its, of 
him, &c. 
•ake yeye, his own. 

Akenda, for Akaenda, and he went. 

Akhera = Ahera. 
Akhtilaf, to quarrel. 

Atafanya akJitilaf, she will scold. 
Akia ku-, to build for. 
Ak'ia ku-, to swallow, gulp down. 
Akiha, store, a thing laid by. 

Kuweka akiha, to lay up, to put 
Akida, an oflBcer, a second in com- 
Akida wa asikari, an army officer. 
Akidi ku-, to suffice. 
Akiisha or Akisha, then, he having 

finished this business. 
Akika, a funeral feast for a child. 
Akili, intelligence, wits, under- 
standing (generally treated as a 
plural noun). 
Akina, you — addressed to young or 
inferior persons. Akina hwana 
young sirs. Akina bibi, my 
young ladies. 
Akiri ku-, to stand over, to remain 

Akirisha ku-, to adjourn, put off, 

make to stand over. 
ako, thy, your, of thee. 
-ako weice, your own. 
Akraba, relations. 

Akraba ya kuumeni, paternal 

Akraba ya kukeni, maternal 
Al, the Arabic article the. It is 
retained in many words derived 
from the Arabic, as Alf ajiri for 
Al Fajr, the dawn. Sometimes 
its form is varied, as Liwali for 
Al Wali, the governor. 
In Arabic phrases the definite 
article prefixed to the second of 
two nouns is the sign of the 
possessive case, as Eayiat al 




Ingre'z, a subject of the Englisli, 
i.e., a British subject. 
Ala, plur. maala or nyala, a sheath, 

a scabbard. 
^Alaka, a tusk of ivory. 
Alafu, thousands, 
Alama, a mark, marks. 
Alasiri, one of the Mohammedan 
hours of prayer, about half-past 

3 P.M., afternoon. 
Albunseyidi (Ar.), of the sons of 


Alf = Elfu, a thousand. 

Alfajiri, the dawn, the earliest Mo- 
hammedan hour of prayer, about 

4 A.M. A stress on the second 
syllable denotes very early dawn. 


Kofia alfia, a chiefs cap. 
Alhamisi, Thursday. 
-all- or -li-, the sign of that past 
tense which denotes an action 
complete in past time. 
'li or -li- sometimes stands for 
the verb to fee, as in a-li-ye, he 
who is, or merely, who. A-li, 
he is, or, he being. Nika-li, 
and I am. 
Alia ku; to make a mark by striking, 

to wale. 
Alifu, Alif, the first Arabic letter, 

the alphabet. 
Alika ku-, to invite, to call, to call 
invited guests to a wedding, to 
inform, to split, to click, to give 
a crack, to snap. 
Alikwa ku-, to go through a certain 
course of medicine, consisting 
chiefly of various fumigations and 
a very strict regimen. 
Aliki ku-, to hang. 
Aliko, where he is, or was. 
Alimisha ku-, to instruct. 

Aliomo, wherein he is, or was. 
Alisa, a dancing place, a house of 

Alisha ku-, to cause to snap. 

Kualisha mtambo wa hunduki, to 
click the lock of a gun. 
AllaTi (Ar.), God, more reverently, 

Allah td'ala, God the most high. 
Allah Allah, without delay or pre- 
Allah hilkheir, may God make it 

good. A common answer to the 

usual morning and afternoon 

Ahnaria, embroidery. 
Almasi, a diamond. 
Ama — ama, either — or. 

Ama siyo ? Isn't it so ? 
Amali, an act, a thing done. 
Amali, a kind of amulet. 
Amama (Ar.), a turban ? 
Amana, a pledge, a thing entrusted, 

a deposit, a present sent by another 

Amani, peace. 
Amara, urgent business. 
Amara (ya nanga), a cable. 
Amba ku-, to speak against, to talk 

scandal, to speak, to say. 
Amba. See Ambaye. 
Ambaa ku-, to go near to without 

touching, not to reach, to leave 
Ambari, ambergris. [unhurt. 

Ambata ku-, to attach, to stick. 
Ambatana ku-, to cleave together, 

to be mutually attached. 
Ambatiza ku-, to make to stick. 
Ambaye or Ambaye kwamba, who. 

The final syllable is variable, 

making amhazo, amhayo, &c., 

Ambaza ku-, to cause to pass near 

without touching. 




Anibia hu-, to tell, to say to. 

Pass. Kuamhiwa, to be told, to 
have said to one. 
Amhika ku-, to put (or be put ?) 

firmly together. 
Amhilika ku-, to be spoken to. 
Ambisana ku-, to be cemented to- 
gether, to stick together. 
Amhisha ku-, to make to hold to- 
Amhua ku-, to peel, to husk, to take 

a morsel in eating. 
Amhukiza ku-, to give a complaint 

to, infect. 
Amdelhan, a silky kind of stuff. 
Amerikano, American sheeting, best 
cotton cloth used in trading in 
the interior. 

Njia, &c., ya Amerikano, the best 
ArtiiU ku-, to manage. [way, &c. 
Amina, Amen. 
Arnini ku-, to believe in, trust. 

Kuamini mtu na kitu, to trust a 
man with something, to entrust 
something to some one. 
Amirii, or Aminifu, trustworthy, 

Aminisha ku-, to entrust to, have 

perfect confidence in. 
Amiri, plur. maamiri, an emir, an 
Amka ku-, to awake. [oflacer. 

Amkia ku-, to salute. 
Amkua ku-, to invite, summon (?). 
Amravn, a dipping line, made fast 

to the foremost yard-arm. 
Amri, order, command. 

Amri ya Muungu, a matter in 
God's hands. 

Sina amri, &c., I have no busi- 
ness, &c. 
Amria ku-, to put a thing at one's 

disposal, to give leave concerning 


Amrisha ku-, to cause to be ordered, 

Amru ku-, to order, command. 
Awsha ku-, to waken, cause to 

awake, rouse. 
Amu, Lamoo. 

Kiamu, the dialect of Lamoo, ot 
I the Lamoo kind. 

Amu, fatlier's brother. 
I Amua ku-, to judge, to separate two 
j people who are fighting. 

Passive, Kuamuliwa, to bejudged. 
Amuka ku- = Amka ku-. 
Amuru ku- = Amru ku-. 
Amusha ku- = Amsha ku-. 
Arnica ku-, to suck (M.). 
Amwisha ku-, to suckle (M ). 
Ana, he has. 
Anakotoka, whence he is coming, 

where he comes from. 
-anana, gentle, soft. 

Upepo mwanana, a soft breeze. 

Maji manana, clear, quiet water. 
Anapokicenda, whither he is going. 
Anapolala, while he is sleeping. 
Anasa, pleasure. 
Andaa ku-, to prepare for cooking, 

to make pastry, &c. 
Andalia ku-, to prepare for, to make 

made dishes for. 
Andama ku-, to follow (M.). 

M'wezi umeandama, the month is 

up — the new moon has begun. 

Andamana ku-, to accompany (M.). 

Andika ku-, to put in order, to lay 

out, to describe, to write, to steer 

a vessel. 
Andikanya ku-, to put things one 

upon another, as plates in a pile. 
Andikia ku-, to write, to lay out, 

&c., for or on account of. 
Andikiwa ku-, to be written, laid 

out, &c., for. 




Andikiana ku-, to write to one 

another, to correspond. 
Anfu, knowing, ingenioua. 
Anga, a great liglit, the firmament. 

Ndege za anga, birds of the air. 
Anga hu-y to jump or dance about 

liko a wizard. 
Angaika ku-, to be in a great bustle. 
Angalia ku-, to look attentively, 

regard, take notice, observe, be 

careful, beware of. 
Angama ku-, to be caught in falling 

(as by the boughs of a tree). 
Angamia ku-, to be ruined, to fall, 
come to poverty. 

utaangamia mwituni, you will be 
lost in the jungle. 
Angamisha ku-, to ruin. 
Angaza ku-, to be light, to be bright, 
to remain awake, to keep watch, 

Kutia mwangaza, to give light to. 
Angia ku-, to bewitch by dancing 

and jumping about. 
Angika ku-, to hang up, to bang 

against a wall. 
'angu, my, of me. 

-angu mimi, my own. 
Angua ku-, to take down, to hatch 
Anguka ku-, to fall down. [eggs. 
Angukia ku-, to fall down to, or 

Angusha ku-, to make to fall down, 

throw down. 
Ania ku-, to purpose, think of doing. 
Anika ku-, to spread out to dry. 
Ankra, a bill of sale. 
Anua ku-, to take out of the sun or 

Anuka ku-, to leave off raining. 
Anwani, the address of a letter. 
Anza ku; to begin. 

The ku- is frequently retained, as 
Alikwanza for Alianza. 

Anziliza ku-, to make a beginning. 
Anzwani, Johanna. 
Ao, or. 

Ao — ao, either — or. 
-ao, their, of them. 
Apa ku-, to swear. 
Apendalo, what he likes. 
Api'? where? 

The a sometimes is so run into 

the final a of the preceding 

word as to be scarcely separable 

from it. 

Apia ku-, to swear to, or about. 

Apisha ku-, to make to swear, to 

Apiza ku-, to swear at, to imprecate 

against, to wish bad luck to. 
Apizo, imprecation. 
Arabuni, Arabia, in Arabia. 
Arabuni, earnest money. 
Arathi, pardon. 
Arba'a, four. 
'Ari, a thing to make one blush a 

disgraceful thing. 
Aria, following, party, faction. 
Ariaa, lower ! let out the rope ! 
Arifu, knowing, ingenious. 
Arifu ku-, to inform. 
Arohaini, forty. 
Arohatashara, fourteen. 
Asa ku-, to forbid. 
Asali, syrup. 

Asali ya nyuki, honey. 

Asali ya mua, the boiled juice of 
the sugar-cane, treacle. 

Asali ya temho, fresh palm wine 
boiled into a syrup. 
' Ashara,_ten. 
Asharini, twenty. 

Ashekali, better in health during 

Kiiica ashekali, to improve. 
Kufanya ashekali, to mnke better 




Aaherati, dissipation, a dissipated 

Ashiiki ku-, to love, to love ex- 

AsMria ku-, to make a sign to. 

Jo-hur, customs duties. 

Asi ku-, to neglect one's duty to, to 
rebel, to be disobedient. 
Kuasi mkewe, to quariel with his 
wife, and not do his duty by 

Asikari, plur. asikari, or waasikari, 
a soldier. 
Kutia asikari, to enlist. 

Asili, origin, nature, source. 

Asisha ku-, to cause to leave, to 
cause to cease. 

Asitasa, not yet. 

Assubui, in the morning. 

Asusa, that which assuages bitter- 
ness or pain, takes away an un- 
pleasant taste. Also Azuza. 

Ata. Atana, Atia, Atilia, (M.) = 
Acha, Achana, &c. 

Atamia ku-, to sit on eggs, to hatch 

Afamisha ku-, to put under a sitting 

Atgul, average. [hen. 

Athahatisha ku-, to control. 

Atliama, highness. 

Mwenyi athama, the Most High. 

Athari = Hathari. 

Athibu ku-, to chastise, to punish. 

Athibisha ku-, to punish. 

Athima = Atliama. 

Avhimika ku-, to be exalted. 

Athini ku-, to call to public prayers. 

Athuuri, noon, one of the Moham- 
medan hours of prayer. 

Ati I look you ! I say ! 

AiUm, a fragrant herb used in the 
composition of kikuba. 

Attia, gratuitously, for nothing. 

Atuka ku-, to crack as the earth 

does in very dry weather. 
Aua ku-, to make a survey of, to go 

over and look at. 
Auka ku-, to grow large enough to 

bear fruit. 
Auni ku-, to help. 
Avya ku-, to produce, to spend, to 

give away. 
Awa ku-, to go out or away (Mer.). 
Awala, a promissory note. 
Awali or Aowali, first, almost* 

Awaza ku-, to dispose, to allot to 

each his share. 
Awesia, a kind of dhow like a bechni 

(which see), without any prow or 

head, with merely a perpendicular 

Awini ku-y to help, to supply. 
Amthi ku-, to barter. 
Ayari, a cheat. 
Ayari,-^. pulley, the stay of a dhow's 

Ayasi, a sort of grass. 

Ayasi ya shaba, brass wire. 
Ayika ku-, to dissolve, to melt. 
Ayithi ku-, to preach. 
Aza ku- = Waza ku-, to ponder, 

Azama, a nose ring. 
Azirna, a charm used to bring back 

a runaway slave and to drive 

away evil spirits. 
Azima ku-, to lend. 

Azimica ku-, to borrow. 
Azimia ku-y to make an azima 

Azimia ku-, to resolve. 
Azimu ku-, to resolve (generally 

pronounced dzimu). 
Azizi, a rarity, a curiosity. 
Azma, scent, fume. 




Azur, perjury. 
Azuza. See Asusa. 


B has the same sound as in 

N changes into m before &, as 
mhaya for n-haya^ bad. 
mhwa for n-hwa, a dog or dogs. 
Nw also becomes mh. 

mhingu for n-ivingu, the heavens. 
J5a, a shortened form of bwana. 
Baa, evil 
Baa, plur. mahaa, a worthless 

person, an utter reprobate. 
Baada, afterwards. 

Baada ya, after (used preferably 

of time). 
Baadaye, or baada yoke, after it, 
then, afterwards. 
BaatM, some. 

Baathi ya watu, some persons. 
Baazi, a sort of pea growing on a 
small tree somewhat resembling 
Bah (Ar.), a gate, chapter. 

Bab Ulaya, goods for the Euro- 
pean market. 
Bab Kachi, goods for the Cutch 
Bab il amana, something entrusted, 

lent to one. 
Baha, father. 
Baba mdogo, mother's brother. 
Baba wa hambo, stepfather. 

Baba wa waana, } , 

„ , ' f an owl. 

Baba wa watoto, 3 

Babaika ku-, to hesitate in speaking, 
to stutter, to talk in one's sleep. 

Babata ku-, to pat, to tap, to flatten 

Bahu. erandfathpr, ancestors. 

Babua ku-, to strip off. 

Babuka ku-, to tear, to become torn. 

Badala or Badali, a thing given in 

exchange for something else, an 

Badani. See Kansu. 
Badili ku-, to change, exchange, 

alter, become changed. . 
Badilika ku-, to be changed, to be 

Bado, not yet, used generally to 
express that the matter in ques- 
tion is as yet incomplete. 

Bado kidogo, soon. 
Bafe, a kind of snake. 
Bafta, a sort of fine calico. 
Bagala or Bdgala, a buggalo, a 

large kind of dhow square in the 

stern, with a high poop and a 

very long prow. Most of the 

Indian trading dhows are of this 

build ; they have generally a 

small mizen-mast. 
Bdghala, a mule. 
Bagua ku-, to separate. 
Baguka ku-, to be separate. 
Bagukana ku-, to be in hostility, to 

be on two sides. 
Bahari, sea. 

Bahari iVali, the Persian Gulf. 

Bahari ya Sham, the Ked Sea. 
Baharia, a sailor, sailors, the crew. 
Bdhasha, a square bag or pocket 

with a three-cornered flap to tie 

over the opening, frequently 

used to keep books in. 
BahatioT Bakhti, luck, good fortune. 

Bakhti mtu, that depends on the 
Bahatisha ku-, to guess. [person. 
Baini, &c. See Bayini, &c. 

Baini ya, between. 
Bajia, small cakes of ground begins 
and pepper. 




Bajuni = Mgunya. 

Bakaku, to dispute, to argue. 

Bakhili, a miser, covetous, miserly. 

Bakhti. See Bahati. 

Baki, the remainder, what is left. 

Baki (in arithmetic), subtraction. 

Baki ku; to remain, to be over, to 
be left. 

Bakora, a walking stick with the 
top bent at right angles to the 
stem. The best are made of a 
white, straight-grained wood 
(mtobwe), which will bend nearly 
double like a piece of lead without 
breaking or returning. 

Baksha, a packet, of clothes, &c. 

Bakuli, plur. mahakuli, a basin. 

Bakwia few-, to snatch out of the hand. 

Balaa, sorrow. 

Balamwezi, moonlight, moonshine. 

Balanga, leprosy. 

Balasi, a large kind of water jar. 

Bali, but. 

BaligM, a boy who is a virgin, a youth. 

Balungi, plur. mahalungi, a citron. 

Bamha, plur. mahamha, a plate, a 
flat thin piece. 

Bamho, an instrument like a cheese- 
taster thrust into a bag to draw 
out some of its contents for ex- 
Mabamho, large mats for beating 
out mtama upon. 

Bamvua, spring-tides. 

Bana ku-, to squeeze, press as in a 

Banada, the Somauli coast. 

Banajiri or Banagiri, a kind of 
bracelet ornamented with points 
or blunt spikes, much worn in 

Bancla, plur. wa6an(^a, a large shed. 
Banda lafrasi, a stable. 

Bandari, a harbour. 

Bandera, a flag, red stufl" the colour 

of the Arab flag. 
Bandi, a seam. 

Kupiga handi (in sewing), to 
tack, to run, to baste. 

Mtoto wa handia, a doll. 
Bandika ku-, to put on a plaster or 

any medicament. 
Bandua ku-, to strip off, to peel off. 
Banduka ku-, to peel off, to come 

out of its shell, to be peeled. 
Bangi, bhang, Indian hemp. 
Banika ku-, to roast on a spit over 

the fire. 
Baniya, a temple, a building, 

especially that at Mecca. 
Ban] a ku-, to crack nuts, &c., tx3 
break off the shell or husk by 
Banyani, plur. mabanyani, used in 
Zanzibar as a general name for 
tbe heathen Indians who come 
as traders from Cutch. 

Kujihanza, to squeeze oneself 

against a wall or into a hedge 

to allow some one else to pass. 

Banzi, plur. mahanzi, a small thin 

piece of wood, a splint. 
Bao, the tiller of a small craft (A.). 
Bao, a game in carJ-playing. 
Mahao sita = Mvumo. 
Kutia hao, to mark, in card-play- 
Bao or Bao la komwe, a board with 
thirty-two small holes, each 
about the size of a teacup, for 
playing a very favourite game 
also called bao, with komwe, or 
with pebbles. The holes are 
sometimes merely scooped out 




in the ground, and any small 
things used to play with. 
Kucheza hao, to play at the above 
Bapa, the flat of a sword, &c. 
Kupiga hapa, to strike with the 
flat of a sword. 
J3ara, a species of antelope (Helgo- 

bagus arundinaceus). 
Bara or Barra, wild country, coast. 
The Arabic name, Ze'njibarr, is 
compounded of this word and 
ZenjoT Zanj\ a negro : hence the 
Zanguebar and Zanzibar of our 
maps mean only the negro 
coast. The Swahili name for 
Zanzibar is invariably Unguja. 
Barr Faris, the piece of Persian 

coast belonging to Oman. 
Barr Sicdhil, the Swahili coast. 
Baraba, proper, just, exactly. 
Barahara, a broad open road. 
Barafu, ice. 

Baragumo, a spiral horn used as a 
musical instrument ; it is blown 
through a hole at tiie small end. 
Barai, an after brace carried on tbe 
lee side to steady the yard of a 
Bar alia, a blessing. Also common 

as a proper name. 
Baralioa, a mask reaching down to 
the mouth, universally worn by 
the women of Oman and Zan- 
zibar of the upper class. 
Barasi, a disease. 
BarathuU, an idiot, dupe, simpleton. 

Also harazuli- 
Barawai, a swallow. 
Baraza, a stone seat or bench table, 
either outside the house or in 
the hall, or both, where the 
master sits in public and receives 

his friends ; hence the durbar, or 
public audience held by the 
sultan, and the council then held. 
Baricli, cold, wind. 

Maji ya baricli, fresh water. 
Baridiyahis, rheumatism. 
Bariki Jiu-, to bless. 

N.B. — Young people are said in 
Zanzibar to bariJd, when they 
first have connection with the 
opposite sex. Girls are though t 
old enough between nine and 
Barikia hu-, to give a blessing to, 

to greet. 
Bariyo (A.), what is left from the 
evening meal to be eaten in tbe 
Barizi ku-, to sit in baraza, to hold 

a public reception. 
Barra. See Bara. 
Barua or Bdrua, a summons from a 

judge, a bill, a letter. 
Baruti, gunpowder. 
Barzuli, a fool. 
Basbasi, mace, the inner husk of 

the nutmeg. 
Bashire kheri ! may it be lucky ! 
Bashiri ku-, to prognosticate, to 

foretell by signs. 
BasMshi or Bakhshishi, a gift, a 

Basiri ku-, to foresee. 
Bass or Bassi, enough, it will do. 
When it begins a sentence it 
means — well, and so, and then. 
When it follows a word or phrase 
it means — just this and no more. 
Bastola, a pistol. 
Bata, plur. mdbata, a duck. 
Bata la bukini, a goose. 
Bata la mzinga, a turkey. 
Batela, the common dhow of Zan- 




zibar ; it ha^. a square stern and 
an ordinary boat-like head. 

Bafi, tin, block tin. 

Batil. See Betili. 

Batili liu-, to annul, to abolish, to 
reduce to nothing. 

Batli, the log (nautical). 

Batohato, plur. ma-, various colours 
and marks on an animal. 

Bau, a wizard's fortune-telling 
Kupiga bau, to divine. 

Baura, a European anchor. 

Bavuni, alongside, at the side. 

Bawa, plur. mahaica, the wing of a 
bird. Also, the scales of a fish. 

Baicaha, a hinge. 

^awa&i/, a house-porter, door-keeper. 

Baicasir, haemorrhoids. 

-baya, bad. It makes mhaya with 
nouns like nyumha. 

Bayini ku-, to recognize, to know. 

Bayinilai ku-, to be notorious, to be 
well known. 

Bayinisha ku-, to distinguish be- 
tween, separate distinctly. 

Bazazi, a trader, especially a cheat- 
ing, over-sharp trader, a huck- 

Beta ku; to carry (a child) on the 
back in a cloth. 

Behera, a he-goat given to covering, 
strong, manly. 

Bedari, the fixed lower pulley for 
hoisting a dhow sail and yard, 
bitts to which and through which 
thejirar* are passed and secured. 

Bedeni, a kind of dhow with a per- 
pendicular cutwater, or merely a 
piece of board by way of prow, a 
sharp stern, and high rudder head. 
The mast of a bedeni is per- 
pendicular; in other dhows it 

I bends forward. They come from 
j the Arab coast. 

Bee, a bargain, a trade, transaction. 

Beek, for Lebeka. 

Bega, plur. mabega, the shoulder. 

Behewa, the inner court in a stone 
house. All large houses in Zanzi- 
bar are built round an inner 

Beina, between. 

Beina yaho nini ? what do you know 
about it ? Compare Bayini. 

Bekua ku-, to parry, to knock off a 

Belghamu, phlegm. 

Bembe, food and confectionery 
cooked by a woman for her lover, 
and sent to him during the 

Bembeleza ku-, to beg. 

Bembesha ku-, to swing. 

Bembeza ku- \ to beg, to caress, to 

Bembeleza ku- j pat. 

Benua ku-, to put forward, to stick 
Kubenua kidari, to walk with the 
chest thrown forward. 

Benuka ku-, to warp. 

Kubenuka kiko kioa kiko, to warp 
and twist this way and that. 

Besa, vulgar Arabic for -pesa. Bes- 
teen = Pesa mbili. 

Besera, canopy of a bedstead. 

BeteJa = Batela. 

Beti, a pouch for shot or cartridges. 

Beti (Ar.), a house, a line in verses. 

Betili or Batil, a dhow vrith a ver\ 
long prow, and a sharp stern 
with a high rudder head. They 
generally belong to the Shemali. 
or Persian Gulf Arabs. 

Beyana, legible, clear. 


8 2 




Kula hia, to subscribe to a meal 
in common, to go shares in a 

Biashara, trade, commerce. 
Kufanya Mashara, to trade. 
Mfanyi hiasJiara, a trader, a mer- 

Bibi, grandmother. It is used as a 
title answering to my lady, and 
for the mistress of slaves. 

Bibo, plur. mdbibo, a cashew apple. 

-UcM, fresh, green, unripe, raw, 
under-done. It makes mhicJii 
with nouns like myumba. 

Bidii, effort to surpass, emulation. 

BiJcira, a virgin. 

Bikiri ku-, to deflower. 

Bilashi, gratis, for nothing. 

Bilauri, a drinking glass. 

Bildi, the lead (nautical). 

Bilisi = Iblis, the devil. 

Billa, except by. 

Bilula, a tap. 

Birna, insurance. 

Bima ku-, to insure against acci- 

Binadamu, a human being (a son 
of Adam). 

Bindo, the loin-cloth held up to 
receive or carry things, a bundle 
in a cloth. 
Kukinga bindo, to hold up the 
loin-cloth to receive things. 

Bingica, shrewd, knowing. ' 

Binti, daughter. Women in Zan- 
zibar are generally mentioned by 
their father's name only, as, Binti 
Mohammed, Mohammed's daugh- 

Birika,-p\.ur. mabirika,Q. large vessel 
for holding water, a cistern. 

Birinzi, a dish composed of meat, 
rice, pepper, &c. 

Bisha ku, to knock or cry Hodi I at 
a door tro attract the attention of 
the people within. It is held 
very wrong to go beyond the 
entrance hall of a house unless 
invited in. 

Bisha ku-, to work in sailing. Also, 
to make boards. 

Bishana ku-, to squabble, to quarrel. 

Bishara, a sign, a good sign. 

Bisho, tacking, working to the wind- 
Upepo wa hisho, a foul wind. 

Bisi, parched Indian corn. 

Bitana, lined, double, used of clothes 
wherever there are two thick- 

Bithaa, goods, merchandise. 

-Nvu or -wivu, ripe, well done. It 
makes mbivu with nouns like 

Biioi, plur. mabiici, heaps of garden 

rubbish, leaves, wood, &c. 
Bizari, a small seed used in making 

Bize, a wild hunting dog. 
Bizima, a buckle. 

-bofu or -ovu, rotten, bad, malicious. 
Boga, plur. maboga, a pumpkin. 

Boga is used as a general word 
for edible vegetables. 
Bogi = Pombe. 
Bogoaku-, to strip off leaves, to tear 

apart, to chop away wood in 

making a point ? 
Bohari or Bokhari, a storehouse, a 

house with a shop and warerooms. 
Boko, a buffalo (?). 
Bokoboko, a kind of food made of 

wheat, meat, &c. 
Bokwa, jack fruit [Tumbatu]. 
Boma, plur. maboma, a heap of 

stones, a rampart. 




Bomha, a pump. 

Bomhoromoka, plur. ma-. See Boro- 

Bomoa ku-, to make a hole through, 
to break down. 

Bomoka ku-, to have a hole broken 
through it, to be broken down. 

Bongo, plur. mabongo, brains, mar- 

Bonth, a bridge, a pier. From the 
French pout. 

Bonyea ku-, to give way, to crush 

Bonyesha ku-, to press so as to sink 
in, to make an impression with 
the fingers. 

Bonyeza ku-, to examine by feeling 
and pressing. See Tomasa. 

Boonde, a valley., a hollow place. 

Bora, great, very great, noble, best, 

Bori, the bowl of a native pipe. 

Boriti, a rafter, thick poles cut in 
the mangrove swamps and laid 
flat to support the stone roofs. 

Borohoa, a dish made of pounded 
pulse with flavourings. 

Boromoka ku-, to fall down a preci- 

Boromoka, plur. ma-, precipices, pre- 
cipitous places. Also homhoro- 
moka, plur. ma-. 

Borongahoronga ku-, to make a mess 
of one's work. 

Boroshoa, a long-shaped black in- 
sect found in dunghills. 

Boruga ku-, to stir, tocut up weeds. 

-bovu or -ovu, rotten, bad. 

Boza, a narcotic made by mixing 
bhang with flour and honey. 

Bozibozi, idle, dull. 

Brdmini, an agent (working for two 
per cent, commission.) 

^Ma,plur. mahua,the stem of millet. 
Buba, rupia, applied to various skin 

Buhu, (A.), a teat. 
Buhu, plur. mahuhu, dumb. 
Buhujika ku-, to bubble out, burst 

Kuhubujika machozi,to burst into 
Bubur 01.), dumb. 
Buddi, escape, other course. 

Sina buddi, I have no escape, ie., 
I must. 
Bueta, a box. Also bweta. (From 

the French, boite.) 
Buga, a hare (?). 
Bughuthu ku-, to hate. 
BuTiuri, incense. 
Buihui, a spider. 
Buki or Bukini, Madagascar. 
Buki, a kidney. 
Buku, a very large kind of rat. 
Bull, plur. mabuli, a teapot. 
Bumbuazi, perplexity, idiotcy. 

Kupigwa na bumbuazi, to become 

confused and abashed, so as not 

to be able to go on with one's 


Bumbici, rice flour pounded up with 

scraped cocoa-nut. 
Bumia, sternpost. 
Bumunda,j)lu.T, mabumunda, a sort 

of soft cake or dumpling. 
Bundi, a native bird, an owl. Owls 

are thought very unlucky. 
Bunduki, a gun, a musket. 
Bungala, a kind of rice. 
Bungo, plur. mabungo, a kind of 

fruit something like a medlar. 
Bungu, plur. mabungu, a dish. 
Bungu la kupozea uji, a saucer to 

cool gruel in. 
Buni, raw coffee, coffee-berries. 



Buni, an ostrich. 

Buni, (At.), sons, the sons of. 

Buni ku-, to begin, to be the first to 

do a thing, to invent. 
Bunju, a poisonous fish. 
Bunzi, plur. mabunzi, a stinging 

Buothu Jcu; to hate. 
Biqmru, plur. mahupuru, an empty 

Bupuru la Mtwa, a skull. 
Burangenif of two colours, neither 

black nor white ; also painted of 

different colours, as a dhow with 

a white sti'ipe. 
Buratangiy a whirring kite. 

MarasM ya Burdu, eau-de- 
Buri, large-sized tusks of ivory. 
Bnriani, a final farewell, asking 
a general forgiveness. 

Kutahana buriani, to ask mutual 
pardon and so take a last fare- 
Biirikao, Port Durnford. 
Burre, for nothing, gratis, in vain, 

for no good. 
Buruda, a book of the prayers used 

over a dying person. 
Burudika ku-, to be refreshed. 
Burudisha hu-, to cool, to refresh. 
Buruga ku-, to mix up, to knock 

Buruhani, token, evidence. 
Buruji, battlements. 
Burura ku-, to drag, to haul along. 
Busaraj prudence, subtlety, astute- 
Busati, a kind of matting made at 

BushasM, a thin sort of stuff. 
Buihu, tow, a gun-wad. 

Bushuti, woollen stuff, blanket, 

Bustani, a garden. 

Busu, a kiss. 

Busu ku-, to kiss. 

Buu, plur. mabuu, maggots in meat 

Buyu, plur. mabuyu,a calabash, the 
fruit of the baobab tree, used 
to draw water with. 
Buzz, plur. mabuzi, a very large 

Bivaga ku-, to throw down what 
one has been carrying; to tip 
off one's head, &c.; to rest by 
throwing down one's burden. 
Kubivaga nazi, to throw down 
Btcana, master of slaves, master of 
the house, lord, sir, used politely 
in speaking of one's own father. 
Bwana mdogo, master's son. 
Bwanda — Givanda. 

Reale ya bicara, c dollar under 
full weight, a 5-franc piece. 
Bweta. See Bueta. 


Cis required only in writing the 
sound of the English ch or of the 
Italian c before i and e. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar ch 
frequently stands for the t of more 
northern Swahili, as — 

CJiupa, a bottle (Zanzibar) = 
Tupa (Mombas). 

Kucheka, to laugh (Zanz.) = 
Kuteka (Momb.). 

CM, in the vulgar dialect, and 
amongst the slaves in Zanzibar, 
stands for ki in the more correct 
language. Several of the tribes in 



the interior follow the same rule as 
the Italian in always pronouncing 
the same root letter ch before i and 
e, and k before a and o. 

Thus slaves commonly say, Cliitu 
chidogo, a little thing, for Kitu Ju- 

As a rule, in all Swahili where 
the preformative hi has to be pre- 
fixed to an adjective or pronoun or 
tense prefix beginning with a vowel, 
it becomes c/i, thus — 

Kisu chanau, my knife, not Kisu 

Kisu chakata, the knife cuts, not 
Kisu kiakata, 

Kitu chema cho chote, every good 
thing whatsoever, not Kitu 
kiema kio Mote. 

Where ch represents ki, as the 
initial sound of a substantive, the 
plural is made by cLangiug ch into 

CJwmho, a vessel, F^/omfto, vessels. 

But where ch stands for t, the 
plural is made by prefixing ma. 

3Iachu2M, bottles. 

Machungica, oianges. 

The Arabs confound in their 
pronunciation ch with sh, though 
the sounds are in Swahili perfectly 

It would perhaps be an improve- 
ment to write all c/i's wliich repre- 
sent ki by a simple c, which has 
been used for this sound in Sechuaua, 
and to write all c/i's which repre- 
sent t by ty, which has been used 
for this sound in writing Zulu. But 
both are here represented by ch, 
because at least in the infancy of 
our studies it is puzzling to have 
two siguB for one sound, and neither 

way of writing might be quite satis- 
factory in all cases. 

There is little doubt that the 
northern t becomes ch by the addi- 
tion of a i/ sound, as the same sort 
of change takes place with d, whicli 
becomes dy or j, and sometimes 
with n, making it ny or the Spanish 
ri. The same sort of change in 
English vulgarizes nature into 
nachur, and Indian into Injun. 

Ch- = hi-, whicli see. 
Ch-, a prefix required by sub- 
stantives beginning with ki- or 
ch- representing ki-, in all pro- 
nouns and adjectives beginning 
with a vowel, and in tenses of 
the verb where the tense prefix 
begins with a vowel. 
Cha, of. 
Many quasi-substantives may be 
made by prefixing cha to a 
verb, kitu being understood, as 
chakula (a thing), of eating, 
Cha or Chayi, tea. 
Cha ku; to fear [A.] (the ku- bears 
the accent, and is retained in the 
usual tenses). 
Cha ku; to dawn, to rise [of the sun] 
the ku- bears the accent, and 
is retained in the usual tenses. 
Kumekucha, the dawn (it has 

Kunakucha, the dawning. 
Usiku kucha, all night till dawn, 
all night long. See Chwa. 
Chaanzu, the beginning of a piece 

of iikiri. 
Chacha ku-y to ferment, leaven, 

Chachaga ku-^ to wash clothes by 




dabbing them gently on a stone 

or board, not to beat them so hard 

as is implied in the more common 

word kufua. 
-chache, few, little, not many or 

much. It makes chache with 

nouns like myumha. 
Chachia hu-, to come with a press, 

to come much at once, to burdt 

upon one. 
Chachu, bran, leaven, ferment. 
Chafi, a kind of fish. 

Chafi cha mguu, calf of the leg = 
Chafu, plur. machafu, the cheek, 

especially that part which is over 

the teeth. 
Chafua leu-, to put in disorder, 

Chafuha hu-, to be in disorder, in 

Moyo umechafuha, (I) feel sick. 
Chafukachafuka ku-, to be all in a 

mess, to be all tumbled about 

and in confusion. 
Chafuo, a poisonous horse-fly. 
Chafya ku-, or kupiga chafya, or 

kwenda chafya, to sneeze. 
Chagaa = Tagaa. 
Chago, land crabs. 
Chago, the place where the head is 

laid (on a kitanda, etc.). 
Chagua, kii-, to pick out, select, 

Chai, or Chayi, tea. 
Chakaa ku-, to become worn out, 

to become good for nothing 

through age or use. 
Chake, or chakice, his, her, its. See 

Cliaki, chalk, whitening, putty. 
ChOfko, thy. See -ako. 

Chakogea = [Kitu'] cha ku-ogea, a 
thing to bathe in, a bath. 

Chakula, something to eat, food, a 
Chahula cha suhui, breakfast. 
Chakula cha mchana, dinner. 
Chakula chajioni, supper, which 

is the chief meal of the day. 
Plur. vyakula, victuals. 

Chale, a cut or gash made for orna- 

Chali, backward, on his back. 

Chama, a club, guild, band of 
Waana chama, members of it. 

Chamha chajicho, a white film over 
the eye. 

Chamho, plur. vyamho, a bait. 

Chambua ku-, to dress, clean, pick 
over, as to pluck off the outer 
leaves of vegetables when sending 
them to market, to pick the 
sticks and dii-t out of cotton, to 
pick cloves off their stalks, 

ChamhuUa ku-, to clean up, to dress 
up work or things. 

Chamhuro, a plate for wire drawing. 

Pepo za chamchela, a whirlwind. 

Cha'msha kanwa (something to 
wake the mouth), something 
eaten first thing in the morning. 

Cliana = Tana. 

Chana ku-, to comb. 

Chanda, plur. vyanda (M.), a finger, 
a toe. 

Chandalua, an awning, a mosquito 

-changa, young, immature. 

Changa ku-, to sift away chaff and 
Kula kwa kuchanga, a feast 




where each contributes some- 
thing to the entertainment. 
Changa'nika Jcu-, to be genial, to be 

hearty and pleasant. 
Changamusha ku-, to cheer up. 
Changanya Jcu-, to mix. 
Changanyika ku-, to be mixed. 
CJianganyisha ku-, to perplex. 
Changarawi, girt,little white stones 

like those in coarse sand. 
Chango, plur. vyango, a peg to hang 

things upon. 
Chango, small intestines, round 

CJiangu, a kind of fish. 
Changu, a tribal mark (?). 
Changu, my. See -angu. 
Chant = Tani, on the back, back- 
Chania ku-, to comb for, &c. 
CJianikiwiti, green. 
Chanja ku-, to cut up [firewood, &c.]. 
Chanjiwa ku-, ndui, to be cut for 

small-pox, to be vaccinated. 
Chano, plur. vyano, a large wooden 

platter, a mortar-board. 
Clianua ku-, to put forth leaves. 
Chao, their. See -ao. ■ 
Chapa, plur. machapa, a stamp, 
-a chapa, printed. [type, 

Kupiga chapa, to print. 
Chapa ku-, to beat, to stamp. 
Chapachapa, wet through, all 
Chapeo, a hat. From the French 

chapeau (?). 
Chappa or Chappara, excessively. 
Chapuo, a sort of small drum. 
Chatu, a python, a crocodile (?). 
Chavu, plui-. vyavu, a net. 
•chavu, filthy, unwashed. 
Chaica, a louse. 
Cliayi, tea. 

Chaza, an oyster. 

Chazo, a sucker fish. 

Cheche, a small box (such as a 

C/iec?2e, a brownmangouste. Also = 

Cheche, a spark. 
Chechea ku-, to walk lame. 
Chechele, an absent person, one who 

goes far beyond where he in- 
tended to stop through inattention. 
Chechemea ku-, to be lame. Also, 

to reach up, stretch up to. 
Chechi, plur. machechi, a spark. 
Chegua ku-, to choose. 
Cheka ku-, to laugh, to laugh at. 
Chekelea ku-, to laugh at, because of. 
Cheko, plur. macheko, a laugh, '^ a 

loud laugh. 
CJielea ku-, to fear for, about, &c. 
Chelema, watery. 

Chelewa ku, to be overtaken by 
something through thought- 
lessness, to wake up and find 
it broad daylight, to be struck 
foolish, to be dumbfounded. 
Also, to be too late. 

Sikukawia wala sikucheleica, I 

did not delay, and I was not late. 

Cheleza kvr, to keep, to put on one 

side, to put ofi". 
Chelezea ku-, to keep or put aside 
CJielezo = Chilezo. [for. 

Chembe, a grain, grains. 
C7t(?TO&e,plur. vyembe (N.), an arrow, 

the head of an arrow oraharpoon. 
Chemhe cha moyo (A.), the pit of 

the stomach. 
Chemhen, a chisel. 
Cliemchem, a spring of water. 
CJie'mka ku-, to boil, to bubble up. 
Chenezo, plur. vyenezo, a measuring 

rod, line, &c. 




Chenga hu-, to cleave, to cut wood, 

to prune. 
Clienge clienge^ small broken bits. 
CJienja = Chenza. 
Chenu, your. See -enu. 
Chenyi, havii\g, with. See -enyi. 
Chenza, a large kind of mandarin 

Chenza za kiajjemi, Persian, i.e., 
good chenzas. 
Cheo, plur. vyeo, measurement, 

measure, length, breadth, &c., 

position in the world, station. 
Chepechepe, wet, soaked with rain, 

Chepulm Itu- = Chipulia. 
Gierawi, a well-known mangrove 

swamp in the island of Zanzibar. 
Cheree, a grindstone. 
Cherevu, cunning, subtlety. 
Cherhhana, machine. 

Cherlihana cha Tcushona, a sewing 
Cheruwa, measles. [machine. 

Chetezo, plur. vyefezo, a censer, a 

pot to fume incense in. 
Cheti, plur. vyeti, a pass, a passport. 
Chetu, our. See -etu. 
Chewa, a kind of fish. 
Cheza Im-, to play, to dance. 

Kucheza gwaridi, to be drilled 
in European fashion. 

Kucheza komari, to play for 
Cheza, a kind of oyster. [money. 
Cheza hu-, to play with. 

Kuchezea unyago, to deflower a 
virgin (?). 
Chi = Ki: 
Chicha, the scraped cocoa- nut after 

the oil has been squeezed out. 

It is sometimes used to rub on 

the hands to clean them of grime, 

but is generally thrown away as 


Chichiri, a bribe. 

Chilcapo = Kihnpu^ a basket. 

Chikichi, plur. machikichi, the fruit 
of the palm-oil tree. 
Kichikichi, plur. vichikichi, the 
small nuts contained in the 
fruit of the palm-oil tree. 

Chllezo, plur. vilezo, a buoy. 

Cliimha ku-, to dig (M. timha). 

Chimbia ku-, to dig for (M. timbia). 

Chimbia ku- = Kimbia ku-y to run 

Chimbua ku-, to dig out or away. 

Chimbuko, origin, first beginning, 

Chini, down, bottom, below. 
Yuko chini, he is down stairs. 
Chini 7ja, under, below. 
*Chinja ku-, to cut, to slaughter 
animals by cutting the throat, 
which is the only manner allowed 
by the Mohammedan law, hence 
generally to kill for food (M. 

Chinki,3i small yellow bird kept in 

Chinusi, a kind of water sprite, 
which is said to seize men when 
swimming, and hold them un- 
der water till they are dead, (?) 

Chinyango, a lump of meat. 

Chipuka, &c. = Chupuka, &c. 

Chipukizi, a shoot, a young plant. 
See Tepukuzi. 
Chipukizi ndio mti, children will 
be men in time. 

Chiriki, a small yellow bird often 
kept in cages. 

Chiro, chironi = Choo, chooni. 

Chiroko = Cliooko, a kind of pulse. 

Chiti = Cheti, a note of hand, a rote 
of any kind. 




Cho, -cko, -cJio-, v.'hich. 
Che chote, whatsoever. 

Ckoa, ringrorm. 

Ch^jcha Till; to poke out from, out 
of a hole. 

Cliochea hu-, to make up a fire, to 
turn up a lamp. 

Cliochelezca Jcu-, to stir up and in- 
crease discord, to add fuel to the 

Cliofya Tiu-. See Chovya. 

Choka JiU; to become tired. 
Nimeclwha, I am tired. 

Chohaa, lime. 

Cholcea, a stye in the eye, hordeolum. 

Chokoa hu-, to clear out, to free 
from dirt, enlarge a small hole. 

ChoJcochoko, a kind of fruit with a 
red prickly rind, white pulp, and 
a large kernel. 

Chokora ku-, to pick (with a knife, 

Chokora, plur. machokora, a hanger- 
on, a follower, a dependant. 

Chokoza ku-, to teaze, to irritate. 

Chole, a place on the island of Zan- 
zibar famous for cocoa-nuts ; also, 
the chief town of Monfia. 

Glioma ku-, to stab, to stick, to 
prick, to dazzle. Vulgarly in 
Zanzibar — to use fire to in any 
way, to burn, to roast, to parch, 
to fire, to apply cautery, to bake 

Clwmho, plur. vyomho, a vessel, a 
pot, a dhow. 
Vyomho is used for household 
utensils, things used in a 
house, goods. 

Chomea ku-. See Choma ku-. 

Chomeka ku-, to be stuck into, to be 
set on fire. 

Chomelea ku-, to take out a bad 

piece of cloth, thatch, &c., and 

put in a new one. 
Chomoza ku-, to be hot. 
I Chonga ku-, to cut, to adze, to hollow 
out, to cut to a point. 

Kuchonga kalamu, to make a pen. 
Chonge, canine teeth, cuspids. 
Chongea ku-, to cut for, or with. 
Chongea ku-, to do a mischief to, to 

get (a person) into trouble, to 

inform against. 
Giongeleza ku-, to carry tales, to 

Chongo, loss of an eye. 

Kuica na chongo, to have lost an 

Mwenyi chongo, a one-eyed person. 
Chongoka ku-, to be precipitous. 
Choo, plur. vyoo, a privy, the bath- 
room, which always contains one. 
Chooko, a small kind of pea, very 

much resembling the seeds of 

the everlasting pea of English 

Cliopa, plur. machopa, such a quan- 
tity as can be carried in the two 


Kwenda chopi, to walk lame in 
such a manner as tliat the lame 
side is raised at every step. 
Chopoa ku-, to drag out of one's 

Chopoka ku-, to slip out of the hand. 
Chora ku-, to carve, to adorn with 

carving, to draw on a wall. 
Chorochoro, scratclies, marks. 
Clioropoka ku-, to slip out of one's 

Gwveka ku-, to put into water, to 

Chovya ku-, to dip, to gild. 
Chosha ku-, to tire, to make tired. 




CJiosi = Kisoze. 

Chota Jcu; to make up a little at a 

Chote, all. See -ote. [time. 

Chovu, weary, tired. 

Choyo, greediness, avarice. 

Micenyi clioyo, a miser. 
Chozi, plur. machozi, a tear, a tear- 
Chub ! sht ! nonsense ! 
Cliuhua hu; to take the skin oflf, to 

Chubuachuhua liu-, to bruise about, 

to batter. 
Chuhuha ku-, to be raw, to be 

CJmhiin, a plummet. 
Chucliu ya ziica, a teat. 
Chuchumia ku-, to stretch up to 

reach something. 
Chui, a leopard, leopards. 
Chuja ku-, to strain. 
Chujuka ku-, to have tlie colour 

washed out. 
Cliuki, the being easily disgusted 
or offended. 

Ana chuki huyu, he is easily put 
Chukia ku-, to be disgusted at, to 

abhor, to hate, not to bear. 
Chukiwa ku-, to be offended. 
Chukiza ku-, to disgust, to offend. 
Chukizisha ku-, to make to offend. 
Chuku, a cupping horn. 
CJiukua ku-, to carry, to carry 
off, to bear, to support, to sus- 

Kuchukua mimha, to be pregnant. 
Chukulia ku-, to carry for a person. 

Pass, kucliukulhca, to be carried 
for, to have carried for one, to 
be borne, to drift. 
Ckukuliana ku-, to bear with one 


CJiukuza ku-, to make, to carry, to 

Cliula or Chura, plur. vyula, a frog. 
Cliuma, plur. vyuma, iron, a piece 

of iron. 
Chuma ku-, to pluck, to gather^ to 

make profit. 
Chumha, plur, vyumba, a room. 
Chumvi, salt. 

Chumvi ya haluU, sulphate of 
Cliuna ku, to flay. [magnesia. 

Chunga ku-, to pasture, to tend 

Cliunga ku-, to sift. 
Chungu, plur. vyungu, an earthen 

cooking pot. 
CJiungu, ante, 
Chungu, sl heap. 

Chungu chungu, in heaps. 
-chungu, bitter (uchungu, the 

quality of bitterness). 
CJiungulia ku-, to peep. 
Chungiva, plur. machungwa, an 

CJmngwa la kizungu, a sweet 


Chunika ku-, to lose the skin, to be 

Chunjua, a wart. [flayed. 

Chunuka ku-, to love exceedingly, to 

long for. 
Chunuzi = Cliinusi. 
CJiunyu, an incrustation of salt, as 

upon a person after bathing in 

salt water. 
Chuo, plur. vyuo, a book. 

Chuoni, school, 

Mwana wa chuoni, a scholar, 
learned man. 
Cliupa, plur. machupa, a bottle, 
Chupia ku; to dash. 
Chupuka ku- or Chipuka ku-. to 

sprout, become sprouted, to shoot, 

to spring. 




Chupuza Im-, or Chipuza hu-, to 
sprout, to throw out sprouts, to 
shoot, to spring. 
Churuhiza ku-, to drain out. 
Chururika hu- = Churuziha hu-. 
Churuica, measles. 
Churuza ku-, to keep a stall, to 

trade in a small way. 
Churuzika ku-, to run down with. 
Kuchuruzika damu, to bleed 
Chussa, plur. vyussa, a harpoon. 
Chuuza = Churuza. 
Chwa ku-, to set (of the sun). The 
ku- bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mchana kucliwa, or kutwa, all 
day till sunset, all day long. 


D has the same sound as in 
English. It occurs as an inital 
letter chiefly in words derived from 
the Arabic. 

L ox r and t become d after an 
n. Befu, long, makes kamha ndefu, 
a long rope, not nrefu. 

Kanitafutia, and seek out for me, 
when pronoimced quickly becomes 

D in the dialect of Mombas be- 
comes j or dy in that of Zanzibar. 

*Ndoo I Come (Momb.). Njoo! 

See C and J. 

Data, a small tin box. Also, a fool. 

Dacha ku, to drop. 

Vada, sister, a term of endearment 

among women. 
D si ku-, to pry into things, to 

ask impertinent and unnecessary 
questions. . 

Dafina, a hidden treasure. 

Daftari, an account book. 

Dafu, plur. madafu, a cocoa-nut 
fully grown before it begins to 
ripen, in which state it supplies a 
very favourite drink. When the 
shell has begun to harden and 
the nutty part to thicken, it ceases 
to be a Dafu and becomes a 

Dagaa, a kind of very small fish 
like whitebait. 

Daggla, a short coat. 

Dai ku-, to claim, to sue for at 

Daka ku-, to catch, to get hold of. 

DaJiika, a minute, minutes. 

Daku, the midnight meal during 
the Eamathan. A gun is fired 
from one of the ships at Zanzibar 
about 2 A.M., to give notice that 
the time for eating is drawing to 
a close. The name is said to be 
derived from the saying : — 

" Leni upesi, kesho kuna ndaa Tcuu." 
" Eat quickly, to-morrow there will be 
great hunger." 

Dakidiza ku-, to contradict, to deny 

formally, to rebut. 
Dalali, a salesman, a hawker, an 

Dalia, a yellow composition much 

used as a cosmetic : it is said to 

give softness and a sweet smell 

to the skin. 
Dal ill, a sign, a token. 

Hatta dalili, anything at all, even 
a trace. 
Dama, a game played on a board 

like chess. 
Damani = Demani. 




Damu, blood. 

Danga ku-^ to take up carefully, as 
they take up a little water left 
at the bottom of a dipping place 
to avoid making it muddy. 

Danganika ku-, to be cheated. 

Danganikia ku-, to put to coufusion. 

Danganisha ku-, to confuse. 

Danganya ku-, to cheat, to humbug, 
to impose upon. 

Danzi, plur madanzi, a bitter, 
scarcely eatable sort of orange. 
The Danzi is reputed to be the 
original orange of Zanzibar. The 
name is sometimes applied to 
all kinds of oranges, and sweet 
oranges are called madanzi ya 
Kizungu, European (Portuguese) 

Dao. See Dau. 

Dapo, plur. madapo, a native 

Darabi, plur. madarahi, a rose 

Daraja, a step, a degree, a rank, a 
staircase, a bridge, a league. 

Darasa,a class for reading, a regular 
meeting for learning. 

Dari, a roof, an upper floor. 

Darini, up-stairs, or, on the roof. 

Darizi, embroidery, quilting. See 
also Kanzu. 

Darumeti, part of a dhow, inner 

Dasili, a detergent powder made 
of the dried and powdered leaves 
of the mkunazi. 

Dasturi. See Desturi. 

Dau, plur. madau, a native boat 
sharp at both ends, with a square 
mat sail. They are the vessels 
of the original inhabitants of 
Zanzibar, and chiefly bring fire- 

wood to the town from the south 

end of the island. 
Daulati, the government. 
Daica, plur. datoa or madawa, n 

Daiva ya kuhara, a purgative. 

Dawa ya kutapika, an emetic. 
Dawamu ku-, to persevere. 
Dawati, a writing desk. 
Dayima, always, perpetually. 
Dayimara = Dayima. 
Dehe, tin can. See Daha. 
Deheni, lime and fat for chunam- 

ming the bottoms of native craft. 
Deheni ku-. to chunam the bottom 

of a dhow. 
Deka ku-, to refuse to be pleased, 

to be perverse, to be teazing. 
Delhi, a donkey's walk. 

Kwenda delki, to walk (of a 
Dema, a kind of fish-trap. 
Demani, the sheet of a sail. 
Demani, the season of gentle 

southerly winds, beginning about 

the end of August. It is applied 

less correctly to the whole season 

of southerly winds from April to 

the end of October. 
Dendaro, a sort of dance. 

Kukata denge, to shave the hair 

except on the crown of the head. 

Den^M, peas, split peas. They are 

not grown in Zanzibar, but are 

brought dry from India. 
Deni, debt, a debt, debts. 
Deraye (?), armour. 
Desturi, a so it of bowsprit, to carry 

forward the tack of a dhow-sail. 
Desturi, custom, customs. 
Deidi, a silk scarf worn round the 





Devai, claret, light wine. 

Dia, composition for a man's life, 
tine paid by a murderer. 

Dibaji, elegance of composition, a 
good style. 

Didimia hu-, to sink. 

Didimihia hu-, to bore with an awl, 

Didimisha ku-, to sink, to cause to 

Digali, part of a native pipe, being 
the stem which leads from the 
bowl into a vessel of water 
through which the smoke is 

Diko, plur. madiJco, a landing-place. 

Dimu, a lime. 

Dimu tamu, a sweet lime. 

Dim, religion, worship. 

J)ira, the mariner's compass. 

Dirihi ku-, to succeed in one's pur- 
pose by being quick, to be quick 
enough to catch a person, to be 
in time. 

Dirisha, plur. madirisha, a window. 

Diwani, plur. madiwani, a council- 
lor, a title of honour among the 
coast people. 

Doana, a hook. 

Dohi, a washerman. 

Doda ku-, to drop. 

Dodo. See Emhe. 

Dodoki, plur. madodohi, a long 
slender fruit eaten as a vege- 

Dodoa ku-, to take up a little at a 

Dofra, plur. madofra, a sailmaker's 

-dogo, little, small, young, younger. 

Dohaan, Dokhaan, or Dohani, a 
Marikebu ya dohaan, a steamship. 

I Hence Dohani, or Dokhani, a sort 

: of tall basket in which fruit 

is brought on men's heads to 

market. The foundation is 

made of sticks about two feet 

long, loosely tied together, 

which are supplemented with 

plaited cocoa-nut leaves, until 

the whole becomes perhaps six 

feet high and fifteen to twenty 

inches in diameter. These 

dohani are often decked with 

flowers and green leaves. 

Dokaa ku-, to nibble. 

Dokem ku-, to give a little part of 

anything, to give a hint. 
Dokra, a cent. 
Eupiga domo, to tell a person in 
Dona ku-, to peck. 
Donda, plur. madonda, large sores. 
Donda ndugu, malignant ulcers. 
Dondo, pi. madondo, a tiger cowry . 
Used to smooth down seams with. 
Dondo, stsLich, the dressing of calico. 
Dondoa ku-, to pick up small frag- 
ments, to pick up rice, &c., to 
pick up bit by bit. 
Dondoka ku-, to drop from little by 
Mbegu zimenidondoka, the seeds 
dropped from my band one by 
Dondoro, Dyker's antelope. 
Donea ku-, to flatter like a bird. 
Donge, plur. madonge, a small round 

thing, a ball. 
Donoa ku-, to peck, to sting. 
Doti, a loin-cloth, a piece of cloth a 

little less than two yards long. 
Doya ku-, to go as a spy, 
Dua, worship, theology. 



Duaruy a windlass, anything round. 

Dude, plur. madude, a what-is-it ? 

a thing of which you don't know 

or have forgotten the name. 

Dudu, plur. madudu, an insect, 

Duduvuhj a kind of hornet which 

bores in wood. 
-dufu, insipid, tasteless. 
Dulca, plur. maduka, a shop. 
DuMza hu-, to listen secretly. 
Bukizi, plur. madukizi, an eaves- 
dropper, a tale-bearer. 
Dumhuza, a plant having big yellow 

flowers with dark centres. 
Dumia hu-, to persevere. 
Bumisha ku-y to make to continue. 
Dumu, a jar (?). 

Dumu ku-j to continue, to persevere. 
Dun, a fine. 
Dundu, plur. madundu, a large 

pumpkin shell used to hold 

Dunge, the green skin of the ca- 
shew nut, an immature cashew 

Dungu, plur. madungu, the roof 

over the little stages for watching 

corn, &c. 
Dumgumaro, a kind of spirit, also 

the drum, &c., proper for expelling 
Duni, below, less. [him. 

Dunia, the world, this world. 
Durabini, a telescope, an eyegl iss. 
Kupiga durabini, to use a glass, 

Duru hu-, to surround. 
Durusi hu-, to meet in a regular 

class for study. 
Dusamali, a striped silk scarf or 

handkerchief worn upon the head 

by women. 
Duumi, a dhow sail. 

Duzi, plur. maduzi, one who de- 
lights to find out and proclaim 
secrets and private matters. 


E has a sound between those of a 
in gate and of ai in chair. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar it is 
often substituted for the a of more 
northern Swahili, especially as re- 
presenting the Arabic /ei'/ia. 

Merikehu, a ship, is in the 
Mombas dialect Marihahu, and in 
the Arabic Markah. 

The sound of e often arises from 
the fusion of the final a of a prefix 
with an e or i which follows it, as — 

Akenda for A-ha-enda, and he 

Akaweta for A-ka-wa-ita, and he 
called them. 

Some of the cases in which e in 
the Zanzibar dialect stands for a in 
northern Swahili may be explained 
by the substitution at Zanzibar of 
in for a mere 'n, as in the word for 
" land " or country," which is ^nfi 
at Mombas, with so mere an 'n that 
the vowel of the preceding word may 
be run into it, as in the saying — 

" Mvunddnti, mwandnti." 
"A country can be ruined only by its own 

Whereas in Zanzibar, besides the 
usual change of t into ch, the first 
syllable has generally a distinct * 
eound, and may be better written 

Thus at Mombas the root of the 
adjective " many " seems to be ngi, 
making the substantive " plenty," or 
" a large quantity," ungi, and with 




the proper prefix "many people," 
ica-ngi. But in Zanzibar " plenty " 
is lo-ingi, and "many people" wengi, 
as if tca-ingi. 

Ehhe, for Leheha. 

Ebv.! Eehol well then! come then! 


Ku halia eda, to remain in ex- 
treme privacy and qniet for five 
months, as is usual by way of 
mourniug for a husband. 

Edashara, eleven. 

Ee! 0! 

Ee Waa ! or Ee Wallah I the common 
answer of slaves and Inferiors 
when called to do something, a 
strong assent. 

Eema (M.) = Dema, a kind of fish- 

Egemea hu-., to lean. 

Ehee! Yea \ 

Ekerald, a provocation, an irritating 
word or thing. 

Ehua ku-, to break by bending. 

Ekuka ku', to be sprung, to be 

-ekundu, red. It makes jekundu 
with nouns like kasha, and 
ny ekundu with nouns like ny- 

Ela (M.), except. [umha. 

Elafu, thousands. 

Elea ku-, to float, to become clear. 
Moyo vximwelea, he feels sick (M.) 
Yamekuelea ? Do you under- 
stand ? Have they (my words) 
become clear to you ? 

Eleka ku-, to carry a child astride 
on the hip or back. 

Elekea ku-, to be right, to agree, to 
be opposite to. 

Eltkeana ku-, to be opposite to one 

Elemisha ku-, to teach, instruct. 
Eleza ku-, to make to float, to swim 
a boat, to make clear, to explain. 
Elfeen or Elfain, two thousand. 
Elfu, a thousand. 
Elimisha ku-, to instruct, to make 

Elimu, or e'Umu-, learning, doctrine. 
-ema, good, kind. It makes jema 
with nouns like kasha, Sindnjenia 
or ngema with nouns like nyumha. 
-emlamha, narrow, thin, slim. It 
m^ikes jembamha with noims like 
kasha,and nyemhamba with nouns 
like nyumha. 
Euibe, a mango. In Mombas the 
plural is Maembe, in Zanzibar it 
is Embe. 
Embe dodo, or Embe za dodo, a 
very large kind of mango, bO 
named from a plantation in 
Pemba, where they fiist grew. 
Enibe kinoo, a small kind of 
mango which is very sweet. 
Embioe, glue, gum. 

Embice la ubuyu, a kind of paste 
made from the fruit of the 
calabash tree. 
Enda kiv-, to go. The kic- is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Kivenda is often used merely to 
carry on the narration without 
any distinct meaning of going. 
Sometimes it is employed as 
an auxiliary, nearly as we say 
in English, he is going to do 
it. Sometimes it expresses 
an action merely, as Etcenda 
chafya, to sneeze. Kioenda and 
Kupiga used in this way can- 
not be exactly translated. 
Kicenda kica mguu, to walk. 
Kicenda temhea, to go for a walk. 




Kwenda mghad, &c., to go canter- 
ing, &c. 
Kwenda zangu, zaJco, zake, &c., in 
other dialects, vyangu, vyake, 
&c., and thangu, tliake, &c., to 
go away, to go, to go one's way, 
to depart. 
Imekwenda tivaliwar, they have 
gone to fetch it. 
Fndea kw-, to go for, to, or after. 
Endeka kw-, to be passable, to be 
capable of being gone upon, to 
be gone upon. 
Endelea kio-, to go either forward 
or backward. 
Kwendelea mhele, to advance. 
Kwendelea nyuma, to retire. 
Endeleza ku-, to spell, to prolong. 
Enea ku-, to spread, to become 

Enenda ku-, to go, mostly in the 
sense of to go on, to proceed, to 
go forward. 
Enenza ku-, to measure together, to 

try which exceeds the other. 
Eneo, the spread, the extent covered. 
Eneo la Muungu, God's omni- 
Eneza ku-, to spread, to cause to 
spread, to cause to reach. 
Muungu amemweneza killa mtu 
riziki zake, God has put within 
the reach of every man what 
is necessary for him. 
Enga ku-, to split mahogo for 

Engaenga ku-, to coddle, to tend 

over carefully. 
Engua ku-, to skim. 
-enu, your, of you. 

-enu ninyi, your own. 
Emji or Enyie, You there! You 
there, I say 1 

-enyi, having, possessing, with. It 

makes mwenyi, loenyi, yenyi, 

zenyi, lenyi, chenyi, vyenyi, and 

penyi, which see. 
Enza ku-, to ask news of a person. 
Enzi, or Ezi, sovereignty, dominion, 

Mwenyi ezi, the sovereign, he who 
is supreme. See Ezi. 
Epa ku-, to endeavour to avoid (a 

stone, stroke, &c.) 
Epea ku-, not to go direct to, to 

miss a mark, not to shoot straight 

(of a gun). 
Epeka ku-, to be avoidable, to be 

what can be got out of the way of. 
-epesi, light, not heavy, easy, quick, 

willing. It makes jepesi with 

nouns like kasha, and mjepesi 

with nouns like nyumba. 
Epua ku-, to brush or shake off, to 

take away. 
Epuka ku-, to be kept from, to avoid, 

to abstain from. 
Epukana ku-, to be disunited. 
Epukika ku-, to be evitable. 

Haiepukiki, it is inevitable. 
Epusha ku-, to make to avoid, tc 
keep from. 

Epusliv-a ku-, to be kept from, to 
be forbidden something. 
-erevu, subtle, shrewd, cunning. 
Erevuka ku-, to become shrewd, to 

get to know the ways of the 

world, to grow sharp. 
Erevusha ku-, to make sharp and 

Eria ku-, to ease off, let down. See 

Eslia, the latest Mohammedan hour 

of prayer, which may be said to 

be from half-past 6 to about 

8 P.M. 




Esse (?), a screw. 
-etu, our, of us. 

-etu sisi, our own. 
Eua ku-, to sprinkle with Wivtor 
after praying by way of charm 
against a disease. 
■eupe, white, clear, clean, light- 
coloured. It makes jeupe with 
nouns like kasha, and nyeupe with 
nouns like nyumba. 
-eupee, very white. 
-eusi, black, dark-coloured. It 
makes jeusi with nouns like 
kasha, and nyeusi with nouns like 
Eicaa = Ee Waa. 
Ewe.' You there ! Hi ! I say, you ! 

plur. Enyi. 
Eza ku; to measure. 
Ezeka ku-, to thatch, to cover with 

Ezi = Enzi, sovereignty. 

Mwenyi ezi Muungu, or Mn-enye- 
ztmngu. Almighty God, God 
the Lord, representing in Swa- 
hili the AllaJi taala, God the 
Most High, of the Arabic. 
Ezua ku-, to uncover. 

Kuezua ixia, to strip a roof. 


F has the same sound as in 

jPand V are confounded by the 
Arabs, though in Swahili perfectly 
distinct, thus : — 

Ku-faa means — to be profitable to. 

Ku-vaa means — to put on. 

There is, however, in some cases 
a little indistinctness, as in the 
common termination ifu or ivu; the 

right letter is probably in all cases 
a V. 

The Arabs in talking Swahili 
turn p's into fs, and say funda for 
puncla, a donkey ; and conversely, 
some slaves from inland tribes turn 
/'s intop's. P, however, does some- 
times become / before a y sound, 
as kuogopa, to fear, kuogofya, to 

There is a curious fy sound used 
in some dialects of Swahili, which 
is rarely heard in Zanzibar. 

Fa ku-, to die, perish, cease, fade 
away. The ku- bears the ac- 
cent, and is retained in the usual 
Faa ku-, to be of use to, to avail, 
to be worth something, 
Haifai, it is of no use, it won't do. 
Faana ku-, to be of use to one an- 
other, to help one another. 
Fafanisha ku-, to liken. 
Fajanua ku-, to recognize, to under- 
Fafanuka ku-, to become clear. 
Fa/anukia ku-, to be clear to. 
Fafanulia ku-, to make clear to. 
Faganzi ku-, to become callous. 
Mguu u-angu umenifaganzi, my 
foot is asleep. 
Fagia ku-, to sweep. 
Fahali, plur. mafahali, a bull, used 
of men in the sense of manly. 
Fahamia. [strong. 

Kica kufdhamia (M.), on the face, 
Fahamisha ku-, to make to under- 
stand, to remind. 
Fahamu ku-, to understand, to re- 
Fahari = Fakhari, glory. 

T 2 




Kufanya fahari, to live beyond 
one's means and station. 
Faja lafrasi, a stable. 
Fakefa, generous,a generous person. 
FaJchari, glory. 
Fakiri, poor, a poor person. 
Fala ku; (Mer.) = Faa ku-. 
Falaki, or fdlak, astronomy. 

Kupiga falaki, to prognosticate 
by the stars. 
Fall, an omen, omens. 
Fana ku-, to be very good of its 

kind, to become like (?). 
Fanana ku-, to become like, to 

Fananisha ku-, to make to resemble. 
Fanikia ku-, to turn out well for, 

Kufanikiwa, to prosper. 
Fanusi, a lantern. 
Famja ku-, to make, to do, to adapt, 
to mend. 
Kujifanya, to make one's self, to 

pretend to be. 
Kufanya kura, to cast lots. 
Kufanya shauri, to take counsel. 
Fanyia ku-, to do or make for or to. 
Nikufanyieje'? What am I to do 
with you ? 
Fanyika ku-, to be made or done, 

makable or doable. 
Fanyiza ku-, to amend, to mend. 
Fanyizika ku-, to be very good, to 

be well done. 
Far a or Far afar a, brimful, full to 

the brink. 
Faragha, privacy, secrecy, leisure. 
Faraja, comfort, ease after pain. 
Farajika ku-, to be comforted, to 

be eased. 
Farakana ku-, to be alienated. 
Farakiana ku-, to be alienated in 

regard to one another. 
Farakisha ku-, to alienate. 

Faranga, pi. mafaranga, a chicken, 

a young fowl. 
Farasi or Frasi, a horse, in Arabic 

a mare. 
Fariji ku-, to comfort, to console. 
Fariki ku-, to become separated, to 

Fdrine, a kind of rice and milk 

FarisM ku-, to spread. 
Faritha, pay. 

Faroma, a block to put caps on 
after washing them, to prevent 
their shrinking. 
Farrathi, necessity, obligation, obli- 
Farratld, a place one habitually 
goes to. 
The th of this word is the Eng- 
lish til in that, the ih of the 
preceding word is a little 
Farumi, ballast. 
FasMfaski, nonsense. 
FasMni, the sternpost of a dhow. 
FasiJii, correct, clean, pure. 
Fasili, spreading. 

Huna dsili, icala fasili, you have 
neither root nor branches, i.e., 
neither good birth nor great 
Fasiri ku-, to explain, to interpret. 
Fasiria ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 
Fataki, a percussion cap, a gun cap. 
Fathaa, restlessness, disquiet. 
Fathaika ku-, to be troubled, dis- 
quieted, thrown into confusion. 
Fathali = AfathaU, preferably. 
Fafhali = Fathili. 

FatheJii ku-, to put to confusion, 
to find out a person in a trick, 




Fathili, a favour, a kindness, kind- 
Fathili ku-, to do a kindness, to 

deserve well. 
Fatiha, a Mohammedan form of 

Fatiishi Itu-, to pry, to be over 

Fauluku'jto getpast,to getthrough, 

to weather. 
Fawiti Jcu; to delay, to occupy, to 

Faijida, profit, gain, advantage, 

Fayidi ku-, to get profit. 
Fayiti ku-, to delay. 
Fayitika ku-, to be delayed. 
Fazaa, trouble, confusion, anxiety. 
FeJca ku- = Fieka ku-, to clear 

forest lands. 
Felefele, an inferior kind of millet. 
Feleji or Felegi, a choice kind of 

Upanga ica feleji, a long straight 
two-edged sword, used by the 
Feleti ku-, to discharge, to release 

from an obligation, to release. 
Feli, plur. mafeli, a beginning of 

speaking or doing. 
Fereji, a channel, a drain. 
Ferusaji = Forsadi. 
Fetha, silver, money. 
Fethaluka. Manjani ya fethaluka, 

the true red coral. 
Fetheha, a disgraceful thing, a 

Ff.theheka ku-, to be found out in a 

disgraceful thing, to be put to 

Fetiu-a ku-, to be condemned or 

adjudged to [a punishment]. 
Fetwa ku-, to give judgment on 

a question of Mohammedan 

Feuli, the place in a dhow where 

they stow tilings which may be 

wanted quickly. 
Fi, by. 

Sahafi saha, seven times seven. 
Fia ku; to leave behind, to die to. 

Pass. Kufiwa na, to lose by 

Fiata ku-, to liold one's hands oi 

one's clothes between one's legs. 
Fiatika ku-, to be kept back, to be 

Fiatua ku-, to allow a spring to 

escape, to let off. 
Fiatuka ku-, to escape (as a spring) 
Ficha ku-, to hide. 

Kunificlia kofia-, to hide a cap 
from me. 

Kunificliia kofia, to hide my cap. 
Fidi ku-, to ransom (of the piice 

Fidia, a ransom, a sacrifice (giving 

Fidia ku-, to ransom (of the person 

Fidina, mint (?). 
Fieka ku-, to clear. 

Kufieka micitu, to clear ground 
in a forest. 
Fifia ku-, to disappear, to cease to 

be visible (as a scar or a mark ; 

it does not imply motion), to 

pine away, (of seeds) not to 

come up. 
Figa, plur. mafiga, the three stones 

used to set a pot over the fire 

upon. See Jifya. 
Figao, a movable fireplace. 
Figili, a kind of large white radish. 
Figo, kidney (M.). 
Fika ku-, to arrive, to reach, to come. 




Fikara, thought. 

Filda ku', to reach a person. 

Fikicha ku-, to crumble, to rub to 
pieces, to rub hard, to thresh 
corn. (Used also obscenely). 

Fikilia ku-, to come to a person on 
business of his, to arrive and 
return without delay. 

Fikiliza ku-, to cause to arrive for. 
Kufikiliza ahadi, to fulfil a pro- 

Fikisha ku-, to make to arrive, to 
lead, to take. 

Fikira, thought, consideration. 

Fikiri ku-, to consider, to ponder. 

Fil, a chess castle or rook (in 
Arabic, an elephant). 

Fila ku- = Fia ku-. 
Afile mhali, that he may die out 
of the way. 

Filimhi, a flute. 

Filisi ku-, to take away a man's 
property, to seize for debt. 

Filisika ku-, to come to want, to 
have been sold up, to have run 
through all one's money. 

Fimho, a stick. 

Finessi, plur. mafinessi, a jack fruit. 
Finessi la kizungu, a duryan. 

Fingirika ku-, to roll along, to be 
rolled, to writhe like a wounded 

Fingirisha ku-, to roll, to make to 

Finya ku-, to pinch. [roll. 

Finyana ku-, to be pinched to- 
gether, to be gathered up small. 

Finyanga ku-, to do potter's work, 
to make pots, to tread and 

Fianya ku-, to chirp, to make a 
chirruping noise with the mouth, 
to do so by way of showing con- 

Fira ku-, to commit sodomy. 
Fir ana ku-, to commit sodomy to- 
Firigisi, the gizzard. 
Firinglii = Firigisi. 
Firkomba, an eagle (?). 
Firuzi, a turquoise. 
Fisadi, one who enters other peo- 
ple's houses for a wrongful pur- 
FisJia ku-, to cause to die. [pose. 
Fid, a hysena. 

Fisidi ku-, to enter other people's 

]iouses for a wrongful purpose, 

to commit an offence in another 

man's house. 

Fitliuli = Futhuli, officious, over 

Fitina, slander, sowing of discord, 

a disturbance. 
Fitini ku-, to slander, to sow dis- 
Fitiri, alms and presents given at 

the end of the Ramathan. 
Flto (plur. of ujito), long slender 

Fiwa ku-, to be died to, to lose by 
Mwanamke aliofiica rta mumewe, 
a widow. 
Fiwe, a sort of bean growing on a 
climbing plant with a white 
Fojofu. [flower. 

Kufa fofofu, to die outright 
Fola, a gift expected from those 
who first touch a new-born baby, 
paying your footing. 
Foramali, a ship's yard. 

Dawati ya formash, a workbox. 
Forsadi, a small kind of edible 

fruit, mulberries. 
Fortha, a custom-liouse. 

Forthani, at the custom-house. 




Fras, Frasi, or Farasi, a horse, a 

Frasi, a chess knight. 

•fu, dead. 

Maji mafu, neap tides. 

Fua, a wooden bowl. 

Fua ku-, to beat (?), to wash clothes, 
to clear the husk from cocoa- 
nuts, to work in metal, to make 
things in metal. 
Kufua chuma, to be a blacksmith. 
Kufuafetha, to be a silversmith. 
Kufua thahabu, to be a goldsmith. 
Kufua Msu, &c., to forge a knife, 

Fuama hu-, to lie on the face 

Fuata }cu-, to follow, to imitate, to 

Fuatana hu-, to accompany, to go 

Fuatanisha hu-, to make to accom- 

Fuau-a hu-, to lie on the side and 
be beaten by the waves, as when 
a vessel goes ashore broadside on. 
Pass, of fua (?). 

Fuawe, an anvil. 

Fucha = Futa. 

Fudifudi, on the face (of falling or 

Fudihiza hu-, to turn bottom up- 
wards, to turn cards backs upper- 

Fufua hu-, to cause to revive, to 

Fufuha hu-, to revive, to come to 
life again. 

Fufuliza hu-, to cause to come to 
life again for some one. 

Fufumonye, in the kitchen (Pemba). 

Fuga hu-, to keep animals either 
tame or in captivity. 

Fugika hu-, to be capable of being 
kept, to be capable of domesti- 
cation, not to die in captivity. 

Fuja hu; to waste, to squander, to 
leak. See Vuja. 

Fiijiha hu-, to moulder, waste away. 

Fujo, disorder, uproar. 

Fiijofujo, slovenliness, laziness. 

Fuha, a kind of thin porridge. 

Fuhu hu-, to fill in a small hole. 

Fuha moshi hu-, to throw out smoke, 
to fume. See Vuhe. 

Fuhara, very poor. 

Fichia hu; to fill up a small hole. 

Fuhiza hu-, to cense, to put the 
fuming incense -pot under a per- 
son's beard and into his clothes, 
by way of doing him honour. 

Fuhizo, vapour, fumes. 

Fuho (?), a mole. 

Fuho, plur. mafuho, a large bag. 

Fuhua hu-, to dig a small narrow 
hole, such as those to receive the 
posts of houses ; to dig into a 
grave so as to get at the body ; to 
dig out, to dig up. 

Fuhuafuhua hu-, to burrow. 

Fuhuta hu-, to blow with bellows. 

Fuhuza hu-, to drive away, to chase. 

Fuhuzana hu-, to chase one another. 

Fuhuzia hu-, to drive away from. 

lulia hu-, to work in metal for, to 
make things in metal for. 

Fid {full, on the face, forwards. 

Fidiza hu-, to go on, not to stop ; 
also, to blow upon, to kindle. 

Fullani, such a one, such and such 
men or things. 

Fululiza hu-, not to stop or delay 
to go on fast. 

Fuma hu-, to weave. 

Fuma hu-, to hit with a spear, to 
shoot with arrows. 




Fnmania ku-, to come suddenly 
upon, to surprise, intrude. 

Fumaniana ku-, to intrude into 
people's bouses without reason- 
able cause. Those who do so 
have no remedy if they are beaten 
or wounJed. 

Fumatiti, au owl (?). 

Fumha ku-, to close, to shut (used 
of the eyes, the mouth, the 
hand, &e.). 
Maneno ya fumha, a dark saying. 
Makuti ya fumha, cocoa-nut 
leaves plaited for making en- 
closures . 

Fumha, a lump. 

Fumha, a kind of sleeping mat, 
which is doubled and sewn to- 
gether at the ends, so as to make 
a large shallow bag. The sleeper 
gets inside, and draws the loose 
edge under him, so as to be com- 
pletely shut in. 

jP?^?w6ato/i;M-, to close til e fist, to grasp. 

Fumhatika ku-, to be grasped. 

Fumhia ku-, to talk darkly. 

Fumho, plur. mafumho, a dark say- 
ing, a hidden thing. 

Famhua ku-, to unclose, to open the 
eyes, &c. 

Fumhuka ku-, to come to light. 

Fumhulia ku-, to lay open to, to 

Fumi, a kind of fish. 

Fu'mka ku-, to become unsewn, to 
open at the seams, to leak (of a 

Fumo, plur. mafumo, a flat-bladed 

Fumo, a chief (Kingozi and Nyassa). 

Fumua ku-, to unrip, to unpick. 
Kufumua moto, to draw out the 
pieces of wood from a fire. 

Fumuka ku- = Fu'mka ku-. 

Funda, a large mouthful making 
the cheeks swell out, a sip (?), 
a draw at a pipe. 
Kupiga funda, to take large 
mouthfuls one by one. 

Funda ku-, to beat up, to mis by 
beating, to pound. 

Funda ku-, to teach. 

Fundi, a skilled workman, a master 
workman, a teacher of any handi- 

Fundinha ku-, to teach, to instruct. 
Kujifundisha, to learn. 

FundisJio, plur. mafunduho,ir.stvuc- 
tion, direction, teaching. 

Fundo, plur. mafundo, a knot. 
Kupiga fungo, to tie a knot 

Fundua ku-, to untie. 

Funga, a civet cat. 

Funga ku-, to fasten, to tie, to bind, 
to imprison, to fast. 
Kufunga choo, to become consti- 

Fungamana ku-, to cling together, 
to connect, to tie together, to rely 

Fungana ku-, to bind, to stick 

Fungasa ku-, to tow. 

Fungate, a period of seven days 
after the completion of the wed- 
ding, during which the bride's 
father sends food to the bride- 
groom and his friends. 

Fungisha ku-, to shut against. 

Fungo, a civet cat. 

Fungu, plur. mafungic, a bank, a 
shoal, a heap, a part, a week. 

Fungua. See Mfunguo. 

Fungua ku-, to unfasten, to open, 
to let loose, to leave off fast- 




Funguka 7cu-, to become unfastened, 

to be unfastenable. 
Funguliwa ku-., to have unfastened 

for one, to be unfastened. 
Funguo (plur. of Ufunguo), keys. 
Funguza Jcu-, to present with food 

during the Eamathan. 
Funika ku-, to cover (as with a lid), 

to close a book. 
Funikika ku-, to become covered. 
Funikiza ku-, to cover (as with a 

Funo, a kind of animal. 
Funua ku-, to lay open, to uncover, 
to open a book, to unpick sew- 
ing, to show cards. 

Kufunua macho, to open one's 
Funuka ku-, to become opened, to 

open like a flower, &,c. 
Funza, a maggot. 
Funza ku-, to teach. 

Kvjifunza, to learn. 
Fupa, plur. mafupa, a large bone, 

the anus (?). 
•fupi, short. It makes fupi with 

nouns like nyumba. 
Fupiza ku-, to shorten. 
Fura ku-, to swell, to be pufled up 

from the eflects of a blow only. 
Furaha, gladness, joy, pleasure, 

Furahani, with gladness, liappiness. 
Fur alii ku-, to rejoice, to be glad. 
Furalda ku-, to rejoice in. 
Furahisha ku-, to make glad. 
Furahiwa ku-, to be made glad, to 

be rejoiced. 
Furijika ku-, to moulder away. 
Furika ku-, to run over, to boil 

over, to inundate. 
Furukuta ku-, to move, as of some- 
thing moving under a carpet. 

Furumi, ballast. 

Furungu, plur. mafurungu, a large 

citron, a shaddock, a kind of 

Furushi, a bundle tied up in a 

Fusfus or Fussus, precious stones. 
Fnsi, rubbish. 
Futa ku-, to wipe. 

Kufuta kamasi, to blow the nose. 
Futa ku-, to draw a svfOTd(=vuta9). 
Futari, the first food taken after a 

Futi, plur. mafuti, the knee (A.) 
Futhuli, oflSciousness. 
Futika ku-, to tuck into the girdle 

or loin-cloth. 
Futua ku-, to open out a bundle, 

take out what was tucked in. 
Futuka ku-, to get cross or angry. 
Futukia ku-, to get cross with. 
Futuri, a span. 
Futuru ku-, to eat at the end of a 

fast, to break a fast. 
Fuu, plur. mafuu, a small black 

Fuvu, plur. mafuvu, an empty shell. 

Fuvu la kitiva, a skull. 
Fuza leu-, to go on, not to stop. 
Fuzi, plur. mafuzi, a shoulder 

Ficata ku- = Fuata ku-. 
Fyoa ku-, to answer abusively. 
Fijolea ku-, to answer a person with 

abuse and bad language. 
Fijonda ku- or Fyonja ku-, to suck 

Fyonya ku-, to chirrup. See 

Fyonza ku-, to suck. 
Fyoma ku-, to read (M.). 
Fyuka ku-, to go off, to drop, to 

escape like a spring. 





G is always to be pronounced 
hard, as in *'gate." Much con- 
fusion arises from the way in which 
the Arabic letters jim and kaaf or 
qaf are pronounced by different 
Arabs. Jim is properly an Englisli 
_;, and is so used by the Swahili, 
and qaf is properly a guttural k, 
but most Arabs in Zanzibar pro- 
nounce either jim or qaf as a hard 
g. This must be remembered in 
writing or looking for many Swahili 

The Arabic GJiain is retained in 
many Swahili words borrowed from 
the Arabic, and a similar sound 
occurs in African languages also. 
It is here written gli. Most Euro- 
peans think it has sometliing of an 
r sound, but this is a mistake ; it is 
a hard grating gr, made wholly in the 
throat. It resembles the Dutch g, 
and the German g approaches it. 

Gaagaa ku-, to turn over restlessly, 

to roll like a donkey. 
Gahri. See Kahuri. 
Gadi, a woodea prop to keep a 

vessel from falling over when 

left by the tide. 
Gaclimu ku-, to put gadi. 
Gaga, plur. magaga, rubbish, dirt. 
(?a^, plur. magai, a large piece of 

Galme. See Kalme, the small mizen 

mast of a dhow. 
Galawa, a canoe, a small canoe 

hollowed out of the trunk of a 
tree, and have two long poles 
tied across, to the end of which 
pieces of wood pointed at both 
ends are attached, which serve 
to prevent the canoe upsetting. 
These outriggers are called 
matengo. See Mtumbwi. 

Gamha. See Jigamha. 

Gana, the tiller, the rudder handle. 

Ganda, plur. maganda, husk, rind, 
shell, hard bark. 
Ganda la tatu, the three of cards. 

Ganda ku-, to stick, to freeze. 

Gandama ku-, to cleave, to stick. 

Gandamana ku-, to cleave to- 
gether, to coagulate, to curdle, to 

Gandamia ku-, to stick to, to cleave 

Gando, plur. magando, the claw of 
a crab. 

Ganga ku-, to bind round, as when 
a stick is sprung to bind it 
round with string, to splice, to 
mend, to cure. 

Gauge, a soft white limestone. 

Gango, plur. magango, a cramp, a 
splint, something which holds 
other things together in their 
riglit place. 

Gani! What? What sort of? 
Ihe name of the thing queried 
about always precedes the word 

Imekufa ganzi, it has lost all 

feeling. See Faganzi. 
Kutia ganzi la meno, to set the 
teeth on edge. 

Gari, plur. magari, a carriage, a 
wheeled vehicle. 

Garofuu, cloves. Also, a kind of rice. 




Gauza, Gauha, etc. See Geuza, 

Geuka, etc. 
Gaica ku, to divide, to part out. 

Kugaica harata, to deal cards. 
Gaicanya hu-, to divide, to share. 
Gaya ku', to change one's mind, 

to vacillate. 
Gayami, a post with a cleat at the 

side of the poop, to fasten the 

sheet of a dhow sail to. 
Gayogayo, a flat fish, (?) a sole. 
Gema ku-, to get palm wine. They 

cut the immature flowering shoot 

and hang something under to 

catch what flows from the wound, 

which is the temho, or palm wine. 

The cutting is renewed from 

time to time to keep up the 

Gerribe, plur. mageiribe, a hoe. See 

-geni, foreign, strange. 

Mkuu genzi, one who knows the 
roads well, a guide. 
Gereza, a fort, a prison. 
Geua kvr, to turn, to change (Mer.). 
Geuha ku-, to become changed, to 

turn, to change. 
Geuza ku- or Geusha ku- (?), to 

cause to change, to turn, to 

Geuzi, plur. mageuzi, a change, 

Ghdfalu, suddenly. 
GhafaUka ku-, to be imprudent, not 

to attend to, to neglect. 
Ghdfula = ghdfala. 
Ghairi ku-, to annul, change one's 
mind as to, put an end to. 

Kutia ghairi, to offend, to irri- 
Ghala, a wareroom, a store place, 

especially the rooms on the 
ground-floor of Zanzibar houses, 
which have generally no win- 
dows, but merely a few small 
round holes (jniangazd) near 
the ceiling. 

Ghali, dear. 

Ghalirae. See Galme, Kalme 

Ghalisha ku-, to make dear. 

Ghangi, a kind of dhow resembling 
a bagala, except that it has not 
so long a prow. 

Ghanima, good luck, profit. 

Gharama, expense, payment to a 
native chief by a caravan. 

Gharika, a flood, the flood. 

Ghariki ku-, to be flooded, to be 
covered with water. 

GJiarikisTia ku-, to flood, to over- 

Gliarimia ku-, to go to expense 
about, to be at the expense of. 

Ghasi, a measure of about a yard. 

Ghasi, rebellion. 

Ghasi ku-, to bother, worry. 

Ghasia, bother, coming and going, 
want of privacy. 

Ghathabika ku-, to be enraged, to 
be angry. 

Ghathalisha ku , to enrage, to make 

Ghathahu, anger. 

Ghelihu ku-, to master. 

Gheiri, jealousy, jealous anger. 

Ghiana, an aggravating person. 

Ghofira, plur. maghofira, pardon. 

Gliofiri ku; to forgive sins ; used of 
God only. 

Gliofiria ku-, to forgive a person. 

Ghdrofa, an upper room. 

Glioshi ku-, to adulterate. 
Ghuha (?), a sheltered place, a 




Ghubarij plur. maghubari, a rain 

Ghubha, a bay. 
Ghumiwa ku-, to be startled, to 

stand aghast. 
GhuriJca ku-, to be arrogant. 
Ghururi, arrogance. 
Ghushi ku- = Glioshi hu-, to adul- 
Ghusuhu ku; to cheat, to swindle. 
Gidam, the strap of a sandal, 

passing between the toes. 
Ginsi, sort, kind. 

Ginsi ilivyokuioa njema, &c., it 
was so good, &c. 

Crinsi gani ? or Gissi gani ? 
Why ? How is it ? 
Giza or Kiza, darkness. 
Gnamha or Ng'amba, a hawk's-head 

Gnomhe or Ng'omhe, an ox, cattle. 
Goa. See Coo. 
Gohoa ku; to break off the cobs of 

Indian corn. 
Godoro, plur. magodoro, a mattress. 
Gofia, a pulley. 
Gogo, plur. magogo, a log of timber, 

the trunk of a tree when felled. 
Gomba ku-, to be adverse to, to 

oppose, to quarrel with. 
Gombana ku-,to squabble, to quarrel. 
Gombeza ku-, to forbid. 
Gombo, plur. magombo, a sheet of a 

Gome, plur. magome, bark of a tree. 
Gomea ku-, to fasten with a native 

Gomeo, a native lock. 
Gonga ku-, to knock. 
Gonjweza ku-, to make ill. 

Kujigonjweza, to make oneself 
out an invalid, to behave like a 
sick man. 

Gongo, plur. magongo, a large 

Gongojea ku-. 

Kujigongojea, to prop oneself with 
a staff, to drag oneself along by 
the help of a stick. 
Gongomea ku-, to hammer in. 
Goo. See Mtondo goo. 
Gora, a piece of cloth, a package of 

cloth. See Jura. 
Gorong'ondwa, a kind of lizard. 
GosM, the tack of a sail. 

Upande wa gosTiini, the weather 

Eupindua kwa gosliini, to tack. 
Gota ku-, to tap, to knock. 
Gote, plur. magote, the knee. 

Kupiga magote, to kneel. 
Goteza ku-, to jumble together 

different dialects or languages. 
Govi mho, uncircumcised. 
Gubeti, prow of a dhow. 
Gubiti, barley-sugar (?). 
Gudi, a dock for ships. 
Gudulla or Guduwia, a water-cooler, 

a porous water-bottle. 
Gugu, plur. magugu, undergrowth, 

Gu^u mwitu, a weed resembling 
-gugu, wild, uncultivated. 
Gugumiza ku-, to gulp, to swallow 

with a gulping sound. 
Guguna ku-, to gnaw. 
Gugurusha ku-, to run with a 

shuffling noise like a rat, to drag 

along with a scraping noise. 
Guia ku-, to seize (Mer.). 
Guiana ku-, to cling together. 
Gulegule, a dolphin. 

Kidole cha gumba, the thumb. 




Bunduld ya gtimegume, a flint gun. 

-gumu, hard, difficult. 

Guna hu-, to grunt, to make a dis- 
satisfied noise. 

Gundua hu-, to see one who thinks 
himself unseen, to discover un- 
awares, to catch. 

Gunga ku-, (1) to warn against 
doing something, (2) to refuse 

Gungu, a kind of dance. 

Gungu la hufunda, danced by a 

single couple. 
Gungu la kukwaa, danced by two 
couples. » 

Gunia, a kind of matting bag. 

Gunzi, plur. magunzi, a cob of 
Indian com. 

Gura hu-, to change one's place of 
residence (A.). 

Gurisha hu-, to make to remove, to 
banish (A.). 

Suhari guru, half -made sugar. 

Gurudumo, plur. magurudumo, a 
Gurudumo la mzinga, a gun- 

Guruguru, a large kind of burrow- 
ing lizard. 

Gusa hu^, to touch. 

Gutuha hu-, to start, to be startled. 

Guu, plur. maguu, leg (A.). 

Gwa hu-, to fall [Tumbatu]. 

Gwanda, a very short hanzu. 

Gwia hu- = Guia hu-. 

Giciana hu- = Guiana hu-. 


H has the same sound as in the 
English word " hate." 
There are in Arabic two distinct 

ft's, one wholly made in the throat, 
the other somewhat lighter than the 
English h. In Swahili there is only 
one h sound, which is used for both. 

The Arabic hli is pronounced as 
a simple h in all words whicli are 
thoroughly incorporated into Swa- 
hili. The hli is used by Arabs and 
in words imperfectly assindlatod. 
Some people regard it as a mark of 
good education to give the proper 
Arabic sounds to all words of Arabic 

In Arabic a syllable often ends 
with h, which is then strongly pro- 
nounced ; but in Swahili the h is 
generally transposed so as to pre- 
cede the vowel. 

Kuilttimu, to finish one's educa- 
tion = Kuliitimu. 

H-, sign of the negative in tlie 
second and third persons sin- 

H-upendi, thou lovest not. 

H-apendi, he lovest not. 
Ha-, sign of the third person sin- 
gular negative when referring 
to animate beings, and of the 
negative when prefixed to 
the affirmative prefixes in the 
plural, and in the third person 
singular when not referring to 
animate beings. 

Ha-tupendi, we love not. 

Ha-mpendi, you love not. 

Ha-icapendi, they love not 

Ha-ifai, it is of no use. 

The final a of this ha- never 
coalesces with the following 
Ha-, a contraction for niha. 

Hamicona, and I saw him. 




The third person singular present 
negative is distinguished by 
the final i. 
Hamiconi, he dors not see him. 
Haha, little, few, shallow. 
Habahi, my lord. 

Bahari, news, information, message, 
Hdbari zangu zUizonipata, an ac- 
count of what had happened to 
HabusMa. plur. mdhdbushia, an 
Abyssinian. Many Galla women 
are called Abyssinians, and the 
name is sometimes used for a con- 
cubine of whatever race. 
Hadaa, deceit, cheating. 
Hadaa ku-, to cheat. 
Eadaika ku-, to be cheated, to be 

taken in. 
Hadidi, the semicircular ornament 
to which Arab women attach the 
plaits of their hair. 
Hadimu, a servant, slave. See Mu- 

HaditM, a tale, a story, especially 
one bearing upon Mohammedan 
Hadithia ku-, to relate to. 
Hafifu, light, insignificant. 
Hafithika ku- = Hifatliika Icu-, to 

be preserved. 
Hahithawahetha (Ar.), these and 

Saiba, a beauty, not beauty gene- 
rally, but one good point. 
Hai-, sign of third person singular 
negative agreeing with nouns 
which do not change to form 
the plural. 
Sign of the third person plural 
negative agreeing with nouns 
in mi'. 

Hai = Hayi, alive. 
Haina, it is not, there is not. 
Haitassa, not yet. 

Haithuru, it does not harm, it is of 
no consequence, never mind, it 
would be as well. 
Haj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. 
Haja, a request. 

nana haja, he is good for no pur- 
pose, he has no occasion. 
Hajiri ku-, to go to live elsewhere. 
Eajirika ku-. to remain overlong, 


KumsJiika hakali, to require a 
stranger who goes upon work- 
men's work to pay for his in- 
trusion, to make him pay his 
Haki-, sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns in ki- or ch-. 
Haki, justice, right, righteousness. 
Haldka, true, certain, certainly. 
Hakika yako, it is true of thee, 
thou certainly. 
Hakiki ku-, to make sure, to ascer- 
tain, to prove. 
Hakiri ku-, to humble. 
Hakirisha ku-, to despise. 
Hako, he is not there. 
Baku-, sign of the third person 

negative indefinite. 
Baku-, sign of the third person 
singular of the negative past, 
referring to animate beings. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the final lettei 
of the verb, which is -i in the 
indefinite and -a in the past tense. 
Bakuna, there is not, it exists not, 

Bal wdradi, otto of roses. 




Halaf bilkithih, perjury. 
JSalafu, afterwards, presently. 
Halali, lawful. 
Halasa, sailors' wages. 
Halt, state, condition, health. 
U halt gani ? How are you ? 
Wa halt gani ? How are they ? 
Amehuica hali ya hicanza, he is 
reduced to his former condition, 
he is as he used to be. 
It is also used as a kind of con- 
junction, being, i^ it be, when 
it is, supposing, so it was. 
Hali for Aliali, family, connections. 
Hali; sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns which make their plural in 
Halilisha Tiu-, to make lawful. 
Halili yaJio, at your disposal. 
Halisi or Hdlisi, exactly, without 

defect or variation. 
Halua, a sweetmeat made of ghee, 
honey, eggs, arrowroot (?), and 

Chumvi ya Tialuli, sulpliate of 
Ha'm-, sign of the second person 

plural negative. 
HUma ku; to change houses, to ' 

Hamali, plur. mahamali, a porter, 

a coolie. 
Hamami, a public bath. There are 

now public baths in Zanzibar. 
Hamaya, protection. 

Fi hamayat al Ingrez, under 
British protection. 
Hamdi, praise. 
Hami, protection. 
Hami ku-, to protect. 
Hamili ku-, to be pregnant. 

Hamira, leaven, made by mixing 
flour and water and leaving it to 
turn sour. 
Hamisha ku-, to cause to remove, to 
cause to change one's place of 
residence, to banish. 
Ha^mna, there is not inside, no ! 
Hamo, he is not inside. 
Hamsi, five. 
Hamsini, fifty. 
Hamstashara, fifteen. 
Hamu, grief, heaviness. 
Hamivimhi ? Don't you sing ? 
Hana, he has not. 
Eana ku-, to mourn with, to join 

in a formal mourning. 
Hana kicao, he has no home, a 

Hanamu, obliquely. 
Hanamu, the cutwater of a dhow. 
Handaki, a dry ditch, a trench. 
Hangaika ku-, to be excited. 
Hangoe, the guttural Arabic h, tlie 

hha. See Mdaicari. 
Hanikiza ku-, to interrupt people, 
to talk so loud and long as to 
prevent other people from doing 
Hanisi, a man sexually impotent. 
Haniti, a catamite, a sodomite. 
Hanzua, a kind of dance. 
Hao, or Haico, these or those before 
mentioned, referring to animate 
Hapa-, sign of the third person 
negative, agreeing with mdhali, 
place or places. 
Hapa, here, this place, in this place. 
Hajyana, there is not, no ! 

Havana refers rather to a par- 
ticular place, Hakuna is gene- 
Hapo, here, this or that time. 




Tangu hapo, once upon a time. 
Hapo hale, in old times. 
Tokea hapo, ever so long. 
Toka hapo I get away ! get out of 
Hara Jcu-, to be purged. 

Harisha ku-, to act as a drastic 
Haraka, haste. 
Haraka ku-, to make haste. 
Harakisha ku-, to hasten. 
Haramia, a pirate, a robber. 
Haramu, unlawful, prohibited. 
Harara, prickly heat, heat, hot 

Harara, quick-tempered. 
Hararii, hot-tempered. 
Hari, heat, perspiration. 

Kutoka hari, to perspire. 
Harihika ku-y to be destroyed, to 

Harihu ku-, to destroy, to spoil. 

Kuharibu mimba, to miscarry. 
Harijia ku-, to spend money, to lay 
out money, to provide (a feast), 
Harimisha ku-, to make or declare 

Harimu ku- = Harimisha ku-. 
Earioe, a cry raised on seeing a 

dhow come in sight (M.). 
Hariri, silk. 

Harufu, Harufi, or Herufu, a letter 
of the alphabet, letters, cha- 
Harufu, a scent, a smell of any kind. 
Earusi, a wedding; vulgarly, the 
Bwana harusi, the bridegroom. 
Bibi harusi, the bride. 
Hasai = Maksai, castrated. 
Hasara, loss. 

Kupata hasara, to lose. 

Hasara ku-, to spoil a thing so that 

its value is gone. 
Hasha, not at all, not by any means, 

a very strong negative. 
Hasho, a patch in planking, a piece 

let in. 
Hasi ku- or Khasi ku-, to geld, to 

Hasibu ku-, to count. 
Hasida, a kind of porridge. 
Hasidi, envy. 
Hasira, anger. 

Kuica na hasira, to be angry. 
Kutia hasira, to make angry. 
Hasira ku-, to injure. 
Hasiri ku-, to vex, to do harm 

Hasirika ku-, to be injured, to be 

Hasirisha ku-, to injure. 
Hassa, exactly. 
Hata. See Hafta. 
Hatamu, a bridle. 
Hatari, danger, fear. 
Hathari, caution, care. 

Kuwa na hathari, to beware, to 

be on one's guard. 
Kufanya hathari, to become care- 
ful, to become anxious. 
Hdtif, an angel. 
Hatiki ku-, to bother, to annoy 

Hatima = Khatima, end, conclusion, 

at last. 
Hatirisha ku-, to venture, to run 

the risk. 
Hatiya = Khatiya, fault. ' 

Kutia hatiyani, to find fault with. 
Mioenyi hatiya nami, who has 
done me wrong. 
Hatta, until, so far as, to, at length, 
when a certain time had ar- 
rived. It is used to introduce 




the time when something fresh 
Hatta siku moja, one day. 
Eatta assuhui, in the morning, 

but in the morning. 
Hatta baada ya mwezi kupita, and 
when a month had passed. 
Hattia, for nothing. 
Hattiya — Hatiya. 
Haiu; sign of the first person plural 

Hatua, a step, steps. 
Eau-, sign of the third person 
singular negative agreeing with 
nouns in m- or miv-, not denoting 
animate beings, or withthose in u-. 
Havi-, sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
plural nouns in vi- or vy-. 
Eawa-, sign of the third person 

plural negative. 
Eaw<i-, Eve. 
Eawa. these, referring to animate 

Eawa or Eewa, air. 
Eawa or Eawat, longing, lust, 
Usifanye hawa nafsi, don't be 
partial, don't show favour. 
Eatoa or Eawara, a catamite, a 

Eaicala, transfer of a debt, bill of 

Eawezi, he is ill. See Weza Jcu-. 
Eawi, he is not. 

Eavnli Itu-, to take upon oneself 
what was due from another, to 
guarantee a debt, &c. 
Eaya-, sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
plural nouns in ma-. 
11 ay a, these, referring to a plural 
substantive in ma-. 

Eaya, shame, modesty. 

Eana hay a, he is shameless. 
Kuona haya, to feel ashamed, to 

be bashful. 
Kutia haya, to abash, to make 

Eaya ! Work away I Be quick ! 
Come along ! 

Eayale, those, those things. 

Eayamkini, it is impossible. 

Eayaicani, a man without his 
proper senses, an idiot. 

Eayi, plur. icahayi (?), alive. 

Eayo, these or those before men- 
tioned, referring to plural sub- 
stantives in ma-. 

Eaynko, vulgarly used in Zanzibar 
for hako, he is not there. 

Eazi-, sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or with those 
which begin in the singular with 


Eazibu ku- = Eesahu ku-. 

Hazina, a treasure. 

Eazitassa, not yet. 

Eedaya, a choice thing, a tale. 

Eejazi, the Eejaz in Arabia. 

Eekalu, the temple at Jerusalem, a 
great or famous thing. 

Hekima, wisdom, cleverness. 

Eehimiza ku-, to make a man under- 
stand, to put him in possession of 

Eemidi ku-, or Eamidi ku-, to praise. 

Eenza, halyards. 

Eenzarani, cane-work. 

Eeri = Kheiri, happy, fortunate, it 
is well. 
Ni heri, I had better, it will be 

well for me. 
Kua heri, good bye. 




3Itu wa heri, a fortunate man. 
Heria, a cry raised on first seeing a 

dhow coming. Compare Hariowe. 
Herimu = Marika. 
Hero, a wooden platter. 
Herufu or Harufu, a letter of the 

Hesahu, accounts, an account. 
TIesahu ku-, to count, to reckon. 
Hpshima, honour. 
Reshimu ku-, to honour. 
Ileth, menstruation, rat uses. 

Kuwa na hdh, to menstruate. 
Hetima. [ancestors. 

Kusoma hetima, to pray fur one's 
Hewa or Haica, air. 
Hezaya, a shame, a thing causing 

Hi; for Niki-. See -ki-. 
Hiana, a grudging person, one who 

withhokls things. Compare 

Hiari, choice. 

Hiha, property left after death. 
Hi'dima, service. 
Hifathi ku-, to preserve, to keep. 
Hifathika ku-, to be preserved. 
Hifukuza = Nikifukuza. 
Hii, this, referring to singular 

nouns which do not change to 

form the plural ; these, referring 

to plural nouns in mi-. 
Hiile, that, those. 
Hikaya = Hedaya, a wonderful 

Hiki, this, referring to singular 

nouns in ki- or ch-. 
Hikile, that, yonder. 
Hila. a device, a stratagem, a deceit. 

Mtu wa hila, a crafty man. 
Hili, this, referring to singular 

nouns which make their plural 

in ma-. 

Hilo, this or that before mentioned, 
referring to singular nouns which 
make their plural in ma-. 

Hima, haste, hastily, quickly. 

Eimahima ! be quick ! 

Himili ku-, to bear, to support. 

Himiza ku-, to hasten. 

Hina, henna, a very favourite red 
dye, used by women to dye the 
palms of their hands and the soles 
of their feet, often used to dye 
white donkeys, &c., a pale red 

Hini ku-, to refuse to give, to with- 

Hirizi, a written charm worn on the 

Hirimu, an equal in age. 

Hirimu mqja, of the same age 

Hisa, pardon. 

Nipe hisa yangu, pardon me. 

Hitari ku-y to prefer, choose. See 

Hitima, the feast which concludes 
a formal mourning. 

Eitimu ku-, to finish one's learning, 
to leave off school, to know one's 

Hitimisha ku-, to finish a scholar, to 
bring to the end of his learning of 
whatever kind. 

Hivi, thus, these, referring to plural 
nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Hivile, those. 

Hivyo, after which manner, these 
mentioned before, referring to 
plural nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Hiyari, choice. 

Hiyo, this mentioned before, re- 
ferring to singular nouns which 
do not change to form the plural ; 
these mentioned before, referring 
to^lural nouns in vii- or in //m-. 




Hizi, these, referring to plural 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or which begin 
in the singular with u- or w-. 
Siku hizi, some days ago, some 
days hence, now. 
Hizi ku; to trei^t with contumely, to 

groan at, to cry out against. 
Hizile, those. 

Hizika hu-, to be put to the blush. 
Hobe I now go on, be ofiF. 
Eicenda hohe, to go wherever it 
may be. 
Hohu, grandchild. 
Hodnri, strong. 

Eodi! a cry made by way of 
inquiry whether any one is within. 
No one ought to enter a house 
until he has received an answer. 
Hogera ku-, to perform a particular 
washing customary after cir- 
Eogo, plur. mahogo, a very large 

root of cassava. 
Hohe hake, a phrase used to denote 
extreme poverty and destitution. 

PUipili Twho, red pepper. 
Mkate wa hoho, a cake made with 
fresh palm-oil. 
Hoja = Hiija. 
Homu, fuver. 

Hongo, a present demanded by a 
local chief for liberty to pass 
through his country. 
Hongjia, a Comoro dance. 
Horari, clever (?). 
Hari^ or Khori, a creek, a small arm 

of the sea. 
Hori, plur. mahori, a kind of canoe 

with a raised head and stem. 
Hu; a quasi-personal prefix de- 
noting a customary action. It 

applies to all persons and both 
Huhijihu, it is in the habit of 

answering me. 
Hnenda, he, &c., commonly goes. 
Husenia, they say. 
Hu- = h-u-, the negative prefix of 
the second person singular. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the ttrmina- 
tiou of the verb. 
Hnenda, people go. 
Huendi, you do not go. 
Hua, a dove. They are said to cry. 
Mama akafa, Baha akafa, nime- 
salia mimi, tu, tu, tu, tu, tu, My 
mother is dead, my father is 
dead, I am left alone — lone— lent- 
— lone. Another cry of the same 
class of birds is explained a^;, 
Knku mfupa mtupu, mimi nyama 
tele tele tele, A fowl is bare 
bones. I am meat plenty, plenty, 
Huhha, love, afiection. 
Hubiri, to announce, to give news. 
Hudumia ku-, to serve. 
Hudumu, service. 
Hui ku-, to revive, to come to life 

Huika ku-, to be brcnight to life 

again, to live again. 
HuUha ku-, to revive, bring to life 

again, resuscitate. 
Huja or hoja, sake, account, con- 
cernment, reasoning. 
Kina huja nyingi, it is full of 

bother, it is troublesome. 
Hakina huja, it is all clear, it is 
plain sailing. 
Hujambo ? Are you weH ? 
Euji ku-, to inquire into, seek out, 
Hiijuru ku-, to desert. 

u 2 



Huho, there, at a distance. 

Iluko na huko, hither and thither. 
Euhu, here, there, near. 

Huhu na huku, this way and 
HvJmmu, judgment, authority, law. 
Hukumu ku-, to act as judge, to 

have supreme authority over. 
Huhumia ku-, to judge, to exercise 

authority upon. 
Hulukiwa ku, to be created, to be 

a creature. 
Humuma, plur. 7na-, a man who 

knows no religion. 
Hundi, a draft, a bill of exchange. 
Huo, this or that before mentioned, 

referring to singular nouns in 

u- or W-, or which make their 

plural in mi-. 
Hum, free, not a slave. 

Kuweha or Kuacha hum, to set 
free from slavery. 
Hum, plur. mahuru, a freed man. 

Mahuru wa Balyozi, or Baruzi, 
slaves freed by the British 
Hum, diamonds in cards. 
Huruma, pity. 
Hurumia ku-, to pity, to have pity 

Hussu ku-, to divide into shares, to 

put each one's share separate. 
Ev^udu ku-, to do wanton violence, 

to grudge at, to envy. 
Eusumu ku-, to strive, to contend 

Eusuni, a fort. 
Eusuru ku-, to besiege. 
Euthuria ku-, to be present. 
Euu, this, referring to nouns in 

the singular which make their 

plural in mi-, or to singular nouns 

beginning with u- or to~. 

Euule, that. 

Euyo, this or that before mentioned, 

referring to an animate being. 

In chasing a man or animal, any 

one who sees him cries out, 

Euyo! huyo ! huyo I Here he is ! 

Euyu, this, this person, this one, 
referring to an animate being. 

Euyule, that. 

Euzuni, grief, heaviness. 

Ewenda, perhaps. 

I is pronounced like ee in feel. 

I before a vowel generally be- 
comes y. It is in many cases im- 
material whether i or y be written, 
but where the accent would other- 
wise fall upon it, its consonantal 
character becomes obvious. 

An unaccented i is often inter- 
changed with a short u sound. 
Thus the word for lead may be pro- 
nounced either risasi or rusasi. 

N has generally an i sound im- 
plied in it. It is sometimes ex- 
pressed following the n, as in the 
prefix ni. The final i of ni- disap- 
pears in rapid pronunciation, and in 
the first person of the future, as n 
cannot coalesce with t, both letters 
are often omitted. When n is fol- 
lowed by a vowel, or by d, g, j, 
or z, the e sound is lost. When n 
is followed by other consonants it 
eitlier disappears altogether or the 
i sound is more or less distinctly 
prefixed, so as to make the n a syl- 
lable by itself. The i sound is more 
distinct iu the dialect of Zanzibar 
than in more northern Swahili. 
' Where i follows the final o of a 



prefix (except the negative prefix 
ha) it coalesces with a into the 
sound of a long e. 

1, is or was, governed by a singular 
noun of the class which does 
not change to form the plural; 
are or were, governed, by a 
plural noun in mi-. 

J-, or before a vowel, y-, the personal 
prefix used with verbs whose 
subject is a singular noun of 
the class which does not change 
to form the plural, or a plural 
in mi; it or they. 

-«'-, the prefix representing the ob- 
ject of the verb when it is a 
singular noun of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, or a plural noun in mi-. 

-*-, the reflective prefix in King'ozi 
(and in Nyamwezi), self. 

Iha Jew- (the kw- is frequently re- 
tained in the usual tenses), to 
steal, to take surreptitiously. 

Ibada, worship. 

Ibia kw; to rob, to steal from. 


Hayana idadi, there is no count- 
ing them. 

Idili = Adili, right conduct. 

Idili ku; to learn right conduct. 

Idilisha ku-j to teach right con- 

Iftahi, bringer of luck. 

Iga ku; to mock, to imitate (M. 

Ih: See Hi: 

Ihtah'di ku; to strive. 

Ih'taji ku; to be wanting. 

Ih'tajia /cm-, to want, to be wanting to. 

Ih'tUafu, different. Also a fault, 

IWUmu ku; to finish learning, to 

complete one's education. 
Ijara, pay, hire, rent. 
Ijaza, a reward. 
Ijaza ku; to grant permission for 

HMiari, choice. 
Tkhtiari ku-, to wish. 
Ikiza ku; to lay the beams of a 

Kuku ya kuikiza, a fowl cooked 
with eggs. 
Iko, there is, it is there. 
Ila, a defect, a blemish. 
He, that yonder, referring to a 

singular noun of the class which 

does not change to form its 

plural; those yonder, referring 

to a plural noun in mi-. 
Hi = mi. 
Hiki, cardamoms. 
Hioko, which is, or was there. 
Hiopandana, the composition of a 

Hizi, a small round thing held 

to be a great charm against 

Hia, except, unless, but. 
Hlakini, but 
Bli. in order that. 
Hmu, learning. 
Ima — ima, either— or. 
Lna ku-, to stand up {Eing'ozi and 

Njia ya kwima, a straight road. 
Ima ku-, to eat up food provided 
for other people. 

Ametuima, he has eaten our share 
as well as his own. 
Imani, faith. 
Imara, firm. 
Imha kw-, to sing. 
Imbu, mosquito, mosquitoes. 




Imulia hu-i to set up, to make to 


Wa imma, to a certainty. 
Ina, it has, they have. 
Inama hu-, to bow, to stoop, to bend 

down, to slope. 
InarrdslM few-, to make to bend 

down, to bow. 
Inang'aro^ it is briu:ht. See nffaa. 
Inchi, land, country, earth. 

Kufanya inda, to give trouble. 

Liga Icu; to scare away birds. 

-iitrji, many, much. It makes jingi 

with nouns like kasha, and 

nyingi with nouns like nyumha. 

Ingia Jm-, to enter, to go or come 

Ingilia ku-, to go or come into, for, 

or to. 
Ingiliza ku-, to cohabit with. 
ingine, other, different. It makes 
mgine or mminrjine with nouns 
like mtu and mti ; jingine witli 
nouns like kasha ; ngine or nyi- 
ngine with nouns like nyumha; 
and piTi^ine or pangiiie with 
nouns of place. 
Wangine — wangin€,some — others. 
Iiigiza ku-, to make or allow to enter. 
Ini, plur. tnaini, the liver. 
Inika ku-, to hang down, to lay upon 

its side. See Jiinika. 
Initm, truly. 

InshaUah, if God will, perhaps. It 
is used as a general promise to do 
as one is asked to do. 
Inta = Nta. 

Inua ku-, to lift, to lift up. 
ImJca ku; to be lifted, to become 

Inya, mother (A.). 

-inyi = -enyi,h.d^\mg,vfith.. It makes 
mwinyi, wenyi, yinyi, zinyi, linyi, 
kinyi, vinyi, and penyi. 
Inzi, plur. mainzi, a fly. 
Jpa ku-, to want, desire to have. 
Kuipa roho mbele, to long ff)r 
everything one sees, to havu 
unrestrained desires. 

Kupiga ipi, to slap (,X.). 
Ipi^ what? 

Kama ipA ? how ? 
Ipua kw; to take off the fire. 
Iriba, usury. 
Iriwa, a vice (the tool). 
Isha kw, to finish, to come to an 
end. The kw- is retained in 
the usual tenses, but sometimea 
the w is dropped, as ameMsha 
for amekwisha, he has done. 
Kwisha is commonly used as an 
auxiliary : thus, Amekwisha 
kuja, he has come already. 
Alipokwisha kuja, when he 
had come. 
Akaisha, or Akesha, after that, 
when he had done this. 
Ishara, a sign, signal. 
Ishi ku-, to last, to endure, to live. 
Isimu or Ismu, name, especially the 
name of God. 
Ma ismak (Ar.)? What is your 
Istara, a curtain. 
Isfiska, dropsy. 

Ita kw-, to call, to call to, to name, 
to invite. The kw- is fre- 
quently retained. 
Rwitwa, to be called, is sometimes 
constructed as if it were ku- 
Ita ku-, to cast in a mould. 
Italassi, satin. 




Itiiini, sanction. 

Kutoa ithini, to sanction. 
Ithneen, two. 

Itia Jiu-, to call for some purpose. 
Itika hu-, to answer when called. 
Itikia ZcM-, to reply to, to answer a 

person when called to. 
Itikiza ku-, to assent to. 
Ito la gvM (A.), the ankle. 
Iva ku- or Wiva ku-, to become ripe, 

to become completely cooked, to 

get done. The ku- is frequently 

Ivu, plur. maivu, ash, ashes (M.). 
Iioapi ? where is it ? 
Iza ku-, to refuse. 
Izara ku-, to tell scandal about, to 

make things public about a 

person improperly. 

/. The correct pronunciation of 
this letter, and especially that of 
the Mombas dialect, is a very pecu- 
liar one. The most prominent saund 
is that of ^ but it is preceded by 
anoth«- resembling d. The French 
di is perhaps the nearest European 
representative. The Swahili write 
it by the Arabic jim, which is ex- 
actly an English j. 

In the more northern dialects and 
in the old ix>etieal Swahili the J is 
represented by a pure y, 

Moya = moja, one. 

Mayi = maji, water. 

A d in the dialect of Mombas 
very commonly becomes a J in that 
of Zanzibar. 

Ndia (M.), a road, Njia (Zanz,). 

Kutinda (M.), to slaughter ; Ku- 
chinja (Zanz.). 

Many words which are properly 

spelt with a z are vulgarly pro- 
nounced with a j in Zanzibar, as, 

Kanju, for kanzu. 

Chenja, for chenza. 

This is only carrying to excess the 
rule that a 2 in the neighbouring 
mainland languages becomes a j 
in Swahili. 

The Arabs and some Swahili 
confuse J with g. Thus the late 
ruler of Zanzibar was often spoken 
of as Bicana Magtdi, his proper title 
being Seyid Mdjid. 

J-, a prefix applied to substantives 
and adjectives in the singular of 
the class which make their plural 
in ma-f when they begin with a 
vowel. Seejt-. 
■Ja, like. 

Ja ku- (l^e ku- carries tl^e accent 
and is retained in the usual 
tenses), to come. The impera- 
tive is irregular, Njoo, come. 
Njooni, come ye. 
Ja is used to form several tenses. 

1. With -^o- added, meaning even 
if; iva-JapO'kupiga, even if they 
beat you. 

2. With negative prefixes mean- 
ing not yet ; ha-ja-ja, he is not 
yet come. 

3. With negative pn-fix and sub- 
junctive form. An-je-lala, be- 
fore he goes to shep, or that he 
may not have already gone to 

Jaa ku; to become full, to fill, to 

abound with. 
Maji yanajaa, the tide is coming 

Mtungi umejaa maji, the jar is 

full of water. 
See Jawa ku-. 





Sliika mdjira ya jaa, steer north- 
Jaa, a dust heap. 
Jahali, plur. majahali, a rocky hill. 

Also see Kama. 
Jabari, absolute ruler, a title of God. 
Jadiliana hu-, to argue with. 
Jaha, good luck, unexpected good 

KilarKjo cha jaha, the gate of 
Jahazi, a vessel, a ship. 
Jahili hu-, to dare, not to fear. 
Jalada, the c^)ver of a bound book. 
Jali ku', to give honour to. 
Jalia hu-, to bless, to enable, to 
grant to. 

Muungu aJdiiijalia, God willing. 
Jaliwa hu-, to be enabled, to have 

power, &c., given one. 
Jaliza ku; to fill up, used of vessels 

which have already something in 

Jamaa, family, assembly, gathering, 

society, company. 
Jamaa hu-, to collect together, 

Jamaat (Hind.), a council of elders. 
Jamala, courtesy, good manners, 

Jamanda, plur. majamanda, a solid 

kind of round b;i.-ket with a lid. 
Jamba, breaking of wind down- 
Jamba hu-, to break wind down- 
Jambia, plur. mojambia, a curved 

dagger always woru by Bluscat 

Jambo, plur. mambo (from huamba,) 
a word {?), a matter, a circum- 
stance, a thing, an affair. 

Ahanitenda hilla jambo la leema, 
and he showed me all possible 
Jambo for si jambo, hu jamho, ha 
jambo, &c., I am well, are you 
well? lie is well, &c., &c. 

Jambo Sana, I am very well, are 
you very well ? &c. 
Jami hu-, to copulate, to have con- 
nection with. 
Jamil, many, a good collection, the 

mass, the company of, the body of. 
Jamiisha hu-, to gather. 
Jamvi, plur. majamvi, a coarse kind 

of matting used to cover floors. 
Jana, yesterday. 

Mwaha jana, last year. 
Janna, paradise. 
Janaba, filth, uncleanness. 
Janga, punishment. 
Jangiva, plur. majangwa, a large 

Jani, plur. majani, a leaf. Majani 

is commonly used for any grass 

or herbage. 
Janvia = Jambia. 
-jaj)o-y sign of a tense signifying 
even if. 

Vjapofiha, even if you arrive. 
Jarari, the ropes passing through 

the pulley attached to a dhow's 

Jarihu hu-, to try. 
Jarifa, plur. majarifa, a seine or 

drag-net made of European cord- 
age. See Juya. 
Jasho, sweat. 

Kufanya jasho, to sweat. 
Jasirisha hu-, to dare. 
Jasisi hu-, to explore. 
Jasmini or Jasmin, jasmine. The 

flowers are sold in the streets of 

Zanzibar for their scent. 




Jassi, pliir. majassi, the ornament 
in the lobe of the ear. It is 
generally a silver plate about an 
inch and a half across. 
Jalhari, take care ! 
Jaioa, a coarse kind of Indian 
Kihomhe cha Jaiva, a cup of coarse 
Indian ware. 
Jawn A-W-, to be filled with, to be 
full of : used of something 
which ought not, or could not 
be expected to be there. 
JUaji yamejaica dudu, the water 
is full of insects ; but mtungi 
urnejaa niaji, the jar is full of 
JoAmhu, an answer, a condition, a 

Jmcahir (Ar.), jewels. 
Jaza ku; to fill. 
Jazi, a common thing, a thing which 

is abundant. 
Jazi hu-, to supply, to maintain. 
Jazilia hu-, to reward. 
/e/ Hullo! Well! What now I 

-je ? how ? 
Jebu, an ornament worn by women, 

hanging under the chin. 
Jekundu, red. See -ekundu. 
Jdidi JtU; to bind books. 
Jema, good. See -ema. 
Jemadari, plur. majemadari, a com- 
manding officer, a general. 
Jemhamba, narrow, thin. See 

Jembe, plur. majembe, a hoe. 
Jembe la kizungu, a spade. 
Jenaiza or Jeneza, a bier. 
Jenga ku-, to construct, to build. 
Jengea ku-, to build for, or on ac- 
count of. 
Jerigo, plur. majengo, a building. 

Majengo, building materials. 

Jenzi ku-, to construct. 

Jepa ku- (A.), to steal. 

Jepesi, light, not heavy. See -epesi. 

Jeraha, a wound. 

Jenbu ku- = Jaribu ku-, to try. 

Jeruhi ku-, to be wounded. 

Jeshi, plur. majeshi, a host, a great 

Jetea ku-, to be puffed up, to be 
over proud, to rely upon, to 
trust in, 

Jethamu, a leprosy in which the 
fingers and toes drop off, ele- 
phantiasis (?). 

Jeuli or Jeuri, violence. 

AnajeuU, he attacks people wan- 

Jeupe, white. See -eupe. 

Jeusi, black. See eu^i. 

Ji-, a syllable prefixed to substan- 
tives which make their plural 
in ma-, if they would otherwise 
be of one syllable only. This 
syllable is sometimes inserted 
after a prefix to give the idea 
of largeness, or to prevent con- 
fusion with some other word. Be- 
fore a vowel it becomes j- only. 

-ji-, an infix giving a reflective 
meaning to the verb. 
Kupenda, to love. 
Kujipenda, to love oneself. 

Kuponya, to save. 
Jiponye, save yourself, look out I 

Jia ku-, to come for, by, to. 
NJia uUyoJia, the road you came 

Jibini, cheese. 

Jibiica ku, to receive an answer, be 

Jibu ku-, to answer, to give an 




Jibwa, ^lnT.majihwa,a.n exceedingly 

large dog. 
Jicho, plur. macho, the eye. 

Jicho la maji, a spring of water. 
Jifu, plur. majifu, ashes. 
Jifya, plur. mafya^ one of three 

stones to support a pot over the 

fire. Mafya is the usual word 

in the town, mafiga is commonly 

used in the country. 
Jigamba ku-, to boast, to praise one- 
Jiiniha Jcu-, to lie on the side. 
Jiko, plur. melco, a fireplace, one of 
the stones to rest a pot on (?). 

Jikoni, in the kitchen, among the 
Jilia Uu-, to come to a person on 

some business. 
JUiwa, plur. majUiwa, a vice (the 

JimM, a cock. 
Jimbi, Allocasia edulis. Both 

leaves and root are eaten : (a sort 

of Arum). 
Jimbo, plur. majimho, a place a part 

of the country (Old Swahili). 

Kuosha na jimbo, to wash a new- 
born child with water and 
Jina, plur. majina, a name. 
Jina lako nanif what is your 

Jina la hupangwa^ a nickname. 
Jinamisi, nightmare. 
Jingi, much. See -ingi. 
Jingine, other. See -ingine. 
Jini, plur. majmi, jins, spirits, genii. 
Ji)M, plur. meno, a tooth, a twist or 
strand of rope, or tobacco, &c. 
Kamba ya meno matatu, a cord of 
three strands. 

Jioni, evening. 

Jtpu, plur. majipu, a boil. 

Jipotoa leu-, to dress oneself up 

Jipya, new. See -pya. 

Jirani, a neighbour, neighbours, 

Jlsi, quality. 

Jisu, plur. majisu, a very large 

Jitenga ku-, to get out of the way. 

Jiti, plur. majiti, a tree trunk. 

Jiiimai, excessive sorrow. 

Jito, plur. mato = Jicho, the eye (M.). 

Jitu, plur. matu or majitu, a great 
large man, a savage. 

Jituza ku-, to make oneself mean or 
low. See Tuza. 

Jivari, purchase (of a dhow hal- 

Jivi, a wild hog. 

Jivu = Jifu. 

Jiwa ku-, to be visited. 

Jiwe, plur. mawe, a stone, a piece 

of stone. Plur. majiwe, of very 

large pieces of stone. 

Jiice la manga, a piece of freestone. 

Nyumba ya mawe, a stone house. 

Jodari, a kind of fish. 

Jogoi ■=■ Jogoo. 

Jogoo, plur. majogoo, a cock. 

Johari, a jewel. 

Joho, woollen cloth, a long loose 
coat worn by the Arabs. 

Joka, plur. majoka, a very large 

Joko, a place to bake pots in. 

Jokum, charge, responsibility. 

Jombo, plur. majombo, an exceed- 
ingly large vessel. 
Jongea ku-, to approach, come near 
to, move. 
Jongea mvulini, move into the 

J ox 



Jongeleza hu-, to briug near to, to 

Jongeza hu-, to bring near, move 

towards, move. 
Jongo, gout. 

Jongoe, a large kind of fish. 
Jongoo, a millepede. 
Jorjiya, a Georgian, the most valued 

and whitest of female slaves. 
JororOy soft. See -ororo. 
Josh, a voyage, a cruize. 

= GosH Luff! 

Eupata jotojoto, to grow warm. 
Joy a, plur. majoya, a cocoa-nut 

which is filled with a white 

spongy substance instead of tlie 

usual nut and juice. They are 

prized for eating. 
Jozi, Jeozi, or Jauzi, a pair, a pack 

of cards. 
Jozi, a walnut. 
Jua, plur. majtia, the sun. 

Jua Tcitwani, noon. 
Jim hu-, to know how, to under- 
stand, to know about, to know. 

Namjua aliko, I know where he is. 

Najua Jciunguja, I understand the 
language of Zanzibar. 

Najua hufua chuma, I know how 
to work in iron. 
Juba, a mortice chisel. 
JubuTU hu-, to compel. 
Jugo, ground nuts. 
JvJittdi, an effort, efforts. 

Kufanya juhudi, to exert oneself. 
Juju, plur. majuju, a fool. 
Juku^ risk, a word used by traders. 
Jukioari, a scaffold, scaffolding. 
JuUa hu-, to know about, see to. 
Jtdisha hu-, to make to know. 
Juma, Friday, a week. 

Juma a most, Saturday. 

Juma a pUi, Sunday. 

Juma a tatu, Monday. 

Juma a 'nne, Tuesday. 

Juma a tano, Wednesday. 
Juma, small brass nails used for 

Jumaa, an assembly. 
Jumha, plur. majumha, a large house. 
Jumhe, plur. majumbe, a chief, a 

head-man, a prince, a sultan. 
Jumla, the sum, the total, addition 

(in arithmetic). 
Jumlisha hu-, to add up, sum up, 

put together. 
Junta, a kind of matting bag. See 

Jura, a pair; a length of calico, 

about thirty-five yards. 

Haijusi, it is unfitting. 
Jut Kdsam (Hind.), pu-rjury. 
Juta hu-, to be sorry for, to regret. 
Juu, up, the top, on the top. 

Yuho juu, he is up-stairs. 

Juu ya, upon, above, over, on the 
top of, against. 
Juvisha hu-, to make to know, to 

Juvya hu-, to make to know. 
Juya, plur. majuya, a seine or drag- 
net made of cocoa-nut fibre rope. 
Juza, obligation, kindness. 
Juza hu-, to make to know. 
Juzi, the day before yesterday. 

Mwaha juzi, the year before last. 

Juzijuzi, a few days ago. 
Juzia hu-, to compel, to have power 

to compel. 
Juzu, necessity. 

Jambo la juzu, a necessary thing. 
Juzu hu-, to oblige, to hold bound, 

to have under an obligation to do 





Juzuu, a section of the Koran. 
There are in all thirty, which are 
often written out separately. All 
the Juzuu together are Khitima 


K is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabs have two fe's, one, the 
Itef or Itaf^ a little lighter than the 
English h; and one, the kahf or 
qaf, made wliolly in the throat, and 
confounded by many Arabs with a 
hard g. There is a curious calch in 
the throat between the preceding 
vowel and the qaf, very hard to 
explain, but easy enough to imi- 
tate. Although the correct pronun- 
ciation of these two A;'s is an ele- 
gance, it is not necessary nor very 
commonly observed in speaking 

Ki is very commonly pronounced 
chi in Zanzibar, especially by slaves 
of the Nyassa and Yao tribes. 

Kh, the Arabic hha, occurs only 
in words borrowed from the Arabic, 
and subsides into a simple h so soon 
as the word is thoroughly natu- 

Khahari or Hahari, news. 

Kheiri or Heri, well, good, for- 

Ka-, -ha-, a syllable prefixed to or 
inserted in the imperative and 
subjunctive of verbs, with the 
force of the conjunction " and." 
'ha-i the sign of a past tense, used 
in carrying on a narration ; it 
includes the force of the con- 
junction " and." 

Akamwambia, and he said to 

Nika- is often contracted into ?ia-. 
Kaa ku-, to sit, to dwell, to stay, ta 
live, to be, to stand, to remain, 
to continue, to live in, or ai 

Knkaa kitako, to sit down, to re- 
main quietly. 
Kaa, plur. makaa, a piece of char- 

Makaa, coals, charcoal, embers. 

Kaa la Tiioshi or Makaa ya mmhi, 
Kaa, a crab. 

Kaa makoko, small mud crabs 
with one large claw. 

Kaa la kinwa, the palate. 
Kaaka or Kaakaa, the palate. 
Kaanga ku-, to fry, to braze, to cook 

with fat. 
Kaango, plur. makaango, an earthen 

pot to cook meat in. 
Kaba ku-, to choke, to throttle, 
Kaha la kanzu, a sort of lining round 

the neck and a short way down 

the front of a kanzu, put in to 

strengthen it. 
Kahari, a wedge. 
Kdbibu, narrow. 
Kabila, a tribe, a subdivision lees 

than taifa. 
Kabili ku-, to be before, to be op- 
Kabilisha ku-, to put opposite, to set 

Kabisa, utterly, altogether, quite. 
Kabitlii ku-, to give into the hand. 
Kabla, before, antecedently. 

Kabla ya, before (especially of 
Kahuli, acceptance. 
Kabuli, pillaw. 
Kaburi, plur. tnakahuri (pronounced * 




by many Arabs Gabri), a grave, 

t^c^^aaamu, a servant, the lowest of 
the three chief men usually set 
over the slaves on a plantation. 
On the Zambezi the man who 
stands at the head of the canoe 
to look out for shoals is called 

Kacliri or Kadri, measure, modera- 
tion, capacity, middling, mode- 
rate, about, nearly, moderately. 
Kadri gani ? how much ? 

Kadiri ya, as, whilst. 

Kadiri ku-, to estimate, 

Kadri = Kadiri. 

Kafara, an offering to avert evil, a 
sacrifice of an animal or thing to 
be afterwards buried or tiirown 
away, a charm made of bread, 
sugar-cane, &c., thrown down in 
a cross-way. Any one who takes 
it is supposed to carry away the 
disease, misfortune, &c. 

Kafi, plur. mdkafi, a paddle. 

Kafiri, plur. makafiri^ an infidel, an 
idolater, one who is not a Moham- 

Kafuri, camphor. 

Kaga hu-, to put up a charm to 
protect something. 

Kago, plur, mago, a charm to pro- 
tect what it is fastened to. 

Kagua ku-, to go over and inspect. 

Kahaba, plur. viakahaba, a prosti- 

Kahawa, coffee. 

Kahini, plur. moMliini, a priest, a 

Kai hu-, to fall down to, embrace 
the knees. 

Kaida, regularity. 
Fa kaida, regular. 

-kaidi, obstinate. 

Kaimu, plur. makaimu, a vice- 
gerent, a representative. 
Kaka, a lemon after it has been 

squeezed, the rind of a lemon, 

the shell of an egg, &c. 
Kaka, a brother {Kihadvmtt, see 

Kaka, a disease with swelling of 

the hand and opening into sores. 
Kakakaka, very many. 
Kakamia, hard of heart. 
Kakamia ku, to be longsuflfering, 

slow to be affected. 
Kakamuka ku-, to make an effort, 

to strain (as at stool, or in 

Kakawana ku-, to be strong, capable 

of great exertion, well-knit and 

firm in all the muscles. 
Kaki, a very thin kind of biscuit or 

Kalafati ku-, to caulk. 
Kalamika ku-, to prevaricate in 

giving evidence (?), to cry from 

pain caused by medicine (?). 
Kala'mka ku-, to be sharp, to have 

one's eyes open. 
Kala'mkia ku-, to outdo, to be too 

sharp for. 
Kalamu, a pen. The pens for 
writing Arabic are made of 
reed, and the nibs are cut 

Kalamu ya micanzi, a reed pen. 
Kalamuzi, cunning, crafty. 
Kalasia, little brass pots. 
Kale, old time, formerly. 

-a kale, old, of old time. 

Zamani za kale, old times. 

Hapo kale, once upon a time. 
Kalfati or Kalafati, caulking. 
'kali, sour, sharp, keen, savage, 




cross, severe, fierce. It makes 
"kali with nouns like nyumba, 
Jua Italic a hot sun. 

Kalia ku-, to remain for. 
Ku'mkalia tamu, to remain as he 
would wish. 

Kalibu, a mould, a furnace. 

Kama, Kamma, Eana, or Kwamha, 
as, as if, like, if, supposing. 

Kama hu-, to milk, to squeeze. 

Kamamanga, a pomegrauate. 

Kamali, a game played by chucking 
pice into a hole. If only one 
goes in they say " Maliza," and 
the player throws a flat stuue on 
the one that is out. 

Kamasi, mucus from the nose. 
Kufuta Icamasi, to blow the nose. 
Siwezi kamasi, I have a cold in 
my head. 

Kamoia ku-, to lay hold of, take, 
seize, clasp. 

Kamatana ku-, to grapple, to seize 
one another. 

Kamati, balls of wheat-flour lea- 
vened with temho. 

Kamba, a crayfish. 

Kamba, rope. 
Kamha ulayiti, European or 
hempen rope. 

Kambaa, plur. of u^camhaa, cord, 
string (M.). 
Kambaa, a plaited thong or wliip 
kept by sohoolmasters and 
overlookers in Zanzibar. 

Kambali, plur. makambali, a cat- 
fish living in fresh water. 

Kawbarau, a forebrace carried to 
the weather side to steady the 
yard of a dhow. 

Kambi, plur. makambi, f\ circular 
encampment, a place where a 
caravan has hutted itself in. 


Baba tea kambo, stepfather. 
Mama tea kambo, stepmother. 

Kame, quite dried up, utterly 

Kami, a bulbous plant with large 
head of red flowers. 

Kamia ku-, to reproach. 

Kujikamia, to reproach oneself. 

Kamili, perfect, complete. 

-kamilifu, perfect, wanting nothing. 

KamiUka ku-, to be perfect. 

Kamilisha ku-, to make perfect. 

Kamua ku-, to press, to press 

Kamusi, an Arabic lexicon. 

Kamice (M.), not at all, never. 

Kamici = Kamioe. 

Kana, a tiller. 

Kana, if, as. See Karaa. 

Kana ku-, to deny. 

Kanda, plur. makanda, a long nar- 
row matting bag, broader at the 
bottom than at the mouth. 

Kanda ku-, to knead dough, to 
knead the limbs, to shampoo. 

Kandamiza ku-, to press upon. 

Kande, food (Mer.). 

Kanderinija, a kettle. 

Kandika ku-, to plaster. 

Kandili, plur. makandili, a lantern., side, aside. 

Kando ya or Kandokando ya, 
beside, along by the side. 

Kanga, a guinea fowl. 

Kanga, a dry stem after the cocoa- 
nuts have been taken olF. 

Kanga ku-. 

Kukanga moto, to warm. 

Kangaja, a small mandarin orange. 

Kania ku-, to deny a person. 

Kaniki, dark blue calico. 

Kanisa, plur. makanisa, a church. 




Kanisha Jcu-, to deny, to make to 

Kanji, starch, arrowroot. 
Kanju, plur. maJcanju, a cashew 

apple (M,). 
Kanju, vulgarly used for Kanzu. 
Kanuni, a thing implied, a neces- 
sary condition, of necessity. 
Kamca, plur. maJianva, the mouth. 
Kanya ku-, to contradict. 
Kanijaga hu-, to tr^ad, to tread 

upon, trample on. 
Kanyassa leu-, to scold. 
Kanzi, a treasure. 

Kanzu, a long shirt-like garment 
worn both by men and women 
in Zanzibar. Men's kanzus 
are white or of a brown yellow 
colour, with ornamental work 
in red and white silk round 
the neck and down the bieast; 
they reach to the heels. Wo- 
men's kanzus are generally 
shorter, and are made of every 
variety of stuff, frequently of 
satin or brocade, but are always 
bound with red. 
Parts of a Kanzu (men's) : 
Tao la kanzu, hotbnn hem. 
Magongp nene, seams. 
Badani, front and back pieces. 

Also Kiino. 
Taharizi, side pieces. 
Sijafu, pieces turned in at the 
wrists, to receive the darizi. 
' Viku-apa, gores. 

Lisani, flap under the opening 

in front. 
Jabaliy red line across the back. 
MhaUxn-i, lining at the back of 

the darizi in front. 
Kanha. lining of the neck and 

Shada, tassel at t]:e neck. 
Kitanzi, loop opposite the tassel 

in front. 
Kazi ya shingo, the elaborately 
worked border round the 
neck, including — 
Tiki, red sewing over of the 

edge of the neck. 
Mrera, lines of red round 

the neck. 
Viboko, small zigzag orna- 
ment in the middle of the 
Vinara, small spots forming 
the outer edge of the 
Darizi, lines of silk worked 
round the wrists and down 
the front. 
JMjuzi (Ar. shararaji), orna- 
ment at the bottom of the 
strip of embroidery in front. 
Mkia wa mjuzi, line of silk 
running up the front from the 
Vipaji, or viguu, four little 
projections on the sides of 
the mjazi. 
Kanzu ya ziki, worked with white 
cotton round the neck instead of 
red silk. 
Kaoleni, one whose words are not 
to be trusted, a double-tongued 
Kaomwa, calumba root. 
Kapi, plur. makapi, a pulley. 
Kapi, plur. makapi, bran, husks. 
Kapiana ku- (mikoiw), to shake 

Kapu, plur. makapu^ a large basket 

or matting bag. 
Kapicai, a kind of rice. 
Karafati ku- — Kalafafi. 




Karafu mayiti, camphor. 

Karama, a special gift of God, an 

answer to a holy man's prayer, 

an honour. 
Karamu, a feast. 
Karani, a secretary, a clerk, a 

Karani, tucks. 
Karara, the woody flow^er-sheath of 

the cocoa-nut tree. 
Karata, playiiig-Ccirds. 
Karatha, a loan of money. 
Karatasi, paper. 

Karib, near, come near, come in, 
Earibia hu-, to approach, to draw 

near to. 
Karibiana hvr, to be near to one 

Karibisha, to make to come near, to 

invite in. 
Karihu^ near, a near relative. 

Karihu na or ya, near to, near. 
Karimu, liberal, generous. 
Karipia Jcu-, to cry out at, scold. 
Karirislia ku-, to recite. 
Kasa, a turtle. 
Kasarani, sorrow, grief. 
Kasasi, retaliation, revenge, ven- 
Kasha, plur. malcasha, a chest, a 

large box. 
Kashifu hu-, to depreciate. 
Kashmir, the ace of spades. 
Kasia, plur. mahasia, an oar. 

Kuvuta makasia, to row. 
Kasiba, a gun barrel. 
Kasidi, intention, purpose. 
Kasifa, inquisitiveness. 
Kasifu ku-, to be inquisitive. 
Kasiki, a large earthen jar for ghee. 
Kasvoiele, the juice of grated cocoa- 
nut before water is put to it. 

Tui la }casimde. See Tui. 

Tui la kupopoloa, the same after 
mixing with water, and strain- 
ing again. 
Kasiri, towards the end, late. 
Kasirika ku-, to become vexed. 
Kasirisha ku-, to vex. 
Kasiri ku-, to hurt, vex. 
Kaskazi, the northerly wind which 
blows from December till 
Kaskazvni, in a northerly direc- 
Kasoro, less by. 
Kassa, less by. 

Kassa robo, three-quarters of a 
Kassi. See Ktassi. 
Kasi, hard, with violence. 
Kwenda kassi, to rush along, 
Kutia kassi, to tighten. 
Kasumba, a preparation of opium. 
Kataa ku-, to refuse. 
Kata, plur. makata, a ladle made of 
a cocoa-nut, only about a third of 
the shell being removed. A kata 
holds from a quarter to half a pint, 
Kata, a ring of grass or leaves put 
on tlie head under a water-pot or 
other burden. 
Kata ku-, to cut, clip, divide. 
Kujikata, to cut oneself. 
Kukata hananu, to cut obliquely. 
Kukata maneno, to settle an affair, 

to decide. 
Kukata nakshi, to ornament with 

carving, to carve. 
Kukata tamaa, to despair. 
Njia ya kukata, a short cut, the 
nearest way. 
Kdtaba ku-, to write. 
Katakata ku-, to chop up. 
Katalia ku-, to deny all credence, 
to refuse to be convinced. 




Kulani, flax, thread, string, cotton- 
Kataza ku-, to prohibit, to deter. 
Kathdlika, in like manner. 
Kathdicahatha, many, many more. 
Watu hathaicahatha, such an] 
such people. 
Kathi, plur. mahathi, a judge, a 

Kati, inside, middle, the court 

within a house. 
Katia }:u-, to cut for. 

Kukaiiwa, to have cut, or cut out 

for one. 
Ni hiasi cJiangu hama nalihatiica 
mimi, it fits as though I had 
been measured for it. 
Kafilca, among, at, from, in, about. 
Eatiha implies nearness at least 
at the beginning of the action ; 
it has very nearly the same 
meaning as the case in -ni. 
Katika safari mle, during that 
Katika ku-, to come apart, to be cut, 

to break, to be decided. 
Katikati, in the midst. 

Katikati ya, &c., in the midst of, 
Katili, a murderous, bloodthirsty 

person, an infidel. 
Katinakati, in the middle. 
Katiti (A.), little. 
Kaiiza ku-, to put a stop to, to 

break ofi", to interrupt. 
Kato, plur. maJcato, a cutting, a 

breaking ofi". 
Katu, a kind of gum chewed with 

Katua ku-, to polish, to brighten. 
Kaiuka ku-, to be polished, to be 

Kauka ku-, to get dry, to dry. 

Sauti imekauka, I am hoarse. 
Kauli, a word. 
Kauri, a cowry. 

Kausha ku-, to make dry, to dry. 
-kavu, dry. It makes kavu with 

nouns like nyumha. 
Kaica, a conical dish-cover of 
plaited straw, often ornamented 
with spangles, &c. 
Kava, mildew, spots of mould. 
Kufanya kawa, to get mildewed 
or mouldy. 
Kawa ku-, to be delayed, to tarry, 

to be a long while. 
Kawadi (a term of reproach), a bad 

Kawaida, necessity, custom. 
Kawe, a pebble, a small stone (M.), 
Kau-ia ku-, to delay. 
Kaicilia ku-, to loiter about a busi- 
Kaicisha ku-, to keep, to delay, to 

cause to stay. 
Kaya, plur. makaya, a pinna, a kind 

of shell-fish. 
Kayamba, a sieve, a sort of rattle. 
Kaza ku-, to fix, to tighten, (of 
clothes) to fit tightly, to go 
hard at anything. 
Kukaza kicimha, to sing louder. 
Kukaza mhio, to run hard. 
Kazana ku-, to fix one another, to 
tigliten together, to hold together 
tightly, to be robust. 
Kazi, work, labour, employment, 
Ndio kazi yake, that is what he 

always does. 
Kazi mhi si mtezo rmvema? Is 
not poor work (as good as) good 
play (mhi for n-ici) ? 
Kazika ku-, to become tight, to 
become fixed. 




-kazo, nippins:, pressing tight. 

-he, female, f :i mine, the weaker. 

Kee = Kelele (N.). 

Keezo, a lathe, a machine for turn- 

Kefule ! an exclamation of con- 

Kefyakefya Tcu-, to teaze, to put in 
low spirits. 

Kehe, a drill. The carpenters in 
Zanzibar always use drills, which 
are much better suited to the 
native woods than gimlets are. 
The iron is called kelcee, the wood 
in which it is fixed msulcano, the 
handle in which it turns Jivu, 
and the bow by which it is turned 

Kehee, a kind of silver bracelet. 

Kelele, plur. mahtlde, noise, uproar, 

Kein (Ar.), How much? How many? 

Keniea Ttu-, to rebuke, to snub, to 

Kenda = Kioenda and Eaenda, 

Kenda, nine. 

Ya Icenda, ninth. 

Kendain ? for Incenda wapi, going 
where, i.e., where are you going ? 

Kenge, a large water-lizard with 
slender body and long limbs and 

Kengea, the blade of a sword, knife, 

Kengele, a bell. 
Eupiga kengele, to ring a bell, 

Kera ku-, to worry, to nag at. 

Kerani = Karard. 

Kereketa ku, to irritate the throat, 
to choke. 

Kereza ku-, to saw, to turn, to cut 
a tree half through, and lay it 
down, so as to make a fence. 

Kerimu ku-, to feast, to be liberal to. 

Kcring'ende, a dragon-fly, the red- 
legged partridge. 

Kero, trouble, disturbance, uproar. 

Kesha, a watch, a vigil. 

Kesha ku-, to watch, to remain 
awake, not to sleep. 

Kesheza ku-, to make, to watch, to 
keep awake. 

Kesho, to-morrow. 

KesTio kutwa or kuchwa, the day 
after to-morrow. 

Kete, a cowry. 

Keti ku-, to sit down, stay, live (M.). 

Khahari, news, information. 

Khadaa, fraud. 

Khafifu, light, unimportant. 

Kliaini, a traitor. 

Klicilds, the end, there is no more. 

KJidlifu ku- or Halifu ku-, to resist, 
oppose, rebel against. 

KJialisi ku-, to deliver. 

Khami, a chess bishop. 

Khamsi, five. 

Khamsini, fifty. 

Khamstasliara, fifteen. 

Kharadali, mustard. 

KJidrij ku-, to spend. 

Kliashifu ku- = Kaslnfu ku-, 

Khatari, danger. 

Kliati, a note, letter, document, 
memorandum, writing, hand- 

Khatihu, flzx. makhatibu, a secre- 
tary, a preacher. 

Ehatima, end, completion. 

Kliatimisha ku-, to bring to an end, 

Ehatiya, fault. See Ratiya. 

Khazana, a treasure. 

Khema, a tent. 

Eheiri = Heri, well, fortunate. 
trappy, good. 




Mtu wa Wieiri, a happy man. 
Kwa Mieiri, for good. 
Ni kheiri, I had better. 
Khini Jcu-, to betray. 
Ehitari leu-, to choose. 
Khitima nzima, a complete copy of 

the Koran. See Juzuu. 
Khofisha hu-, to frighten. 
Khofu, fear, danger. 

Kuwa na hliofu, i to become 
Kuingiwa na hhofu, S afraid. 
Kutla hhofu, to frighten. 
Khorj, a pad used as a saddle for 

Khoshi (?), paint, colour. 
Khuhiri hu-, to inform, give news. 
Khusumu, enmity. 
EJiutuhu hu-, to preach. 
Khuzurungi or Huthurungi, a stuff 
of a brown yellow colour, of which 
the best men's kanzus are made. 
Ki-, a prefix forming a diminutive. 
It becomes ch- before a vowel, 
and in the plural it becomest-i- 
and vy-, or in other dialects zi- 
or thi: 
Ki- as a prefix also means (es- 
pecially if prefixed to proper 
names), such a sort ; and when 
used alone, words of such a 
sort, i.e. such a language. 
Mavazi ya hifaume, royal robes. 
Viazi vya hizungu, European 

Kiarabu, Arabic. 
Kiyao, the Yao language. 
Ki- or ch-, the adjectival and pro- 
nominal prefix proper to words 
agreeing with substantives of the 
above forms. 
Ki- or ch-, the personal prefix of 
verbs having substantives of the 
above form as their subject. 

hi-, the objective prefix of verbs 
having substantives of the above 
form as their object. 
hi-, the sign of that tense which 
expresses a state of things, 
being that, which may be trans- 
lated by the help of the words, 
if, supposing, when, while, or 
be treated as a present parti- 
ciple in -ing. 
Niki- may be contracted into hi-. 
Alikuwa ahiogolea, he was bath- 
Ahija, if he comes, or when he 

The syllable -hi- is inserted in 
the past perfect tense to de- 
note a continuing action or 
Walipo-hi-pendana, when or while 
they loved one another. 
Kia, plur. via, a piece of wood, a 

kind of latch, a bar. 
Kia hu-, to step over. 
Kiada, slowly, distinctly. 
Kialio, plur. vialio, cross pieces 
put in a cooking pot to prevent 
the meat touching the bottom 
and burning. 
Kianga, the coming out of the sun 

after rain. 
Kiapo, plur. viapo, an ordeal, au 

Kiarabu, Arabic. 

Ya hiarabu, Arabian. 
Kiasi — Kiassi. 
Kiass cha bunduhi, a cartrid£'e. 
Kiassi, measure, moderation. 

Kiassi gani i or Kassi gani ? How 

much ? 

Kiatu, plur. viatu, a shoe, a sandal. 

Viatu vya mti, a sort of tall 

wooden clog worn in the house. 




and especially by women. They 
are held on by grasping a sort 
of button (msitruaJci) between 
the great and second toe. 
Kiazi, plur. viazi, a sweet potato. 

Kiazi Tiikiiu, plur. viazi vihuu, a 

Kiazi sena, with white skin. 

Kiazi Mndoro, with red skin. 
K'ha haluli, a knot of malcuti to 

light a pipe with. 
KilKiha, a measure, about a pint 

basin full, a pint basin, about a 

pound and a half. 
Kibakuli, a kind of mtama. 
Kibali hu-, to prosper. 
Kibanda, plur. vibanda, a hut, a 

hovel, a shed. 
Kibanzi, plur. vibanzi, a splinter, a 

very small piece of wood. 
Kihao, plur. vibao, a shelf, a small 

piece of plank. In Tumbatu a 

chair is called kibao, 
Kibapara, a pauper, a destitute 

person (an insulting epithet). 
Kibarango, a short heavy stick. 
Kibaraza, plur. vibaraza, a small 

stone seat. 
Kibarua, plur. vibarua, a note, a 

ticket. Kibarua is now used 

in Zanzibar to denote a person 

hired by the day, from the 

custom of giving such persons a 

ticket, to be delivered up when 

they are paid. 
Kiberiti, sulphur. 

Viberiti, matches. 
Kibeti, a dwarf. 

Kuku kibeti, a bantam. 
Kibia, plur. vibia, an earthen pot-lid. 
Kibiongo, plur. vibiongo, a person 

bent by age or iufirmity. 
Kihohwe, plur. vibobwe, a piece of 

cloth tied round the loins during 
hard work. 

Kibofu, plur. vibofu, a bladder. 

Kihogoshi, plur. vibogoshi, a small 
skin bag. 

Kiboko, plur. viboko, a hippo- 
potamus. See also Kanzu. 

Kibiia, a small iish. 

Kibueta, plur. vibueta, a box. 

Kibula, the kebla, the point to 
which men turn when they pray. 
Among the Mohammedans the 
kibula is the directiun in which 
Mecca lies, which is in Zanzibar 
nearly north. Hence kibula is 
sometimes used to mean the 

Kibula ku; to point towards, to be 
opposite to. 

Kibumba, plur. vibumba, a small 
paper box or case of anything. 

Kiburi, pride. 

Kiburipembe, a native bird. 

Kichaa, lunacy. 

Mwenyi kichaa, a lunatic. 

Kichaka, plur. vichaka, a thicket, a 
heap of wood or sticks. 

Kichala, plur. vichala, a bunch. 
Kichala clia mzabibu, a bunch of 

Kiclieko, plur. viclieko, a laugh, a 

Kicliikichi, plur. vicMkicM, the 
small nuts contained in the fruit 
of the palm-oil tree. 

Kichilema, plur. vichilema, the 
heart of the growing part of 
the cocoa-nut tree, which is 
eaten as a salad, and in various 

Kicho, plur. vicJio, fear, a fear. 

Kicliocheo, the act of pushing wood 
further into the fire, an instru- 




ment for doing it, exciting words ' 

to stir up a quarrel. 
KichocliorOy plur. vichoclioro, a very 

narrow passage, such as is gene- 
rally left between the houses in 

Kichicay plur. vichwa, for Kitiva, the 

Kidaha, plur. vidaJca, a recess in 

the wall. 
Kidaha, plur. vidaJca, a cocoa-nut 

when just formed. 
Kidaka tonge, the uvula. 
Kidanga, a very small fruit, before 

it gets any taste. 
Kidariy the chest : h'dari is used of 

both men and animals, hifua of 

men only. 
Kidau^ plur. vidau, a small vessel. 

Kidau cha wino, an inkstand. 
Kidevu, plur. videvu, the chin. 
Kidimbwi, plur. vidimbwi, a pool 

left on the beach by the falling 

Kidinga popo, the dengue fever. 
Kidogo, plur. vidogo, a little, a very 

little, a little piece, a morsel, a 


Kupiga h'doko, to click with the 
Kidole, plur. vidole, a finger, a toe. 

Kidole elm gumha, tlie thumb. 
Kidonda, plur. vidonda, a sore, a 

small sore, a wound. 
Kidonge, plur. vidonge, a very small 

round thing, a lump in flour, a pill. 
Kidoto, plur. vidoio, a small piece of 

cloth tied over a camel's eyes 

while turning an oil press. 
KielezOj plur. videzo, a pattern, 

something to make something 

elstJ clear. 

Kievu (A.) = Kidevu. 

Eiendelezo, progr(;ss. 

Kifa, plur. vifa, the nipple of a gun. 

Kifa uwongo, the sensitive plant. 

Kifafa, epilepsy, fits. 

Kifafa, plur. vifafa, sparks and 

crackling of damp firewood. 
Kifani, plur. vifani, the like, a 

similar tliing. 
Kifano, plur. vifuno, a likeness. 
Kifaranga, plur. vifaranga, a 

chick, a very small chicken. 
Eifaru, plur. vifaru, a rhinoceros, 

a small rhinoceros. 
Eifaume, royalty, a royal sort. 

Ya kifaume, royal. 
Eifiko, plur. vifiko, arrival, point of 

arrival, end of journey. 
Eifu ku-, to suffice. 
Eifu ndugu, the os coccygis, the 

bone which the Mohammedans 

say never decays. 
Ei'fua, plur. vifua, the chest, the 

Eifufu, plur. vifufu, the shell of the 

cocoa-nut (M.). 
Eifako, plur. vifulu), a little bag, a 
pocket, a purse. 

Eifuko cha kutUia fetha, a purse. 
Eifumbu, plur. vifumhu, a small 

round basket or bag for squeezing 

scraped cocoa-nut in to get out 

the tui. 
Eifunibo, plur. vifumho, a very large 

kind of matting bag. 
Eifundo cha mguu, the ankle. 
Eifando cha mkono, the wrist. 
Eifungo, plur. vifungo, anything 

which fastens, a button, prison, 

imprisonment, a kind of rice. 
Eifnngua, an unfastener, an opener. 

Eifungua kanica, early food, 




Kifungua mlango, a present made 
by the bridegroom to the Tiungu 
of the bride before she allows 
him to enter the bride's room, 
on the occasion of his first 
visit to her. 
Kifuniko, plur. vifuniko, a lid, a 

Kifuo, plur. vifuo, a stick stuck in 
the ground to rip the husk off 
cocoa-nuts with. 
KifurusM, something tied up in the 

corner of a cloth 
Kifusi, rubbish, rubbish from old 

Kifuu^ plur. vifuu, a cocoa-nut 

Kigaga, plur. vigaga, a scab. 
Kigai, plur. vigai, a piece of broken 

pottery or glass, a potsherd. 
Kiganda cha pili, the two of cards. 
Eigaogao, the Pemba name for a 
chameleon, meaning changeable. 
Kigego = Kijego. 

Kigeren]ienza, plur. vigerenyenza, a 
very small piece of broken pottery 
or glass, a splinter. 
Kigelegele, plur. vigelegele, a shrill 
trilling scream much used as a 
sign of joy, especially on the 
occasion of a birth. 
Kigogo, a little block of wood. 
Kigogo cha Jcushonea, a small 
oblong piece of wood used by 
Kigongo, the hump of a humpbacked 
Mwenyi kigongo, a humpback. 
Kigono, plur. vigono (Yao), a sleep- 
ing place. 
Kigosho, a bend. 

Kigosho cha mhono, an arm that 
cannot be straightened. 

Kigugumizi, stammering, a stammer- 

Kigulu, lame. 

Kigunni, plur. vigunni, an oblong 

matting bag of the kind in which 

dates are brought to Zanzibar. 
Kigunzi, the day before the SiJm a 

Rig we, plur. vigwe, a plaited cord. 

reins, a string of beads, a piping 

on the edge of a dress. 
Eiharusif cramp. 
Kiherehere (cha moijo), trepidation, 

palpitation (of the heart). 
Eihindi, the Indian sort, an Indian 

Ya hihindi, Indian. 
Eihoro, sorrow at a loss, fright, 

Eiini, kernel, the heart of wood. 

Eiini cha yayi, the yolk of an 

Eiinimacho, a conjuror. 

Eiisha or Eisha, afterwards, next, 

this being ended. 
Eijakazi, plur. vijaJcazi, a slave girl. 
Eijamanda, plur. vijamanda, a 

small long-shaped box commonly 

used to carry betel and areca- 

nut in. 
Eijana, plur. vijana, a youth, a 

young man, a complimentary 

epithet, a boy or girl, a son or 

Eijaluha, plur. vijaluha, a small 

metal box. 
Eijamha, plur. vijamba. a small rock. 
Eijaraha, plur. vijaraha, a small 

Eijaraha cha hooni, sores on the 
penis, syphilis. 
Eijego, plur. vijego, a child which 

cuts its upper teeth first. They 

are reckoned unlucky, and among 




the wikler tribes are often killed. 

Applied by way of abuse to bad 

Kijibokoy plur. vijlhoko, a little 

Kijicho, envy, an envious glance. 
Kijiguu, plur. vijiguu, a little leg. 
Eijifco, plur. vijiko, a small spoon, 

a spoon. 
Kijiti, plur. vijiti, a little tree, a 

bush, a shrub, a small pole, a 

piece of wood. 
Kijito, plur. vijitOy a small stream, 

a brook. 
Kijito (M.) = Kijiclio, 
Kijitioa or Kijichwa, plur. vijitica, 

a little head. 
Kijici, thievish. 
Kijogoo, plur. rijogoa, a mussel, a 

kind of shell-fi:ih. 
Kijoli, the slaves belonging to (me 

Kijomha, Swahili (M.). 
Kijongo = Kigongo^ a humpback. 
Kijuhuu, plur. vijuhuu, a great- 
Kijumhe^ plur. vijumhey a go- 
between, a match-maker. 
Kijurriba, plur. vijumba^ a little 

house, a hovel. 
Kikaango, plur. rihaango, a sma'l 

earthen pot for cooking with oil 

or fat. 
KiTxdka, over-haste. 
Kikale, old style, the antique. 

Fa kikale, of the ancient kind, 
antique, of old times. 
Kikao, plur. vikao, a seat, sitting, 

Kikapu, plur. vilaipiL, a basket, a 

matting bag. 
Kikaramha, a very old person (dis- 

Kikisa ku-f to understand half of 
what is saiil. 
Haiti hii yanik.kisa, I know some 
of the words, but not all. 

Kiko, plur. viko, a tobacco pipe, a 
pi|.e. The native pipes consist 
of a vessel half full of water with 
two stems, one leading to the 
bowl and one to the mouthpiece : 
the water vess> 1 is properly the 
kiko. See hori, digali, malio, and 

KikocL, plur. vikoa. 

Kula kikoa. to eat at the expense 
of each one in turn. 

Kikoii, the inside of the fingers. 

Kikohozi, a cough. 

Kikoi, plur. vikoi, a white loin- 
cloth with coloured stripes near 
the border. 

Eikombe, plur. vikomhe, a cup. 

Kikomho, a little crooked thing. 

Kikomo, plur. vikomo, end, end of 
journey, arrival. 
Kikomo cha hso, the brow, es- 
P' cially if prominent. 

Kikondoo. See Kondoo. 

Kikongice, plur. rikongice, an ex- 
tremely old person, a feeble old 

Kikono, plur. vikono, the prow of a 
small native vessel. 

Kikonyo, plur. vikonyo, flower and 
fruit stalks, the stalks of cloves. 

Kikoromhice, a cry made into the 
hand by way of signal, a call. 

Kikod or Ukosi, the nape of the neck. 

Kikoto, plur. vikoto (M.), a plaited 
thong or whip carried by an 
overlooker and used in schools. 

Kikozi, plur. vikozi, a detachment, 
a band, company, division. 

Kikuba, plur. vikuha, a small packet 




of aromatic leaves, &c., worn in 
the dress by women. It is com- 
posed of reliani, sprinkled with 
dalia, and tied up with a strip of 
the mlcadi. 
KJhuJcu, plur. viliuhu, a bracelet, an 
arm ring. 
Kiliuku dm hupandia frasi, a 
KiJninazi (?), labia (obscene). 
Kupiga hilcumlo, to push aside, 
to shove out of the way. 
Kilcuta, plur. vilmta, a small stone 

Kihwapa, the perspiration from the 

armpit. ^*ee also Kanzu. 
Kikwi, plur. vikm', a thousand, ten 

Kilango, a narrow entrance. 
Kilango cha hahari, straits. 
Kilango cha jaha, the gate of 
Kile, that, yonder. 
KiJeji, a round ilat wheaten cake. 
KiJele, plur. vilele, a peak, a sum- 
mit, a pointed top, a pointed 
shoot in a tree or plant. 
Kilema, plur. vilema, a deformed 
Si vema Ituclicha Idlema, it is 
wrong to laugh at one who is 
Kilemha, plur. vilemba, a turban, a 
customary present at the comple- 
tion of a job and on many other 
Kilemhwe, a great-grandson. 
Kileo, plur. vileo, iiitoxicatio.n, an 

intoxicating thing. 
Kilete, plur. vilete, metal rowlocks, 

ViZerw = Kidevu. 

Kilifu, plur. vilifu, the cloth-like 

envelope of the young cocoa-nut 

Kiliina, plur. vilima, a hill, arising 

ground, a mound of tarth. 
Kilimhili, the wrist. 
Kilimia, the Pleiades (?). 
Jiz7mo, cultivation, the crop planterl. 

Kilimo cha nini? what is the 
crop to be ? 
Kilindi^ plur. vilindi, the deeps, 

deep water, 
Kilinga popo (?), rheumatism. 
Kilinge cha maneno, cha uganga, 

speaking in a dark munner not 

generally understood. 
Kilio, plur. vilio, a cry, weeping. 
Kiliza hu-, to chink money. 
Killa or Kulla, every. 

Killa nendapo, wherever I go, or, 
every time I go. 
Kiluthu, velvet. 
Kima, a monkey. 
Kima, price, measure. 
Kimaji, damp, 
Kiinanda, an omeleite. 
Kiinandu, the piece of wood put on 

behind the sill and lintel of a 

door to receive the pivots on 

which it turns. 
Kimanga, a small kind of grain. 
Kimanga, of the Arab sort. See 


Chut himango, a full-grown leo- 
Kimashamha, belonging to the 
country, a country dialect. 

Ya Mynashamba, countrified. 
Kimhaumhati, a chameleon. 
Kinibia hu-, to run away, to flee. 
Kimhiza hu-, to make to run away, 

to put to flight. 




Kimhizia Jcu-, to make to run away 

Kimerima. See Mer'^ma. 

Kimeta, a sparkling:, a glitter. 

Kimetimeti, plur. viinetimeti, a fire- 

Kimia, plur. vimia, a circular cast- 

Kimio, the uvula, an enlarged 

Kimo, it is or wns inside. 

Kimoja, one. See Moja. 

Kimporoto, nonsense. 

Kimurimuri, plur. vimurimuri, a 

Kimvunga, a hurricane. 

Kiimca ku-, to be tired, disgusted, 
to be cross at having anything to 

Kimicondo, plur. vimifondn, a mis- 
sile, a shooting star, because they 
are said to be thrown by the 
angels at the Jins. 

Kiniya, silence, perfect stillness. 
Mtu wa Idmyahimyaf a still man. 


Kina sisi, people like us. 
Mahasha liaya ya kina AhfJallah, 
these chests belong to Abdal- 
lah's people. 

Kina, plur. vina, a verse, the final 
syllable of the lines, which is the 
same throughout the poem. 

Kinai ku-, to be content without, 
to withhold oneself from desiring, 
to be self-satisfied, to revolt at, 
to nauseate. 

Kinaisha ku-, to revolt, to make 
unable to eat any more, to take 
away the desire of. 
Kinamizi or Kiinamizi, stooping to 

one's work. 
Kinanda, plur. vinanda, a stringed 

instrument, applied to nearly all 
European instruments. 
Kinara, plur. vinara, a little tower, 

a candlestick. See also Kanzu. 
Kinaya, self-content, insolence. 
Kinayi ku- = Kinai ku-. 
Kinda, plur. makinda, a very young 

bird, the young of birds. 
Kindana ku-, to object to, to stand 

in the way of. 
Kinena, the abdomen. 
Kinga, plur. vinga, a brand, a half- 
burnt piece of firewood. 
Kinga, a stop, a limit put to a 

Kinga Jcu-, to put something to catch 
something, to guard oneself, to 
ward a blow. 
Kukinga mvua, to put something 
to catch the rainwater. 
Kingaja, plur. vingaja, a bracelet nf 

Kingalingali, on the back (of falling 

or lying). 
Kingama ku-, to lie across. 

Mti umekingama njiani, a tree 
lies across the road. 
Kingamisha ku-, to block, to step, 

to spoil. 
Kinge, too little. 

Chakula kinge, too little food. 
Kingojo, a watch, time or place of 

Kingozi, the old language of Me- 
linda, the poetical dialect, difii- 
cult and ill-understood language. 
Kingubwa, the spotted liyaena. 
Kinika ku-, to be certain or ascer- 
tained about a person. 

Kukata kinjunjuri, to shave all 
the hair except one long tuft. 
Kinono, plur. vinono^ a futliug. 




Kinoo, plur. vinoo, a whetstone. [ 

Emhe kinoo, a small yellow kind 

of mango. 

Kinu, plur. vinu, a wooden mortar 

for pounding and for cleaning 

corn, an oil-mill, a mill. 

Kinu cha hushindikia, a mill for 

pressing oil. 
Kinu cha moshi, a steam mill. 
Kinuhi, plur. vinuhi, a harp. 

Ya Kinuhi, Nubian. 
Kinwa = Kinywa. 
Kinwa, plur. vinwa, a mouth. 
Kinica mchuzi, the imperial, the 

place where the imperial grows. 
Kinyaa^ filth, dung. 
Kinyago, plur. vinyago, a thing to 
frighten people, such as a mock 
ghost, &c., &c. 
Kinyegere^ a small animal, a skunk. 
Kinyemiy pleasant, good. 
Kinyenyefu, a tickling, a tingling. 
Kinyezi. See Kinyaa. 
Kinyi, having. See -inyi. 
Kinyonga, plur. vinyonga, a chame- 
Kinyozi, plur. vinyozi, a barber, a 

Kinyuma = Kinyume. 
Kinyume, afterwards. 
Kinyume, going back, shifting, 
alteration, an enigmatic way of 
speaking, in which the last syl- 
lable is put first. See Appendix I. 
Kinyumha, a kept mistress. 
Kinyunya, plur. vinyunya, a kind 
of cake, a little cake made to try 
the quality of the flour. 
Kingwa, plur. vinywa^ a drink, a 

Kinywaji, plur. vlnyivaji, a beve- 
rage, a Ubual beverage. 

Kinza ku-, to contradict, deny. 
Kiogaj plur. vioga, a mushroom. 
Kiohosi, plur. violcosi, a reward for 
finding a lost thing and returniug 
it to the owner. 
Kioja, plur. vioja, a curiosity. 
Kionda, a taster. 

Kionda mtuzi. the imperial, the 
place where the imperial grows 
Kiongozi, plur. viongozi, a leader, a 

guide, a caravan guide. 
Kiongwe, plur. viongwe, a donkey 
from the mainland ; they are re- 
puted very hard to manage. 
Kioo, plur. vioo, glass, a glass, a 
looking-glns!^, a piece of glass, — 
a fish-hook (M.). 
Kiopoo, a pole or other instrument 
to get things out of a well, &c., 
Kiosha miguu, a present made by 
the bridegroom to the kungu of 
the bride on the occasion of his 
first visit. 
Kiota, plur. viota^ a hen's nest, a 

laying place, a bird's nest. 
Koto = Kiota. 
Kupiga kiowe, to scream, cry for 
Kiowevu, a liquid. 
Kioza, putridity. 

lupa mkono, a present made by the 

iDridegroom to the bride when he 

first sees her face. 

Kipaa, plur. vipaa, a thatched roof, 

the long sides of a roof. 

Kipaa cha mbele, the front slope 

of the roof. 
Kipaa cha nyuma, the back slope 
of the roof. 
Kipaje, a kind of mtama. 



Kipaji, a kind of cosmetic. See 

also Kanzu. 
KipaJiu, plur. vipaku, a spot or 

mark of a different colour. 
Kipamho, adornment. 
Kipande, plur. vipande, a piece, an 
instrument, a small rammer for 
beating roofs. 

Vipande vya Jcupimia, nautical 

Kipande hilichonona, a piece of 
Kipanga, a large bird of prey, a 

Kipangozi, a sluggish incurable 

sore on a horse or ass. 
Eipara, plur. vipara, a shaved place 

on the head. 
Kipele, plur. vipele^ a pimple. 
Kipendi, a darling, a favourite. 
Kipenu, plur. vipenu, a lean-to, the 

side cabins of a ship. 
Kipenyo, a small place where some- 
thing passes through. 
Kipepeo, plur. vipepeo, a fan for 

blowing the fire, a butterfly. 
Kipeto, plur. vijjeto, a [acket. 
Kipi or Kipia, a cock's spur. 
Kipigi, a rainbow (?). 
Kipila, a curlew. 

Nyele za Mpilipili, woolly hair. 
Kipindi^ a time, a period of time, an 

Kipindi chote, at every period. 

Kipindi cha atJdhuuri, the hour 
of noon. 

Kufa Ttipinda, to die a natural 
death, as cattle, &c. 
Kipindupindu, cholera. 
Kipingwa, plur. vipingwa, a bar. 
Kipinij plur. vipini, a hilt, a haft, 

a handle of the same kind as a 
knife handle, a stud-shaped orna- 
ment worn by women in the nose, 
and sometimes in the ears also. 

Kipimo, plur. vipimo, a measure. 

Kipofu, plur. vipofuy a blind per- 

Kipolepole, a butterfly. 

Kiponza, paralysis. 

Kipulcuba, dropped early, cast fruit, 

Kipukute, Kipukuse = Kipukvba. 
Ndizi kipukute, little bananas. 

Kipuli, plur. vipuli, a dangling 
ornament worn by women in the 
ear; they are often little silver 
crescents, five or six round the 
outer circumference of each ear. 

Kipungvx), plur. vipunguo, defect, 

Kipupwe, the cold season (June and 

Kipwa, plur. vipwa, rocks in the sea. 

Kiraka, plur. viraka, a patch. 

Kiri ku-, to confess, accept, acknow- 
ledge, assert. 

Kirtba, plur. viriba, a water-skin. 

Kirihi ku-, to provoke. 

Kirihika ku-, to be provoked, to be 

Kirihisha ku-, to make ofi'ended, to 

Kirimha, a cage for wild animals, 
a meat-safe. 

Kirimu ku-, to feast. 

Kirithi hu-, to borrow, specially to 
borrow money. 

Kiroboto, plur. tirdboto, a flea. The 
Hathramaut soldiers are nick- 
named Tirdboto, and their song 
as they march is parodied by, 
Kiroboto, Kiroboto, tia motOj tia 




Kirukavjia, a kind of mouse found 

in Zanzibar. 
Kirukia, a kind of parasite growing 

on fruit trees. 
Kiruu, blind rage. 
Kisa, plur. visa, a cause, a reason, 
a short tale. 
Visa vingi, many affairs, a com- 
plicated business. 
Kisa cha JcohOy kernel of a stone. 
Kisaga, a measure equal to two 

Kisafiani, plur. visahani, a plate, a 

small dith. 
KisanduTiu, plur. visanduhu, a small 

chest, a box. 
Kisarani, a greedy fellow, a miser. 
Kisasi, revenge, retaliation. 
Kislmda, a tailless kite. 
Kishaha, plur. vi<ha]:a, a thicket. 
Kisheda, a bunch of grapes, a paper 

fluttering in the air like a kite. 
Kishenzi, of the wild people. 
Lugha ya Idslienzi, a language of 
the interior. 
Kishi, a chess-queen. 
Kishigino = Kisigino. 
Kishinda, a small residue left in a 
place or inside something, as 
in a water-jar less than half 
Vishinda vingapi umetia ? How 
many portions (of grain) have 
you put (in the mortar, to bu 
cleaned) ? 
Kishindo, noise, sliock. 
Kishogo, the back of the liead and 
Alcupaye hisliogo si mwcnzin, one 
who turns his bac'c upon you 
is not your friend. 
Kishwara, a loop of rope to haul by 
in dragging a vessel into or out 

of the water, a loop in the side of 

a dhow to pass an oar through 

for rowing. 
Klsi Im-, to guess. 
Kuliisi tanga, to shift over a sail 

to the opposite side. 
Kisi, Keep her away ! 
Kisilao, plur. risihao, a waistcoat 
with or without sleeves; tiiey 
are very commonly worn in 

Kidbao cha miliono, a sleeved 

Kisibao cha vihapa or vikwapa, a 
sleeveless waistcoat. 
Kisibu (?), a nickname. 
Kisigino or Kishigino, the elbow. 

Kisigino cha mguu, the heel. 
Kisiki, plur visiki, a log. Used in 

slang language for a prostitute. 
Kisiki cha mvua, a rainbow (M.). 
Kisima, plur. visima, a well. 
Kisirni (obscene), the clitoris. 
Kisitiri, a screen, screen-wall, 

Kisiiva, plur. visiwa, an island. 
Kisiyangu [Tumbatu] = Kizingiti. 

Kisiwiso cha choo chauma, consti- 
Kishoka, plur. vishoka, a hatchet, a 

small axe. 
Kishuhaka, plur. vishuhaka, a small 

recess, a pigeon-hole. 
Kishungi, plur. vishungi, the ends of 

the turban cloth, lappets. 
Kisma, a part. 
Kisombo, a paste made of beans, 

mcihogo, &c, 
Kisongo, plur. visongn, a piece of 

wood to twist cord or rope with. 
Kisoze, a very small bird witli back 

blue, and breast yellow. 




Kf'su, pliir. visH, a knife. 

Ki^ua, a suit of clothes. 

Kisugulu, plur. visngulu, a mound 
of eartlj, an ant-hill. 

Kisuiigura, plur. visungura, a little 
rabbit or hare (?). 

Kfsunono, gonorrhoea. 

Kisiiiiono cha damu, ■with passing 

Kisunono cha uzaha, with passing 

Kisunono cha mhojo, with constant 

KisusuU, a whirlwind (?) a boy's 
kite (?). 

Kisusi, plur. visusi, the hip of a 
roof. The main roof starts from 
the long front and back walls, 
and is called the paa ; small 
roofs start from the end walls, 
and are carried to the ridge under 
and within the 'paa : these are 
the visusi. 

Kisuto = Kisutu. 

Kisutu, plur. visutu, a large piece 
of printed calico, often forming 
a woman's whole dress, a cover- 

Kiswa = Kisa. 

Kitahu, plur. vitahu, a book. 

KitagaUfa, a small matting bag for 
halua, &c. 

Kitakizo, plur. vltaJdzo, the head 
and foot-pieces of a bedstead. 

Kitalco, sitting. 
Kuliaa kitako, to sit down, to re- 
main in one locality. 

Kitale, plur. vitale, a cocoa-nut just 
beginning to grow. 

Kitali, sailcloth. 

Kitalu, a stone fence, a wall. 

Kitamhaa^ plur. vitambaay a small 
piece of cloth a rag. 

Kitnmhaa cha kufutia mkono, a 

Kitamhaachameza, Q.tah\eua.Y>kin. 
Kitamhi cha kilemha, a piece of stuff 

for making a turban. 
Kitamho, a short time. 
Kitamiri, a kind of evil spirit. 
Kitana, plur. vitana, a small comb. 
Kitanda, plur. vitanda, a bedstead, 

a couch. 
Kitanga, plur. vitanga, a round mat 
used to lay out food upon. 
Kitanga cha mkono, the palm of 

the hand. 
Kitanga cha mzani, a scale pan. 
Kitanga cha pepo, the name of a 
Kitani, flax, linen, string. 
Kitanzi, plur. titanzi, a loop, a 

Kitaoica, the kind proper for a 
Amevaa nguo za kitaoica, he is 
dressed like a devotee. 
Kitapo, plur. vitapo, a shivering, a 

Kitata, plur. vitara, a. curved aword. 
Kitara, an open shed in a village, 
where people sit to talk and trans- 
act business. 
Kitasa, a box lock, a lock. 
Kitatangi, a cheat. Also a very 
bri;j:ht-coloured sea-fish with 
spines, a sea-porcupine. 
Kitawi, a kind of weed. 
Kitaici, plur. vitaici, a branch, a 

bough, a bunch. 
Kite, feeling sure, certainty, faith- 
fully (?), affection. 
Kana kite haye, he has no affec- 
Kupiga kite, to cry or groan from 
inward pain. 




Kiteflefu, soLbing before or after 

Kitefute, the clieek, the part of the 

face over the cheek-bone. 
KHeJcu, a tosser. 
Kitembe, a lisp. 
Kitemhwi, a thread of flax or fine 

Kitendawili, plur. vitendawili, an 
enigma. The propounder says 
KitendawiH; the rest answer 
Tega; he then propounds his 
Kitendo, plur. vitendo, an action. 
Kitengenya, a small bird spotted 

with white, yellow, and red. 
Klleo, plur. viteo, a small sifting 

Klteso, a vase. 

Kitewe, loss of the use of the legs. 
Klthiri ku-^ to grow large, in- 
TJmeldthiri kuzaa, it has borne 
more than before. 
Kiti, plur. viti, a cliair, a seat. 

Kiti chafrasi, a saddle. 
Kitimhi, plur. vitimbi, an artifice, 

an artful trick. 
Kitinda mimba, the last child a 

woman will bear; 
Kitindi. See Vitindi. 
Kitisho, plur. vitisho, fear, a terrify- 
ing thing. 
Kititi, plur. vUiti, a hare, a rabbit, 

a little thing (M.). 
Kititi, to the full, entirely, alto- 

irether, all at once. 
Kititi cha hahari, the depths of the 

Kititia, a child's windmill. 
Kitiwanga, chicken-pox. The 
natives say an epidemic of Jiiti- { 
icanga, always precedes one of 

small-pox. Also titiwanga, and 
peihaps tete ya 'kicanga. 
Kito, plur vito. a precious stone. 
Kitolca (M.) = Kishoha, 
Kitoma, plur. vitoma, a small round 

Kitoma, orchitis. 
Kitone. plur. vitone, a drop. 
Kitonga, hydrocele (?). 
Kitongoji, a village. 

Kutjzama kitongofnngo, to glance 
at contemptuously with half- 
shut eyes. 
Kitoria, a kind of edible fruit. 
Kitofeo (M.) = Kichocheo. 
Kitoto, plur. vitdto, a little child. 
Kifovu, plur. vitnvu, the navel. 
Kitoweo, plur. vitoweo, a relish, a 
something to be eaten with the 
rice or other vegetable food, such 
as meat, fish, curry, &c. 
Eitu, plur. vitu, a thing, especially 
a tangible thing. 
Si kitu, nothing, worthless. 
Kitua, p^ur. vitua, the shade of a 

tree, &c. 
Kituko, startledness, fright. 
Kitukuu, plur. vitukuuy a great 

Kitulizo, plur. vitulizo, a soothing, 

quieting thing. 
Kitumhva. ydur. vitumhua, a sort <^f 
cake or fritter made in Zanzibar. 
Kitunda^ plur. vitunda, a chess 

Kitundwi, a water-jar [TumbatuJ. 
Kitunga, plur. vitunga, a small 

round basket. 
Kitungu (?) a small round earthen 

Kitungule, plur. vitungule, a hare or 
rabbit (?). 



Kitunguu, plur. vitunguu, an onion. 

Kitunguu somu, garlic. 

Kitungica, a small bird like a 

Eituo, plur. vituo, an encampment, 
a resting-place, a putting down. 

Sana hituo, he is always gadding 
Kitupa, plur. vitupa, a little bottle, 

a vial. 

£ahari ya Mtidia, a boiling sea, 
deep and rough. 
Kitica, plur. vitwa, the head. 
Kiticangomba, a somersault. 
KitwaMtwa, topsy-turvy. 
Kitwana, plur. vitu-ana, a slave boy. 
Kiu, thirst. 

Kuwa na Mn, to be thirsty. 

Kuona Mu, to feel thirst. 
Kiua, plur. viua, an eyelet hole. 
Kiuha Jiu-, to step over. 
KiuTiia = Kiruhia. 
^Kiuma, plur. viuma, a fork. 
Kiuma mhuzi, a small dark-coloured 

Kiumbe, plur. viumhe, a creature, 

created thing. 
Kiumhizi, a peculiar way of beating 

the drum ; the people sing the 

while, Sheitani ndoo tupigane 

Kiunga, plur. viunga, a suburb, the 
outskirts of a town. 

Kiungani, near the town, in the 
Kiungo, plur. viungo, a joint, — an 

acid thing put into the mchuzi. 
Kiunguja, the language of Zanzibar. 
Kiungicana, the free or gentlemanly 

Ta kiungicana, civilized, cour- 
teo.s, becouiiag a free man. 

Mwanamke tea Jciungwana, a lady. 

KiunguHa, plur. viungulia, an eruc- 
tation, a breaking of wind. 

Kiuno, plur. viuno, the loins. 

Kiunza, plur. viunza, the plank laid 

over the body before the grave / / 

is filled in. (Coffins are never P^^t-'^'*^ 
used.) "~ 

Eluwaji, murderous, deadly. 

Eivi, the elbow. 

Kivimha, plur. vivimha, the girth of 
a tree, the circumference. 

Kivimbi, a small swelling. 

Kivu}:o, plur. vivuko, a ford, a ferry, 
a crossing-place. 

Kivuli, plur. vivuli, a shadow, a 
shade, a ghost. 

Eivumhazi, a strong-smelling herb 
said to scare mosquitoes : wash- 
ing in water in which it has been 
steeped is said to be a preventive 
of bad dreams. 

Etvumho, lonely (?). 

Elvumi, plur. vivumi, a roaring, 
bellowing sound. 

Eivyao — Eizao. 

Eivyazi, birth. 

Eiicamhaza, plur. viwambaza, a 
mud and stud wall. 

Eiwambo, something straint-d 
tightly over a frame, like the 
skin of a drum, a weaving frame. 

Eiwanda, plur. viwandn, a work- 
shop, a yard, a plot of land. 

Eiicango, plur. tiicango, a number, 
position in the world, duties be- 
longing to one's position, a man's 

Eiicanja = Eiwanda. 

Eiicao, a great feast [Tumbatu]. 

Eiwavi, plur. viwavij a nettle, a sea- 

Eiicavu chana (A.), ribs. 




Kiloe, plur. viwe. 

Kiive cha uso, a small kind of 
pimple on the face. 
Kiwele, an udder. 
Kiicemhe, a pocket-knife. 
Kiiceo (Bl.), thigh, lap. 
Kiwete, loss of the use of the legs. 
Kiwi, moon-blindness, a dazzle. 

Kufanya Jciwi, to dazzle. 
Kitci, plur. viici, a small stick, a 

piece of wood, a bar. 

Kiicilco cJia mlwno, the wrist. 

Kiwilio cha mguu, the ankle. 
Kiu-iliwili, the human trunk, the 

body without the limbs. 
Kiyama, the resurrection. 
Kiyamhaza, a bulkhead, partition. 

Also = Kiwambaza. 
Kiyamho, neighbourhood, a village. 
Kiza or Giza, darkness. 

Kutia Mza, to darken, to dim. 
Kizao, plur. vizao, a native, one 

bom in the place. 
Kizazi, plur. vizazi, a generation. 
Kizee, diminutive of mzee, gene- 
rally used of an old woman. 
Kizibo, plur. vizibo, a stopper, a 

Kizio, plur. vizio, half of an orange, 

cocoa-nut, &c. 
Kizimhi, plur. vizimhi, a cage. 
Kizinda, a virgin. 
Kizinja, plur. vizinga, a large log 

half burnt. 
Kizinjiti, threshold, the top and 

bottom pieces of a door or window 

frame, bar of a river. 
Kizingo, turnings, curves of a river, 

&c., (?) a buiial ground. 
Kizingo, sharp shore sand used for 

Kiziici, plur. viziici, deaf. 

Kizuio = Kizuizi. 

Kizuizi, plur. vizuizi, a stop, a thing 

which hinders or stays. 
Kizuizo, plur. vizuizo, a hindrance. 
Kizuha, plur. vizuJca, a kind of evil 

spirit, a woman who is staying 

in perfect secrecy and quiet 

during the mourning for her 

husband. See Ecla. 
Kizungu, a European language. 

Ya kizungu, European. 
Kizunguzungu, giddiness. 
Kizuri, beauty, a beauty. 
KizusJii, an intruder. 
Kizuu, plur. vizuu, a kind of evil 

spirit, which kills people at the 

order of its master. 
Ko, -}co, -Ico, where, whither, whence. 

Ko hole, whithersoever. 
Koa, plur. mahoa, a snail. 
Koa (plur. of Ukoa), the silver rings 

on the scabliard of a sword, &c., 

plates of metal. 
Kobe, a tortoise. 
Koche, plur. malwche, the fruit of a 

kind of palm. 
Kodi, rent. 
Kodolea ku-, to fix the eyes upon, 

to stare. 
Kofi, plur. makofi, the flat of the 

Kupiga kofi, to strike with open 
hand, to box the ears. 

Kupiga makofi, to clap the hands. 
Kofia, a cap. 
Kdfila, a caravan. 
Kofua, emaciated. 
Koga = Kuoga. 
Koliani, a small red fish like a 

Koho, a large bird of prey. 
Kolioa, ku-, to cough. 
Kolwzi, expectorated matter. 




Koikoi, plur. maJcoikoi, a sort of 

evil spirit. 
Koja, a gold ornament for the 

Kojoa ku; to make water. 
Koka = Kuoka. 
Koka ku-, to set on fii-e. 
Koko, plur. makoko, kernels, nuts, 

stones of fruit. 
Koko, plur. makoko, brushwood, 
thickets, bushes. 

Mbica koko, a homeless dog that 
lives in the thickets and eats 
Kokomoka ku-, to vomit, to belch 

out, blurt out. 
Kokota ku-, to drag. 

Kukokota roho, to breathe hard. 
Kokoteza ku-, to do anything slowly 

and carefully. 
Kokoto, plur. makvkoto, a small 

stone, a small piece of stone. 
Kokwa, plur. makokwa, nuts, stones 

of fruit. 
Kolekole, a kind of fish. 
Kolea ku-, to become well flavoured, 

to get the right quantity of a 

Koleo, plur. makoleo, tongs. 
Kologa ku-, to stir. 
Eoma, plur. makoma, a kind of fruit. 
Koma ku-, to cease, to leave ofi", to 
end a journey, to arrive at a 

Koma usije ! Come no further ! 
Komaa ku-, to be full grown. 
Komaza ku-, to mock, to make game 

Komba, a galago. 

Komba ku-, to scrape out, to clean 

Dafu la kukomba, a cocoa-nut in 
which the nutty part is but just 

forming, which is then reckoned 
a delicacy. 

Kukomba mtu, to get all his money, 
to clean him out. 
Kombamoyo, plur. makombamoyo. 

one of the rafters of a thatched 

Kombe, plur. makombe, a large dish. 

Kombe la mkono (A.), the shoulder- 

Kombe za pwani, oysters (?). 
cockles (?), sea-shells. 
Komheka ku-, to be cleaned out, to 

have had all one's money got from 

Kombeo, a sling. 
Kombo, plur. makombo, scraps, 

pieces left after eating. 
Kombo, a defect, crookedness. 

Kutoa k'ombo, to notice a defect. 
Komboa ku-, to ransom, to buy back. 
Komboka ku-, to be crooked. 
Kombokombo, crooked. 
Kombora, a bomb, a mortar. 
Kombozi, a ransom. 
Konie, plur. makome, a pearl 

oyster (?), a mussel (?), a shell. 
Komea ku-, to fasten with a native 

lock (Jcomeo). 
Komeo, a kind of wooden lock. 
Komesha ku-, to make to cease, to 

put a stop to. 
Komwe, plur. makomice, the seeds of 

a large climbing plant abundantly 

furnished with recurved thorns ; 

they are used to play the game of 

bao with. 
Konda ku-, to grow thin and lean. 
Kondavi, large beads worn by 

women, as a belt round the loins. 
Konde, a fist. 

Kupiga moyo konde, to take heart, 
to resolve firmly. 




Kondesha hu-, to make to grow lean. 
Kondo, war (Merima). 
Kondoa, a sheep [Lindi]. 
Kondoo, sheep. 

Yuafa Jiikondoo, he dies like a 
sheep, silently (which is high 
Konga ku-, to grow old and feeble. 
Kongoa hu-, to draw out nails, &c., 

to take to pieces. 
Kongoea, Mombas. 
Kongoja ku-, to walk witn difficulty, 

to totter. 
Kongolewa ku-, to be taken to pieces. 
Kongomero, throat. 
Kongoni = Kunguni. 
Kong'otaj a sort of woodpecker, 

black and yellow. 
Kongica, a slave-stick. 

Kutoa kongwe, to lead off the solo 
part of a song, in whicJi others 
join in the chorus. 

-kongwe, over-old, worn out with 
Kono, a projecting handle, like that 

of a saucepan. 
Konokono, a snail. 
Konyeslia ku- = Eonyeza ku-. 
Konyeza ku-, to make a sign by 

raising the eyebrows. 
Konzi, what can be grasped in the 
hand, a fist full. 

Kupiga konzi, to rap with the 
Koo, plur. makoo, a breeding animal 
or bird. 

Koo la kuku, a laying hen. 

Koo la mhuzi, a breeding goat. 
Koo, plur. makoo, throat. 
Koonde, plur. makoonde, cultivated 

laud, fields, the piece of ashamha 

allotted to a slave for his own 

Konyoa ku-, to break off the cobs of 

Indian corn. 
Kojm, hearts, in cards. 
Kopa, plur. makopa, a piece of dried 

muhogo, which has been steeped 

and cooked. 
Ko2m ku-, to get goods on credit for 

the purpose of trading with, to 

cheat, to swindle. 
Koiie, plur. of Ukope, the eyelashes. 
Kope, plur. makopje, the wick of a 

Kopesa ku-, to wink. 
Kopesha ku-, to supply a trader with 

goods on credit, to give on trust. 

to lend. 
Kopo, plur. makopo, a large metal 

vessel, a spout. 
Kopoa ku-, to drag out of one's 

hand, = Chopoa ku-. 
Kora ku-, to seem sweet to, to be 

loved by. 
Koradani, a sheave of a pulley. 
Korija, a pucker in sewing. Also, a 
Korja, a tcore. [score. 

Koroana ku-, to steep in water. 
Korofi, a bird of ill omen, a 

messenger of bad luck. 
Korofisha ku-, to ruin a man. 
Koroga ku-, to stir, to stir up. 
Koroma,-pluT. makoroma, a cocoa-nut 

in its last stage but one, when the 

nut is formed but has not yet its 

full flavour. It has ceased to be 

a dafu and is not yet a nazi. 
Koroma ku-, to snore. 
Korongo, a crane. 
Korongo, plur. makorongo, a hole 

dibbled for seed. 
Kororo, a crested guinea-fowl, 
Korosho, plur. makoroslio, cashew 

Koru, the waterbuck. 




Eosa hu-, to err, mistake, miss, go 

wrong, do wrong, blunder. 
Kosekana hu-, to be missed, not to 

be there. 
Eosesha hu-, to lead astray. 
Kosudia hu-, to purpose, to intend, 
= Kusudia. 
Kota, plur. makota, the stalks of a 

kind of millet which are chewed 
Kota, a crook. [like sugar-cane. 
Kota ku-. 

Kukota mote, to warm oneself. 
Kotama, a curved knife u^ed in 

getting palm wine. 
Kate, all. See -ate. 
Kotekote, on every side. 

Kupiga koto (M.), to strike with 
the knuckles. 
Kavo, plur. makovo, scar. 
Ka- or Ktc-. 

1. The indefinite verbal prefix 
answering to there in English. 
Ku-likuwa, there was. 
Ku-katanda, and there spread. 

2. The sign of the infinitive. 
Ku-piga, to strike. 
Kw-enda, to go. 

The infinitive may be used as a 
substantive answering to the 
English form in -ijig. 

Kufa, dying, the act of death. 

Kwenda, going. 

The ku- of the infinitive is re- 
tained by monosyllabic verbs, 
and by some others in all 
tenses in which the tense 
prefix ends in an unaccented 

3. The prefix proper to adjectives, 
pronouns, and verbs agreeing 
with infinitives used as sub- 

Kufa kicetu kicema kutampendeza, 
our good deaths will please him. 

4. The prefix proper to pronouns 
agreeing with substantives in 
the locative case (-ni), where 
neither the being or going 
inside, nor mere nearness, is 

Enenda nyumhani kicangu, go to 
my house. 

Ziko kwetu, there are in our pos- 
session, at our place. 

5. In a few words a prefix signi- 
fying locality,commonly so used 
in other African languages, but 
generally represented in Swa- 
hili by the case in -ni. 

Kuzimu, among the dead, in the 
-ku-. [grave. 

1. The sign of the negative past 
always preceded by some nega- 
tive personal prefix. 

Sikujua, I did not know. 
Hazikufaa, they were of no use. 

2. The objective prefix denoting 
the second person singular. 

Nakupenda, I love thee, or you. 
Alikupa, he gave thee, or you. 
Sikukujua, I did not know you. 

3. The objective prefix referring 
to infinitives of verbs, or to 
huku, there. 

Kua ku-, to grow, to become large. 
-kuha or -kubwa, great, large. 
Kuhali ku, to accept, assent to, 

acknowledge, approve. 
Kuhalika ku-, to be accepted, to be 

capable of acceptance. 
Kubalisha ku-, to make to accept. 
Euhha, a vaulted place. 
-kubwa, large, great, elder, chief. 

It makes kubwa with nouns like 


T 2 




Kucha, or Kumehucha, the dawn. 

Usiku Jcucha, all uight. 
Kuchua Tiu-. 
Kamha imejikucliua, the rope has 
worn away, chafed, stranded. 
Kufuli, a padlock. 
Kufuru ku; to become an infidel, 

to apostatize. 
Kufuru hu-, to mock, to deride. 
Kiguni,t]ie hartebeest (boselaphus). 
Kuke. See -ke. 
Mkono wa kuke, the left hand. 
Kukeni, on the female side. 
Kuko, yonder, to yonder. 

Kwa kuko, beyond, on yon side. 
Kuku, a hen, a fowl, fowls, poultry. 
Kuku na liuku, backwards and for- 
-kukuu, old, worn out. It makes 

kukuu with nouns like nyumha. 
Kulahu, a hook to steady work with. 
Kule, there, far oif, yonder. 
Kulee, yonder, very far oif. As the 
distance indicated increases the 
e is more dwelt on, the voice 
raised to a higher and higher 
Kulekule, there, just there. 
Kulia ku-, to become great for, to 

become hard to. 
Kuliko, where there is or was. 
Kulikoni'i Where there is what 

= why ? (T^I.). 
Kuliko, is used in the ordinary way 
of expressing the comparative. 
Mwema kuliko huyu, good where 
this man is, and therefore 
better than he. Because if a 
quality becomes evident in any- 
thing by putting some other 
thing beside it, the first must 
possess the quality in a higher 
degree than the other. 

Kiilla, often pronounced killa, every, 
each one. 

Kululu, nothing at all. 

Nikapatakululu = Sikupataneno. 

Kululu, tiger cowries, Cyprsea tigris. 

Kulungu, a sort of antelope. 

Kuma, the vagina. 

Kumha ku-, to push against, to take 
and sweep off the whole of any- 
thing, e.g. to clear water out of a 
box, to bale a boat. 

Kumbatia ku-, to embrace, to clasp. 

Kumbatiana ku-, to embrace (of two 

Kumhe ? What ? An expression of 
surprise used especially when 
something turns out otherwise 
than was expected, commonly 
joined with a negative verb. 

Kumhi (Mer.), circumcision. 

Anaingia kumhini, he is being 

Kumhi, plur. makumhi, cocoa-nut 
fibre, the husk of the cocoa-nut 
and the fibrous mass out of which 
the leaves grow. Also, at Mgao, 
gum copal. 

Kumhikumbi, ants in their flying 

Kumbisha ku-, to push off upon, to 
lay upon some one else. 

Kumhuka ku-, to think of, to remem- 
ber, to ponder over, to recollect. 

Kumbukumbu, a memorial, a men- 
Kumbura, an explosive shell. 
Kumbusha ku-, to remind. 
Kumbwaya, a kind of drum stand- 
ing on feet. 
Kumekuclia, there is dawn, tU 

Kumi, plur. makumi, ten. 
Kumoja, on one side. 




Kumpuni, plur. maJcumpuni, a per- 
son who has obtained full know- 
ledge of his trade. 
Kumunta ku- (Mer.), to shake out 

or off. 
Kumunto, a sieve of basket-work. 
Kumutiha ku-, to desire (?). 
Kumvi, husks and bran of rice. 
Kuiia, there is, 

Kunaye, depending upon him. 
Kunani ■? What is the matter ? 
Kuna kwambaje ? What da you 
say? [Tumbatu]. 
Kuna ku-, to scratch. 
Kunakucha, there is dawning, the 

Kunazi, a small edible fruit. 
Kunda ku- (M.) = Kunja ku-. 
Kunda, plur. makunda, a green 

vegetable like spinach. 
Kundaa ku-, to be short and small 

of stature. 
Kundamana ku- = Kunjamanaku-. 
Kunde, beans, haricot beans, 
Kundi, plur. makundi, a crowd, a 

herd, many together. 
Kundua ku-, to please (?). 
-kundufu, giving pleasm-e. 

Nyumba ni kundufu, the house 

is commodious. 
Muungu ni mkundufu, God is the 
giver of all good things. 
Kunduka ku-, to grow larger, to 
Moyo umekunduka, he is gratified 
Kun<ja ku-, to hem. 
Kunga, cleverness, clever. 

Kazi haifai ilia kwa kunga, it 
wants to be done cleverly. 

Kungali na mapema hado, while 
it is yet early. 

Kungu, mist, fog. 
Kungu manga, a nutmeg. 
Kunguni, a bug. 

Kunguru, a crow, a bird a little 
larger than a rook, black, with 
a white patch on the shoulders 
and round the neck : it feeds on 
Kung'uta ku-, to shake off, to shake 

Kung'uto, plur. makung'uto, a sort 
of basket used as a sieve or 
Kuni, firewood. The singular, 
ukuni, means one piece of fire- 
Kunia ku-, to scrape or scratch 

with, or for. 
Kunia ku-, to raise the eyebrows in 

Kuniita, telling me to come. 
Kunja ku-, to fold, to wrap up. to 
Kiikunja uzi, to wind thread. 
Kujikunja, to flinch, to shrink. 
Kukunja uso or Kukunja vipaji, 
to frown, to knit the brows. 
Kunjana ku-, to fold together, to 

dwindle, to wrinkle. 
Kunjamana ku-. 

Uso unakunjamana, his face is 
sad, sour, and frowning, 
Kunjia ku-, to fold for, to wrap up 

for, to crease. 
Kunjika ku-, to become folded or 

doubled up, to be creased. 
Kunjua ku-, to unfold. 

Kukunjua miguu, to stretch one's 
Kunjuka ku-, to become unfolded, 

to spread over. 
KunjuUwa ku-, to be open and un- 




Kunrathi, don't be offended, excuse 
me, pardon me. 

Kunu alamu, be it known. 

Kunya Jcu-, to ease oneself. See 

Kimyata hu-, to draw together. 
Kujikunyata, to draw oneself to- j 
gether, to shrink. I 

Kunyua Tiu- or Kunyula Tcu-, to | 
touch secretly (with a scratching 
motion) by way of signal or of 
calling attention privately, to 
make a scratch on the skin. ! 

Kupaa. See Makupaa. 

Kupe, a tick, a cattle tick. \ 

Kupua hi-, to shake sometliing off 
one's dress, out of one's hand, 

Kura, the lot. 
Kupiga hura, to cast lota. 

Kuru, a sphere, a ball. 

Kuruhia Tcu-, to come near to. 
Nalihuruhia, &c., had a good 
mind to, &c. 

Kurumhizi, a small yellow bird, 
very inquisitive : they say if he 
sees a man and woman talking 
together, he cries, " Mtu anasema 
na mume." 

Kusa Jcu, to make to grow. 

Kusanya ku-, to collect, gather, as- 

Kusanyana ku-, to gather together. 

Kusanyika ku-, to be gathered, to 

Kushoto, on the left. 

Mkono wa kushoto, the left hand, 

Kusi, the southerly winds which 
blow from May till October. 
Ku^ini, in the diiection of the 
Kusi, southerly. 

Kusndi, plur. makasudi, purpose, 

Kusudia ku-, to purpose, to intend. 

Kuta, plur. of Ukuta, walls. 

Kuta ku-, to meet with, to see, to 

find, to come upon. 
Kutana ku-, to come together, to 

meet, to assemble. 
Kutanika ku-, to become assembled. 
Kutanisha ku-, to bring together, to 

Kutu, rust. 
Kutuka ku-, to be startled, to be 

suddenly frightened. 
Kutusha ku-, to startle, to alarm 

-kuu, great, chief, noble. Kuu refers 
more to figurative, kuhica to 
physical greatness. It makes 
kuu with nouns like nyumba. 

Ana makuu, he is vain. 
Kuume. See -ume. 

Mkono wa kuume, the right hand. 

Kuumeni, on the male side. 

Mkono ica kuvuli, the right hand. 
Kuwa, to be, to become (?). See 

Kuicadi, also Kawadi, a procuress 

(Mtu anayewatoncjoslia icatii). 
Kuwili, twice over, in two ways. 
-kuza, large, full grown. 
Kuza ku-, to make bigger. 
Kuza, to sell. See Uza. 
Kuzi, an earthen water bottle larger 

than a guduivia, with a handle 

or handles and a narrow neck. 
Kuzikani, a funeral. 
Kuzimu, in the grave, under the 

Kw-. See Ku-. 
Kwa, ^yi\h., as an instrument, 

through, to a person, to or at 

the place where any one lives; 

for, on account o£ 

K W A 



Eica *ngi (?), generally. 

Kwa, of, after verbs in the infini- 
tive used as nouns, and after the 
case in -ni. 

Kicaa TiU; to strike the foot, to 

Kicaje? how? 

Kwahe, to him, with him, to or at 
his or her house; his, her, or 
its, after a verb in the infinitive 
used as a substantive, or the 
case in -ni. 

Kwako, to thee or with tliee, to or 
at thy place, your, thy, of thee 
or you, after verbs in the infini- 
tive used as a noun, and after the 
case in -ni. 

Kicale, a partridge (?). 

Kwama Jcu-, to become jammed, to 

ivu'am&a, saying (?}, if, as if, though, 
Ya Jcwamba, that. [that. 

Kwamisha Jcu-, to jam, to make to 
stick in a narrow place. 

Kwamua hu-, to unjam, to free, to 

Kwangu, to or at my house, to or 
with me, my, of me, after the 
infinitives of verbs used as sub- 
stantives, and after the case in 

Kioangua Jcu-, to scrape up, to scrape 
one's shoos, &c. 

Kwani for, because, wherefore, for 

Kwanua Jcu-, to split down, to tear 
down, to break. 

KwanyuJca Jcu-, to be split down 
like the boughs and branches of 
a tree, which some one has been 
trying to climb by them. 

Kwanza, beginning, at first, for- 

Ta Jcwanza, first, the first. 
Ngoja Jcwanza, wait a bit. 
Kioao, plur. maJcwao, a stumble, a 

Kwao, to or with them, at or to 
their place ; their, of them, after 
verbs in the infinitive u^sed as 
nouns, and after the case in -ni. 
Kwapa, plur. maJcwapa, the arm- 
Kwapani, under the armpit. The 
people of the African coast 
wear their swords by a strap 
over the left shoulder only ; the 
sword hangs under the armpit, 
and is said to be Jcwapani. 
Kicaruza Jcu-, to scrape along, to slip 

with a scrape. 
Kicata, or Kicato, a hoof. 

Kupiga Jcicata, to strike the hoof, 
to strike with the hoof. 
Kxcatu, a horseshoe (?). 
Kicayo, a stumbling-block. 
Kwaza Jcu-, to make to stumble. 
KuJcwaza meno, to jar the teeth 
like grit in food. 
Kwea Jcu-, to ascend, go up, climb. 
Kiveli, true, the truth. 

Ya Jewell, true. * 

Kwelu = Kweu. 

I Kwema, good, well, it is well there. 
j Eweme, the seed of a gourd, very 
I rich in oil. 

' Kwenda, to go. See Enda, going. 
Eicenda, perhaps. 

Eicenu, with you, to or at your 
place, your, of you, after verbs in 
the infinitive used as nouns or 
after the case in -ni. 
i Eicenyi, till, since, up to the time of, 
i from the time of. 
j Eicepa Jcu-, to start out of the way. 
: Eweta Jcu-t to raise. 




Kicetu, to or with us, to or at our 

place, our, of us, after a verb in 

the infinitive used as a noun, and 

after the case in -wt. 
Kweu, clear. 
Kioewpe, white. See -eupe. 

Kuna Tiioeupe, grey dawn. 
Kiceza 7im-, to make to go up, to drag 

up a boat out of the water. 
Kweza Im-, to bid up an article at 
an auction. 

Kukweziva, to have things made 
dear to one by others bidding 
them up. 
Kwiba. See Iha hu-, stealing, to 

Kuiihana, robbing one another. 
Kwikive, hiccup. 

Kwikwe ya hulia, sobs. 
Kwisha. See Isha ku-, ending, to 

KwOj which. 


L is pronounced as in English. 

L is not distinguished from r 
m African languages of the same 
family -as Swahili. The distinction 
becomes important in Swahili on 
account of the Arabic words which 
have been incorporated into it. 

Mahali, means a place, but 
Mahari a dowry. 

Waredl means a rose, but Waledi 
a youth. Slaves, however, fre- 
quently confound even these. 

When r can be used for I, it has a 
light smooth sound, as in English. 

There is a latent I sound between 
every two consecutive vowels in 
Swahili and at the beginning of 

some verbs, which appears in their 
derivatives and in other African 
languages : thus the common pas- 
sive of kufungua is kufunguliwa. 

So far is this disposition to drop 
an Z carried, that even kuleta, to 
bring, is in old Swahili eta. It is 
characteristic of the Merima dialect 
to retain these Vs. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged. 

Mlango, a door, is vulgarly pro- 
nounced Mivango. 

Ufalme, a kingdom, may be 
written TJfaume. 

In these cases, however, both 
forms are probably contractions 
from Midango and Ufcdume. 

L becomes d after «, and is some- 
times confounded with d in inexact 

Ndume = Nlume or Nume, male. 

L- or li-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by 
words in the singular, of the 
class which make their plural 
in ma-. 

La, no. 

La ku-, to eat, to consume, to wear 
away, to take a piece in chess, &c. 
The ku-, bears the accent and is 
retained in the usual tenses. The 
passive of kula is kuliwa. 

Laabu ku-, to play, to sport with. 

Laana, plur. malaana, a curse. 

Laani ku-, to curse, to damn. 

Laanisha ku-, to bring a curse upon. 

Ldbeka = Lebeka. 

Lahuda, perhaps. 

Ladu, sweet cakes composed of trea- 
cle, pepiDer, and flour or semsem 
seed, made up into balls. 




Laghai, a rascnl. Also Eagai. 
Laika, plur. malaika, one of the 

hairs of the hand or arm. 
Laini, smooth, soft. 
Lainisha hu-, to make smooth or 

Laiti! Would that! Oh that! 

expressing regret at something 

Lake or Lakwe, his, hers, its. See 
Laki ku; to go to meet. [-ake. 

Lakini, but, however. 
Lakki, a hundred thousand, a lac. 
Lako, thy. See ako. 
Lola ku-, to sleep, to lie down. 

Nyumba imelala inclii, the house 
is fallen flat on the ground. 
Lalama ku-, to confess, to cry for 

mercy ; used of extorted confes- 
Lalamika ku-, to be made to cry 

out, to be quite beaten, to shout, 

to scream. 
Lalika ku-, to be slept upon, 
Lalika ku- = Alika ku-, to inform, 

announce to. 
Lami, pitch or tar. 
Lana ku-, to eat one another. 
Landa ku-, to be equal with. 
Langu, my. See -angu. 
Lao, their. See -ao. 
Laomu ku-, to blame. Also Lau- 

Lapa ku-, or Baj^ia ku-, to be ra- 
venously hungry. 
Launi, sort, species, form. 
Laumu ku-, to blame. 
Laioa ku-, to come from (Mer.). 
Lawana ku-, to blame, to scold. 
Laza ku-, to lay down, to lay at its 

Knjilaza, to lie down. 
Ldzim, of necessity. 

Lazima, surety, bail, necessity. 
Lazimisha ku-, to compel. 
Lazimu ku-, to be obligatory upon. 
-le, his, hers, or its. 
Lea ku-, to bring up. 

Ameleioa vema, he is well bred. 
Lebeka, the humble manner of re- 
plying when called, often short- 
ened into Ehhe, or even Bee. 
Legea ku-, &c., &c. See Regea ku-, 

&c., &c. 
Lekea ku-, to be opposite to, to tend 

Lekeza ku-, to put opposite to. 

Kulekeza hunduki, to level a gun 
Lekezana ku-, to agree, come to an 

Lelam, by auction. 
Lelimama, a dance to the music 

made by beating buffalo horns. 
Lema or Dema, a kind of fish-trap. 
Lemaa, disfigurement. 

Mwenyi lemaa, disfigured by dis- 
Lembuka ku-, to be weak, limp. 
Lemea ku-, to oppress, to lie heavy 

upon, to overburden. 
Lengelenge, plur. malengelenge, a 

Lenu, your. See -enu. 
Lenyi. See -enyi. 

Bakuli lenyi mayayi, a basin with 
eggs in it. 
Leo, to-day. 
Leppe, drowsiness, dozes, snatches 

of sleep. 
Leso, a handkerchief. 

Leso ya kufutia kamasi, a pocket- 
Leta ku-, to cause to arrive at the 

place where the speaker is, to 

bring, to send, to fetch. 




Letea hu-, to briug or send to or for 
a person. 
Kuletewa, to have brought or sent 
to one. 
Letu, our. See -etu. 
Levuka ku-, to get sober. 
Levya ku-, to intoxicate. 

Kujilevya, to make oneself in- 
toxicated, to get drunk. 
Levyalevya ku-, to be giddy. 
Lewa ku-, to become drunk. 
Lervalewa ku-, to swing or sway 

about like a drunken man. 
Li, it is. 

Li- or Z-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by a 
singular noun of the class which 
makes its plural in ma-, 
-li-, 1. The objective prefix repre- 
senting a singular noun of the 
class which makes its plural in 
ma-, governed by the verb to 
which it is prefixed. 

2. -li-, or -ali-, the sign of that 
past tense which denotes an 
action complete in past time. 

3. -li- sometimes represents the 
substantive verb, as in aliye, he 
who is ; nikali, and I am ; ali, 
he is, or he being. 

Lia ku-, to breed (M.). 
Lia ku-, to eat for, &c. 

Chumha cha kulia, a room to eat 

Mkono wa kulia, right hand, being 
the only one ever used to eat 
Lia ku-, to cry, to weep, to cry fmt ; 
applied to the cries of animals 
generally. Also, to give a 
Kulia ngoa, to weep for jealousy. 
Lialia wazi, it sounds hollow. 

Lihasi, clothes. 

Liclia, whether it be, though. 

Liliamu, solder. 

Lihani, a cloth of a particular 

Lijamu, a horse's bit. [pattern. 

Lika ku-, to be eaten, to become 

worn away, to be eatable. 
Likiza ku-, to dismiss, to give leave 
to go, to release. 
j Liko, plur. maliko, a landing-place. 
Lilia ku-, to weep for, to cry about. 
Lima ku-, to cultivate, to hoe. 
Lima, the feast made by the bride- 
groom on the first day of the 
j Liniao, plur. malimao, a lemon. 
I Limxitia ku-, to delay, to loiter ('A.). 
Limhika ku-, to leave till it is fit, to 
wait for fruit till it is ripe, or for 
water till it is collected in the 
dipping hole, to put aside till it 
is fit. 
Lhnhuka ku-, to taste the first of a 

new crop. 
Limhusha ku-, to bring to be tasted. 
Limiza ku-, to make to hoe, &c. 
Linalokuja, which is coming. 
Linda ku-. to guard, to watch, to 
KuUnda ndege^ to scare birds from 
corn, &c. 
Lindi, plur. malindi, a pit, a deep 

Lindo, a watching place. 
Linga ku-, to swing the head round 

in dancing, 
Linga ku-, to make to match, or to 

be level. 
Lingana ku-, to match, to be level 
with or like one another. 
i Lingana ku-, to call, to invite (A.). 
Linganisha ku-, to make to match, 
to compare together. 




Lini f "VMien ? 

Linyi = Lenyi. 

Lipa ku-, to pay (a debt). 

Lipia Jcu-, to pay (a person). 

Lipiza Jiu-, to cause to be paid. 
Kujilipiza, to take one's due, to 

repay oneself. 
Kujilipiza kasasi, to avenge one- 
self, to take one's revenge. 

Lisani, a piece of cloth put in 
behind an opening, a flap to 
obviate the effect of gaping at the 
fastening, a tongue. See Kanzu. 

Lisha Jcu-, to feed. 

Lishisha kit-, to cause to be fed, to 
cause people to give one food. 

Liica ku-, to be eaten, to be worn 
away, to be consumed. 

Liica, a fragrant wood from Mada- 
gascar, wiiich is ground up and 
used as a cosmetic, and as an 
application to cure prickly heat; 
Madagascar sandal wood. 

Liicali, plur. maliwali, for Al Walt, 

Liza ka-, to sell to. [a governor. 

Liza ku-, to make to weep. 

Lizana ku-, to make one another 
weep, to cry together. 

-Zo, thy, your. 

Lo, -lo; or -lo, which, representing 
a singular noun of the class 
which makes its plural in 7na. 
Lo lote, whatsoever. 
Hakufanya lo lote, he has done 
nothing at all {neno under- 

Loa ku-, to get wet with rain, &c. 

Loga ku-, to bewitch, to practise 
magic Mer.; 

Lo or Loo ! Hullo ! An exclamation 
of surprise; the number of o's 
increases in proportion to the 
amount of surprise. 

Lote, all. See -ote. 

Lo lote, whatsoever. 
Lozi, an almond. 
Luanga, a kind of bird. 
Luha, a leech. 
Lugha, language. 
Lulu, a pearl. 

Lumha ku-, to make a speech. 
Lumhika ku-, to gather little by 

little, to pick up small pieces one 

by one. 
Lumbwi, a chameleon (?). 
Lutlitha, flavour, savour. 
Luva, sandal wood (?). 


Mia pronounced as in English. 

M before h generally represents 
an n. Mb stands sometimes for 
lib, Sia nyumba mbaya, for nyumba 
n-baya; sometimes it represents mo 
or nv, as mbingu for n-wingu. 

M is frequently either followed 
by w or u, or else has a sort of semi- 
vowel power, as if preceded by a 
half-suppressed w. 

The natives of Zanzibar very 
rarely say mu ; they change it into 
um or rather 'm. Even Mivenyiezi 
Muungu, Almighty God, becomes 

It is important to write *m, and 
not m only, where it represents mu 
if a & or 10 follow, because otherwise 
the in might be supposed to coalesce 
with them. Ifany other consonants 
follow, it is immaterial, for m must 
then always stand for mu, and be 
capable of being pronounced as a 
separate syllable. 

Any verb may be turned into a 
substantive by prefixing 'm or mw 




to mean one who does, &c., followed 
immediately by the object of the 
verb or the thing done. The last 
letter is sometimes changed into i 
and liji is added to the substantive 
it gets the sense of one who habit- 
ually does what the verb signifies. 

M-, 'm, mu; or mw-, sign of the 
second person plural prefixed to 
M-, 'm, mu, or mic-, the singular 
prefix of those nouns which 
jnake their plural in ica-, if they 
denote animate beings, or in mi-, 
if they do not. 
M-, 'm-, mu; or mw-, the prefix 
proper for adjectives agreeing 
with a singular substantive de- 
noting an animate being, or with 
any substantive beginning with 
mu-, *m-. mw-, or u-. 
-m-, -*m-, or -mw-, the objective 
prefix referring to a singular 
substantive denoting an animate 
M-, mu-, or mic-, the prefix proper to 
pronouns governed by the case in 
-ni, when it denotes within or in- 
side of. 
Ma-, the sign of the plural prefixed 
to substantives (and to adjec- 
tives agreeing with them) 
which have either no prefix 
in the singular or begin with j- 
All words intended to denote 
something specially great of 
its kind make theii" plural in 
Foreign words denoting a person, 
or an ofiSce, make their plural 
in ma-. In the vulgar dialect 

of Zanzibar nearly all foreign 
words are made plural by pre- 
fixing ma-. 
Many plural nouns in ma- must be 
translated as though they were 
singulars, the true singular 
being used only to denote some 
one exceptionally large or im- 
portant instance. 
When followed by an i or e, the a 
of ma coalesces with it and 
forms a long e sound. 
-ma-. See -we-. 
Maaddm, while, during the time, 

Maadin = Madini. 

Maadin ya Tdmjwa, what rises 
into the mouth without inter- 
nal cause, water-brash. 
Maafikano, bargain, estimate, es- 
Maagano, contract, agreement, 

Maagizo, commission, direction, re- 
Maahuli, diet. food. 
Maalum, fixed, recognizable = Mli- 

Maana, meaning, reason, cause, 
Eutia maanani, to remember, 
think about. 
Maandasl, biscuits, cakes, &c., also 

pastry, preserves, 
illoanc? «7t-o, writing, place for putting 
out food, the act of spreadinsr a 
meal, a description, things writ- 
Maandishi, things which are writ- 
ten, put out, set in order, &c. 
Maanguko, ruin, fall, ruins. 
Maa^mzi, judgment. 
Maarifa, knowledge. 




Maaruf, understood, I understand. 
Maasi, rebellion. 
Maazal^ while. 
Maazimo, a loan. 
Mabaya, bad. See haya. 
Mabakia, the remnant, what is or 

was left. 
MabicM, raw. See -bicM. 
Mabiwi, heaps, piles of sticks and 

rubbish. See Biici-. 
Mabovu, rotten. See -ovu. 
Maehache, few. See -chache. 
Machela, a litter, a palanquin. 
Machezo, a game, games. 
Macho (sing, jicho), eyes. 
Yu macho, he is awake. 
Macho ya watu icaicili, or Mazitca 
ya icatuwawili, dragon's blood. 
Macho ya jua, the sun-rising, 
Machukio^ hatred, abomination, dis- 
Machica ya jua, the sun-setting, 

Madaha, a graceful manner. 
Madanganya, deception, trick. 
Madaraha, arrangements, provision. 
Madefu, beard. 
Madevu, a kind of rice. 
Madifu, the fibrous envelope of the 

cocoa-nut leaves, 
Madini, metal, a mine. 
Madoadoa, spotted. 
Madogovi, a kind of drumming, &c. , 

used in exorcisms. 
Maficho, concealment. 
Mafu, death, dead things. 
Maji mafu, neap tides. 
Mafua, a chest complaint causing 
a cough, a cold in the head, a 
stoppage in the nose. 
Mafundisho, instruction, precept, 

; Mafundo, cross-btaras in a dhow, to 
steady the mast, &c. 

Mafungulia, unfastening. 

Mafungtdia ng'ombe, about 8 a.m. 

Mafupi, short. See -fupi. 

Ma/usho, steam from a pot of ma- 
jani, used as a vapour-bath in 
fever, &c. 

Mafuta, oil, fat. 

Mafuta ya uta, semsem oil. 
Mafuta ya mbariha, castor oil. 

Mafuu, crazy, cracked. 

Mufya, Monfia. 

Mafya (smg.jifya), the three stones 
used to put a pot over the fire 

Magadi, rough soda. 

Magamba, scales of a fish. 

Maganda, peel, husks. 

Magarasa, 8, 9, and 10 in cards 
(not used in playing). 

Mageuzi, changes. 

Maghofira, remission of sins. 

Maghrebbi, or Magaribi, or Ma- 
7?<7aribi, sunset, the sunset prayers 
of the Mohammedans, the west, 

Maghrib ayuh, N.W. 

Maghrib ahrab, S.W. 

Maghuba, the winding of a stream. 

Mago. See Kago. 

Magongonene. See Kanzu. 

Magugu, weeds, undergrowth. 

Magundalo, an instrument of tor- 
ture, in which the victim is sus- 
pended, and weights being at- 
tached to him, he is jerked up 

^and down. Used for extracting 

Mahaba, love, fondness. 

Mahala or Mahali, place, places. 
Mahali pa, in place of, instead of. 
Mahali pate, everywhere. 




Mdhana (Ar.), excessive worry. 
Maharazi, a shoemaker's awl, 
Mahari, dowry paid by the liusband 

to the wife's relations. 
Mahati, a carpenter's tool used for 

marking lines to a measure. 
Mahazamu, a shawl worn round the 

Mahindi, Indian corn, maize. 
Mahiri, clever, quick. 
MaholM, devil, evil spirits, madness. 
Maisha, life, continuance. 

Maisha na milele, now and for 
Haiti = Mayiti, a dead body, a 

Mnjahaha, dock for ships. 
Majana (?), honeycomb. 
Majani, grass. The singular,Jon«, 
means a leaf. 

Bangi ya majani, green. 

Majani ya picani, gra<s wort, 
samphire (?). 
Majaribu or Majeribu, trial, tempta- 
Majazo, reward. 
Majengo, building materials. 
Majeribu = Majaribu. 
Majeruhi, wounded. 
Maji, water, liquid, juice, sap. 

3Iaji maji, wet. 

Kama maji, fluently. 

Maji kujaa na kupu:a, the tides. 

Maji ya pepo, Maji ya baridi 
Maji matamu, fresh water. 

Maji mafu, neap-tides. 

3Iaji a baliari, blue, sea-water 
colour. ^ 

Maji a moto, hot water, a large 
yellow kind of ant which makes 
its nest in trees. 
Majibu, an answer. 
Majilio, coming, or mode of coming. 

Majilipa, revenge. 

Majira, time. 

Mdjira, course of a ship. 

Majonsi, grief for a loss. 

Majori, an elder. 

Majuni, a cake made of opium, &c., 

very intoxicating. 
Majutio, regret, sorrow for some- 
thing done. 
Majuto, regret, repentance. 
Mahaa, coal, coals, embers. 

Makaa ya miti, charcoal. 
Makalalao, cockroaches ; applied in 

derision to the Malagazy colony 

in Zanzibar. 
Malcali, fierce. See -halt. 
Makanadili, places in the stern of 

native craft, the quarter galleries 

of a dhow. 
Makani, dwelling, dwelling-place. 
Mukao, dwelling, dwelling-place. 
Makasi, scissors. 

Makatazo, prohibition, objections. 
Makatibu, agreement. 
Makavu, dry. See -kavu. 
Makazi, dwelling. 
Makengeza, squinting, a squint. 
Maki, thickness. 

Nguo ya maki, stout cloth. 
Makimbilio, refuge, place to run to. 
Makindano, objections. 
Makini, leisure, quietness. 
Makiri, a thumb-cleat in the side of 

a dhow. 
Makosa, fault, faults, mistakes, sins. 
Makoza (obscene) testicles. 
J^aksai, a bullock, castrated. 
Makuhwa or Makuu, great. See 

-kubwa and -kuu. 
Makukuu, old. See -kukuu. 
Mdkuli, diet. 

Makulya, food [Tumbatu]. 
Makumbi, cocoa-nut fibre. 




Mdkumhi ya popoo, areca-nut 

Mdkumhi ya usumha, cocoa-fibre 
cleaned for mattresses, &c. 

Makumi, tens. 

Makumi mawili, twenty. 

Makupaa, the sheaves at the mast- 
head of a dhow, through which 
the henza leads. 

Makiisanyiko, place of assembly, 

Makusudi, purpose, design, on pur- 
pose, designedly. 

Makutano, assemblage. 

Makuti, leaves of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Makuti ya viungo, leaflets made 

up for thatching. 
Makuti ya kumha, leaves plaited 

for fences. 
Makuti ya pande, half leaves 
plaited for fences or roofs. 

Makwa, the notching and shaping 
at the end of a pole to receive 
the wall-plate of a house. 

Malaika (plur. of Laika), the hair 
on the hands and arms. 

Malaika, an angel, angels. A baby 
is often called malaika. 

Malaki or Malki, a king. 

Malalo, sleeping-place. 

Malazi, things to lie upon. 

Malazie — Marathie. 

Malele, orchilla weed. 

Malelezi, changes of the rnonsoon, 
time of the easterly and westerly 

Malenga, a singer. 

Mali, goods, property, riches. Pro- 
perly a singular noun making 
no change for the plural, but 
treated sometimes as a plural in 

MaUdadi, a dandy. 

Maliki ku-, to begin a building, a 
boat, or a house. 

Malimo, master, navigator. In the 
canoes on the Zambezi the steers- 
man is called malimo. 

Malimwengu, business, affairs, mat- 
ters of this life. 

Malindi, Melinda. 

Malio ya kiko, the bubbling sound 
of the water when a native pipe is 
being smoked. 

Maliza ku-, to complete, to finish, 

Malki or Malaki, a king. 

Malkia, a queen. 

Mama, mother. 

Mama wa kamho, stepmother. 

Mamha, a crocodile. 

Mamha, the scales of a fish (M.). 

Mambo, circumstances, affairs, 
tLiugs (plur. of Jamho). 

Mamiye (Mer.), his mother. 

Mamlaka, power, authority, domi- 

Mamoja, ones, same. 

Mamoja pia, it is all one, I don't 

Mana = Mwana, 

Manamize, a name for a hermit 


Usiku wa manane, the dead of 

Manda, a loaf. 

Mandasi, a pudding. See Maan- 
da si. 

Manemane, myrrh. 

Maneno, language, message, busi- 
ness, matters, things (plur. of 
Maneno ya fumha, dark sayings. 
Maneno ya Eiunguja, &c.. the 
language of Zanzibar, &c. 

Manga. Arabia. 




Mangaribi, sunset. See Maghrehbi. 

3Iangi, many. See -ngi. 

Mangiri or Marikiri, a cross-piece 

at the bows of a dhow for fastening 

the tack of the sail. 
Mango, a round hard black stone 

used to grind with. 
Mang'ung'um, secretly, in fearful 

Mani (obscene), semen. 
Mani, a weight, about three rattel. 
Manjano, turmeric. 

Bangi a manjano, yellow. 
ManMri. See Mangiri. 
Manoleo(&mg. noZeo), the ring where 

the blade of a knife issues from 

the handle. 
Manuka, smell, scent. 
ManuJcato, scent, good smells. 
Manyang'amba, flour balls in a 

sweet sauce. 
Manyiga, a hornet. 
Manyoya, feathers of a bird, hair of 

a goat. 
Manyunyo, a shower, a sprinkle. 
Maomboleza, loud wailing. 
Maomvi, begging. 
Maondi, taste. 

Maondoleo, removing, taking away. 
Maongezi, conversation, amusement. 
Maongo, the back. 
Maonji, tasting, trying. 
Maoteo, growth from old mtama 

Maotwe, Mayotte. 
Mapalilo, hoeing-up time, hoeing 

between the crops. 
Mapana, broad. See -pana. 
Mapatano, agreement, conspiracy. 
Mapema, early. 
Mapendano, mutual affection. 
Mapendezi, pleasing things, the 

being pleased. 

Mapendo, affection, esteem. 

Mapenzi, liking, affection, pleasure, 
love, things which are loved. 

Mapepeta, a preparation of imma- 
ture rice. 

Ma-pigano, a figbt, a battle. 

Mapiswa, silliness, dotage. 

Mapoza, remedy, healing things. 

Mapooza, things which do not serve 
their purpose, fruit which drops 

Mapululu, the wilderness. 

Mapumbu, testicles, the scrotum. 

Mara, a time, sometimes, at once. 
Mara moja, once, at once. 
Mara mbili, twice. 
Mara ya pili, the second time. 
Mara nyingi, often. 
Mara kwa mar a, from time to 

Mara ngapi^ how many times, 
how often ? 

Maradufu, double. 

Marahaba, thanks, very well, wel- 

Marakaralta, chequered, spotty. 

Maraaharasha, a sprinkle, sprink- 

MarasM, scents. 

Maraslii maivaridi or ya mzomari, 

Marathi, disease, sickness. 

Marathie, sociable. 

Sina kiburi, maratliie mimi, I am 
not above fraternizing. 

Marefu, long. See -refu. 

Maregeo, return, reference. 

Mareliemu, that has obtained mercy, 

Marejeo, return. 

Marfua, a desk, book-rest. 

Marimba = Marahaba. 

Marhamu, ointment. 




Marigeli, a large pot. 

Marijani,xed coral, imitation coral, 
gum copal. 
Marijani ya fethdluka, the true 
red coral. 

Marika, a person of the same age. 

Marika, Merka, a town on the So- 
mauli coast. 

Marikabu = Marikehu = Mtrikebu, 
a ship. 

Marindi, the little flap of beads 
worn by a string round the loins 
by native women. 

Marisaa, shot, small shot. 

MarWiawa, abundance, plenty of 
space, material, &c, 

Marizabu, a spout. 

Marra = Mara, time, times. 

Mavufuku, a forbidden thing, pro- 
Kupiga marufuku, to give public 
notice against. 

Marungu (M.), biliousness. 

Masahaha, the companions of Mo- 

Masafi, purity. 

3Iasaibu, calamity. 

Masakasa (Yao), an encampment. 

Masakini, or Maskini, or Meskini, 
poor, a poor person. 

Masalkheiri, good afternoon. 

Masameho, pardon. 

Masango, wire. 

Masanufi, a kerchief used for throw- 
ing over the shoulders, &c. 

Masazo, what is left, remainder. 

Mashairi, verses, poetry. 
Shairi, one line of verse. 

Mashaka, doubts, difficulty. 

Mashamba, the countiy. Plural of 
Shamba, a plantation. 

Mashapo, sediment. 

Mashariki, the east, easterly. 

Mashendea, rice which is watery 

and imperfectly cooked. 
Mashindano, a race. 

Kwenda kica mashindo, to trot. 
Mashtaka, accusation. 
Mashua, a boat, boats, a launch. 
Maahur or Mashuhur, remarkable. 

Mashutumio, reproaches, revilings. 
Mashutumu, reviling. 
Mashuzi, breaking wind, 

Fathili ya putida ni mashuzi = 
You cannot make a silk purse 
out of a sow's ear. 

Kwenda masia, to walk up and 
Masika, the rainy season, t.e., Marcli, 

April, and May. 
Masikani, a dwelling. 
Masikini = Masakini. 
Masingizio, slander. 
Masiwa, the Comoro Islands and 

Masizi, grime, soot, &c., on the 

bottom of cooking pots. 
Maskini = Masakini. 
Masombo, a girdle of cloth. 
Masri =■ Misri, Egypt. 
Masruf, provisions. 
Masua, giddiness. 

Nina masua, I am giddy. 
Masukuo, a whet-stone. 
Masuto, reproaches. 
Mata, bows and arrows, weapons. 
Mataajabu, wonders, astonishment. 
Matakatifu, holiness. 
Matako, the seat. 
Matakioa, request, want, desire. 
Matambavu, the side, a man's side. 
Mata'mko, pronunciatiou. 
Matamu, sweet. See -tamu. 




Matamvua, fringe. 

MatandiJco, bedding, harness, v.hat 

is spread. 
Mafana, leprosy. 
Matanga, large mats, sails. 
Kykaa matanga, to keep a formal 
mourning, generally for from 
five to ten days. 
Kuondoa matanga, to put an end 

to the mourning. 
Matanga kati, wind abeam. 
Matangamano, a crowd. 
Matata, a tangle, an embroilment. 

Kutia matata, to tangle. 
Matayo, reproaches, revilings. 
Mate, spittle. 
Mategemeo, props, a prop, support, 

Mateka^ spoil, booty, prisoners. 
Matemhezi, a walk. 
Matengo, the outriggers of a canoe. 
Mateso, afflictions, adversity. 
Mateto, quarrel. 
Mathahahu = Mathhah. 
Mathabuha, a victim, a sacrifice. 
Mathahabi or Mathhah, sect, persua- 
Mathara, mischief, harm. 
Mathhah, an altar. 
iTIai/ie/iebM, manners, habits, customs, 

= Mathahabi (?). 
Matilo, lift from the after part of a 
yard to the mast-head of a dhow. 
Matindi, half-grown Indian corn. 
Matindo, a slaughter-house, a place 

for killing beasts. 

Kwenda hwa matiti, to trot. 
Matlaa, the east wind. 
Matlaa mjuk, N.E. 
Matlaa akrab, S.B. 
Matlai = Matlaa. 
Mato, eyes (M.). 

Matoazi, cymbals. 
Matokeo, going-out places. 

Matokeo ya hari, pores of tlie 
Matomoko, a custard apple. 
Matubwitubivi, mumps. 
Matukano^&lthy and insulting ex- 
pressions, such as — 
Mwana kumanyoko. 
Mwana wa haramu. 
Matukio, accidents, things which 

Matumaini, confidence, hope. 
Matumbawi, fresh coral, cut from 
below high- water mark : it is 
used for roofs and where lightness 
is an object. 
Matumho, the entrails. 
Matupu, bare. See -tupu. 
Maturuma, stiflTeners put on a door, 
the knees in a dhow, ribs of a 
boat, &c. 
Matusu, bad and abusive language. 
Matuvumu, accusation, blame. 
Maua (plur. of Ua), flowers, 
Maulizo, questions, questioning. 
Maumivu, pain. 

Maungo, the back, the backbone. 
Mauthuru, unable. 
Mauti, death. 
Mavao, dress, dressing. 
Mavazi, dress, clothes. Plural of 

Mavi, dung, droppings, excrement. 

Mavi ya chuma, dross. 
Mavilio. See Vilio. 
Mavulio, clothes cast off and given 
to another, clothes worn by one 
who is not their owner. 
Mavunda, one who breaks every- 
thing he has to do with. 




Mavundevuncle, broken, scattered 

Mavumi, hum of voices. 
Mavuno, harvest, reaping. 

Mavuno ya nyuki, honeycomb. 
Mavuzi (plur. of Vuzi), the hair of 

the pubes. 
Mawazi, clear. See loazi. 
Maice (plur. of Jiwe), stones, stone. 

Ya mawe, of stone. 

Mawe ya kusagia, a hand-mill. 

Mawe, a vulgar ejaculation, rub- 
Mawili, both. 
Mawimbi (plur. of Wimhi), surf, a 

Maivindo, game, produce of hunt- 
Mayayi. See Yayi. 
Mayiti, a dead body. 
Alayugica, a green vegetable cooked 

like spinach. 
Mazao, fruit, produce. 
Maziko, burial-place. 
Mazinga omboy sleight of hand 

Mazingiwa, a siege. 
Mazingombioe, magic, witchcraft. 
Mazishiy burial clothes, furniture, 

Mazvca, milk, (plur. of Zhca) 
breasts, lakes. 

Maziwa mabivu, curdled milk. 

Maziwa ya watu wawili, dragon's 
Mazoea, custom. 

Mazoezo, habits, customs, practice. 
MazoJca, evil spirits. 
Mazu, a kind of banana. 
Mazumgu'inzOy amusement, conver- 
Mbali, far off, separate. 

Mbali mbali, distinct, different. 

Potelea mbali! Go and be hanged ! 
Tumivulie mbali, let us kill him 

out of the way. 
When used with the applied 
forms of verbs, it means that 
the person or thing is by that 
means got rid of, or put out of 
the way. 
Mbango, a bird with a parrot-like 
beak, a person with projecting 
Mbano, a circumcising instrument. 
Mbau (plur. of Ubau), planks. 
'Mbau, plur. mibau, planking, tim- 
^Mbaruti, plur. mibaruti, a weed 
with yellow flowers and thistle- 
like leaves powdered with white. 
Mbasua, giddiness. 
Mbata, a cocoa-nut which has dried 
in the shell so as to rattle, with- 
out being spoilt. 
Mbati, wall-plate. 
Mbavu, ribs, side. 

Mbavuni, alongside. 
Mbawa, wing feathers. See Vbaica. 
Mbayani, clear, manifest. 
Mbayuwayu, a swallow (A.). 
Mbega, a kind of monkey, black, 
with long white hair on the 
Mbegu, seed, seeds. [shoulders. 


'Mbeja wa hani, young man of 
Mbele, before, in front, further on. 
Mbele ya, before, in front of. 
Kuendelea mbele, to go forward. 
Mbeleni, in the front. This word 
is used in Zanzibar with an 
obscene sense. 
Mbeyu = Mbegu, seed. 
Mbilo, plur. mibibo, a cashew-nu: 

z 2 




Mbiehi, fresh. See -hicM. 
]\Thigili, small thorns, briers. 
Mbili, two. See -wiU. 

Mbili mbili, two by two. 
Mbiliwili, the wrist (?). 
Mbingu, plur. of Uwingu, the skies, 

the heavens, heaven. 
Mbio, running, fast. 

Kwpiga mbio, to run, to gallop. 
Mbiomba, mother's sister, aunt. 
Mbirambi zako, be comforted. A 

Swahili greeting to one who has 

just lost a relative. 
Mbisi, parched Indian com. 
Mhiu, a proclamation, public notice. 
Mbivu, ripe. See -bivu and -wivic. 

Kupiga mbizi, to dive. 
Mboga, vegetables, greens. 

BIboga mnanaa, a kind of mint. 
'Mboga, plur. miboga, a pumpkin 

Mboleo, manure. 

Mbona? Why? for what reason? 
^ Used especially with negatives. 
Blboni ya jicho, the apple of the 
Mbono, castor-oil plant (?). [eye. 
Mboo, the penis. 
JSIboto, a climbing plant yielding a 

superior kind of oil. 
Iflbovu, bad, rotten, corrupt. See 

-ovu and -bovu. 
Mbu = Imbu, a mosquito. 
Mbui, a buffalo's horn, which is 

beaten as a musical instrument. 
Mbuja^ a swell, dandy, gracefully. 

Kusema mbuja, to say elegantly. 
Mbulu, a crocodile (?). 
Mbungu, a hurricane (Kishenzi). 
Mbuni, an ostrich. 
Mbuyu, plur. mibuyu, a baobab 

tree, a calabash tree. They are 

generally looked upon as haunted. 

Mbuzi, a goat, goats. 

Mbuzi ya hukunia nazi, an iron 
to scrape cocoa-nut for cooking 
Mbwa, a dog, dogs. 

Mbwa wa mwitu, a jackal, 
Mbwayi, wild, fierce. 
Mbwe, little pebbles, little white 

stones larger than changarawi. 
Hlbweha, a fox. 
Mbweu, eructation, belching. 
Mclia, one who fears. 

Mclia Jfzmngu, a God-fearing man. 
Mchafu, filthy. 

Mcliago, the pillow end of the bed. 
Mchahacho, footsteps (?). 
Mchana or Mtana, daylight, day- 
time, day. 
Mchanga or 3Itanga, sand. 
McJiarci, plur. wachawi, a wizard. 
3Ifhayi, lemon grass. 
Mche, plur. Miche, a plant, a slip, a 

Mche, a kind of wood much used in 

Mchekeshaji, plur. wachehesliaji, a 

merry body, one who is alwajs 

Mcliele, cleaned grain, especially 

Mchelema, watery. 
MchesM, a merry fellow, a laugher. 
Mchezo, plur. michezo, a game. 

Mchezo wake huyu, it is this man's 
turn to play. 
Mchi, plur. micM, or Mti, plur, miti, 

the pestle used to pound or to 

clean corn with. Also a screw 

of paper to put groceries in (?). 
McMclia, plur. michicha, a common 

spinach -like plant used as a 




Mcldliichi, plur. micliildchi, the 
palm-oil tree. 

Mchilizi, plur. michilizi, the eaves. 

Mchiro, plur. wacMro, a mangouste. 

Mchochoro, passage, an opening be- 

Mcliofu = Mclwvu. 

Mchongoma, plur, micliongoma, a 
thorny shrub with white flowers 
and a small black edible fruit. 

Mchorochoro, a rapid writer. 

McTcovu, plur. wachovu, weary, lan- 
guid, easily tired, tiring, tire- 

Mchumba, a sweetheart, one who 
seeks or is sought by another 
in marriage. 
Mhe mchumha, widow (?). 

Mchumhuluru, a kind of fish. 

Mchunga (or Mtunga), plur. wa- 
chunga, a herdman, a groom, one 
who has the care of animals. 

Mcliungaji, a herdsman, shepherd. 

Mchuruzi, plur. Wachuruzi, one who 
keeps a stall, a trader in a very 
small way. 

Mchuzi, or Mtuzi, curry, gravy, soup. 

Mcli ica, white ants. 

Mda or Muda, a space of time, the 
space, &c. 

Mda, plur. mida (?), a piece of plank 
propped up to support a frame- 
work, &c. = 'mu7ida. 

Mdago, a kind of weed. 

Mdalasini, cinnamon. 

MdaraJiani, an Indian stuff. 


He mdawari, the softer Arabic h, 
the he. 

Mdeli — Mdila. 

Mdila, plur. midila, a coffee-pot. 

Mdomo, plur. midomo, the lip. 
Mdomo tea ndege^ a bird's beak. 

' Mdudu, plur. wadudu, an insect. 
Mdudu, a whitlow. 
Mdukico, a push in the cheek. 
j Mdumu, a mug. 
il/e-, see ilia-. Many words are pro- 
nounced with ma- at Mombas, 
and with me- at Zanzibar. 
•me-, the sign of the tense which 
denotes an action complete at 
the moment of speaking, an- 
swering to the English tense 
with have. Sometimes it is 
used to denote an action com- 
plete at the time referred to, 
and must then be translated by 
This tense may often be used 
as a translation of the past 
Yu hayi, ao amehufa ? Is he 

alive or dead ? 

Most Swahili verbs denoting a 

state Imve in their present 

tense tbc meaning of entering 

that state or becoming, and in 

the -me- tense the meaning of 

having entered or being in it. 

In some cases the -me- tense is 

best rendered by another verb. 

Anavaa, he is putting on, amevaa, 

he wears. 
In some dialects the me is pro- 
nounced ma. 
Mea ku-, to grow, to be growable. 
Medun, tortoiseshell. 
Mega ku-, to break a piece, or gather 
up a lump and put it in one's 
mouth, to feed oneself out of the 
common dish with one's hand, as 
is usual in Zanzibar. 
Mekameka ku-, to glitter, to shine. 
Meko (plur. of Jiko), a fireplace. 
Mekoni, a kitchen, in the kitchen. 




Memetuka ku- (A.), to sparkle. 
Mende, a cockroach, cockroaches. 

Also a slang term for a rupee. 
Mengi or Mangi, many. See -ngi. 
Meno (plur. of Jino), teeth. 
Menomeno, battlements. 
Menya ku-, to shell, to husk, to 
Menya ku-, to beat (Kiyao). [peel. 
Merikebu, a ship, ships. 

Merikebu ya serikali, a ship be- 
longing to the government. 
Merikehu ya mizinga or manowari, 

a man-of-war. 
Merikehu ya <oy'a, a merchant ship. 
Merikehu ya milingote mitatu, a 

full-rigged ship. 
Merikehu ya milingote miicili na 

nussu, a barque. 
Merikehu ya doJiaan or ya moshi, 
a steamship. 
Merima, the mainland of Africa, 
especially the coast south of 
Wamerima, people who live on 

the coast south of Zanzibar. 
Kimerima, the dialect of Swahili 
spoken on the coast south of 
Merimeta ku-, to glitter, to shine. 
Meshmaa, a candle, candles. 
Mesiki or Meski, musk, scent. 
Meskiti = Moskiti, a mosque. 
Metameta, to shine, to glitter. 
Methili or Methali, like, a parable. 
Meza, a table. 
Meza ku-, to swallow. 

Waraka mezaioicereh, forgery. 
Mfaa, centre piece of a door. 
Mfalme, plur. icafalme, a king. 
Mfano, plur. mifano, a likeness. 
Mfano tea maneno, a proverb, a 

Mfanyi biashara, plur. wafanyi, a 

man who does business, a trader, 

a merchant. 
Mfariji, plur. wafariji, a comforter. 
Mfathili, plur. uafathili, one who 

does kindnesses. 
Mfeleji, a water channel. 
Mfilisika, a bankrupt. 
Mfinangi, plur. u-afinangi, a potter. 
Mfinessi, plur. mifinessi, a jack fruit 

Mfu, plur. wafu, a dead person. 
Mfua, plur. wafua, a smith, a 
worker in metal. 

Mfua chuma, a blacksmith. 

Mfua fetha, &c., a silversmith, &c. 
Mfuasi, plur. wafuasi, a follower, a 

retainer, a hanger-on. 
3Ifnko, plur. mifuko, a bag, a 

Mfuma, plur. wafuma, a weaver. 
Mfumhati, plur. mifumhati,ihe side- 
pieces of a bedstead. 
MfunguQ, a name applied to nine of 
the Arab months. 

Mfunguo wa mosi, is the Arab 

Mfunguo ica pili, is the Arab 

Th'il Kaada. 
Mfunguo wa tatu, is the Arab 

ThHl Hajj. 
MfunguA) wa ^nne, is the Arab 

Mfunguo wa tano, is the Arab 

Mfunguo wa sita, is the Arab 

Eabia al aoical. 
Mfunguo wa saha, is the Arab 

Bahia al aklir. 
Mfunguo wa none, is the Arab 

Jemad al aoical. 
Mfunguo tea kenda, is the Arab 

Jemad al aklir. 




Mfunguo wa is often so pro- 
nounced as to sound like 
The other three months, Eajdb, 
Shaaban, and RamatliaUj keep 
tlieir Arabic name?. 
Mfuo, plur. mifuo, a stripe. 

Karatasi ya mifuo, ruled paper. 
Mfupa, plur. mifupa, a bone. 
Mfuto, winning five games out of 

six at cards. 
Mfyozi, an abusive person. 
Mgala, plur. wagala, a Galla. 
Mganda, plur. miganda, a sheaf or 

bundle of rice. 
Mganga, plur. waganga, a medicine 
man, a doctor, a dealer in white 
Mgao, a place near Cape Delgado. 
Mgawo, a deal in card-playing. 
Mgeni, plur. wageni, a guest, a 

Mghad, a horse's canter. 

Kwenda mghad, to canter. 
Mgine = Mwingine, another, other. 
Mgogoro, an obstacle in a road, a 
stumbling-block. In slang, a 
nuisance, crush, worry. 
Mgoja or Mngoja, plur. wagoja, one 
who waits, a sentinel. 
Mgoja mlango, a door-keeper, a 
Mgomha, plur. migomha, a banana 

Mgombwe, bull's-mouth shell. Cassis 

Mgomvi, plur. wagomvi, a quarrel- 
some person, a brawler. 
Mgonda, a slave's clout. 
Mgongo, plur. migongo, the back, 
the backbone. 
Nyumha ya mgongo, a penthouse 

Mgonjica or Mgonjua, plur. imgon- 
jwa, a sick person, an invalid. 

Mf/o^e = Mlingote, a mast. 

Mgunda, cultivated land. 

Mgunya, plur. Wagunya, a native of 
the country between Siwe and 
the Juba. 

Mguruguru, plur. waguruguru, a 
large kind of burrowing lizard. 

Mguu, plur. miguu, the leg from the 

knee downward, the foot. 

Kwenda Jtica miguu, to walk. 

m,-. See iHwTi. 

3IJialbori. See Kanzu. 

Mlv'mili, plur. mihilimi, a girder, a 
beam, a bearing post, a prop. 

Mhulu, a large tree lizard. 

Mhunzi, plur. wahunzi, a black- 

Me-, plural prefix of substantives, 
and of adjectives agreeing with 
them, which begin in the singular 
with m-, or 'm-, mu-, or mio-, and 
do not denote animate beings. 

-mi, an objective sufBx denoting 
the first person singular. This 
sufBx is poetical, not used in 

Mia, a hundred. 

Miteen, two hundred. 

Mialamu, the ends of a piece of 

MiasMri, pieces lying fore and aft 
to receive the stepping of the 

Miayo, yawning, a yawn. [mast. 

Miha or Miiba, thorns. 

Mibau, timbers. 

Mifuo, bellows. 

Mikaha, marriage. 


Kupiga mikamhe, in bathing, to 
duck down and throw over one 
leg, striking the water with it. 




Mila, a custom. 

Kioenda milamha, to go round by 
a new road to avoid war or 
some other obstacle, to strike 
out a new way. 
Milele, eternity. 

Ya milele, eternal. 
Milhoi, jins, which having been 

merely singed, not killed by the 

missiles of the angels, lurk in 

by-places to deceive and harm 

Miliki = MUM. 
Miliki hu; to reign, to possess. 
Milki, kingdom, possession, pro- 
Milumbe, a speech, an over-long 

Mimba, pregnancy. 

Kuwa na mimba or Kuchuhua 
mimha, to be pregnant. 

Kuharihu mimha, to miscarry. 
Mimbara, the pulpit in a mosque. 
Mimi, I, me. , 

Mimina hu-, to pour, to pour over. 
Miminika hu-, to be poured over, to 

be spilt, to overflow. 
Mingi, many. See -ingi. 
Mingine, others. See -ingine. 
Mini (Ar.), right. 

Mini wa shemali, right and left. 
Minyonoa, a kind of flowering 

Miongoni mwa, in respect of, as to, 

on the part of, from among. 
Miraha, muscles. See Mr aha. 
Mirisaa, shot. 
Mishithari, crooked. 
Misho, Russia. 
Misri, Egypt. 
Miteen, two hundred. 
Miunsi, a whistling. 

Miusi, black. See -eusi. 

Miica (plur. of Mud), sugar-canes. 

Miwali, midribs of a palm-leaf. 

Miivani, spectacles. 

Miyaa, leaves for making mats. 

Miye, me, it is I. 

Mizani, balances, steelyard, scales. 

Mizi, roots (M.). 

Mizizi, roots, rootlets. 

3Ija na maji, one who has come 
over the sea, a foreigner. Also, 
a slave. 

Mjahazi, plur. wajahazi, a woman 

Mjanga, Bembatooka bay in Mada- 

Mjangao, melancholy, silent sorrow. 

Mjanja, plur. wajanja, a cheat, a 
shameless person. 

Mjani, a widow. 

Mjasiri, plur. wajasiri, a bold ven- 
turesome man. 

Mjassusi, inquisitive. 

Mjeledi, a whip. 

Mjemba, a plough (?). 

3Iji, plur. miji, a town, a city, a 
village, the middle part of a piece 
of cloth. 

Mji, the uterus. 

Mjiari, plur. mijiari, tiller ropes. 

Mjiguu, plur. mijiguu, large long 

Mjinga, plur. wajinga, a raw new 
comer, a simpleton; applied es- 
pecially to newly arrived slaves, 
ignorant, inexperienced. 

Mjisihafiri, a kind of lizard. 
Mjoli, plur. wajoli, a fellow-servant. 
Mjomha, plur. wajomha, uncle. 

Mjugii nyassa, ground-nuts. 
Mjugu mawe, a hard kind of 



MJhJcuu, plur. tcajukuu, a cousin, a 

MJumba, plur. icajumba, an uncle. 
Mjumhakaka, a kind of lizard. 
3Ijumhe, plur. wajumhe, a mes- 
Mjume, a weapon-smith. 
MJiimu, studded with brass, 
Mjusi, plur. wajusi, a lizard. 

i\Ijusi wa kanzu. See Kanzu. 

Mjusi kafiri, a rough kind of 
small lizard. 

3Ijusi salama, a smooth kind of 
small lizard. 
Mjuvi, plur. ivajuvi, a chattering, 

officious person. 
Mjuzi, plur. wojuzi, a person of in- 
formation, one who knows. 
Mkaa, plur. wakaa, one who sits. 

Mkaa jikoni^ Mr. Sit-in-the- 

Mkaa, an astringent wood used 
in medicine. 
Mkahala, opposite. 
Mkahil, future. 
Mkadi, plur. mikadi, the pandanus 

tree; its flowers are valued for 

their smell. 
Mlcaidi, obstinate, wilful. See 

Mkaja, a cloth worn by women, 

given as a present at the time of 

a w^edding. 
Mkali, fierce. See -kali. 
Mkamilifu, perfect. 
Mkamshe, plur. mikamshe, a kind of 

wooden spoon. 
Mkandaa, plur. mikandaa, a kind 

of mangrove tree full of a red 

dye much used for roof beams. 
Mkanju, plur. mikanju, a cashew 

tree (M.). 
Mkaragazo, Si strong tobsicco. Also, 

manfully, again and again 

Mkaralidla, a medicinal shrub. 
Mkasama (in arithmetic), division. 
Mkasasi, a handsome tree, whose 

wood is useless. Hence the 


Uzuri wa mlcasasi, 
Ukipata, maji, hasi. 

Mkasiri, a tree whose bark is used 

to dye fishing-nets black. 
JSDiataha, a written agreement. 
Mkatale, the stocks. 
Mkate, plur. mikate, a cake, a loaf. 

Mikate ya mofu, cakes of mtama 

Mikate ya kusonga, ya kumimina, 
&c., cakes of batter, &c. 

Mkate wa tumhako, a cake of 
Mkazo, nipping, pressing tight. 
Mke, plur. wake, a wife, a female. 

Mke aliofiwa na mumeive,a. widow. 
Mkehe, a pot to burn incense in, a 

drinking pot. 
MJceka, plur. mikeka, a fine kind of 

mat used to sleep upon. 
Mkeo = Mkewo. 

Mkereza, plur. wakereza^ a turner. 
Mkewe, his wife. 
Mkewo, your wife. 
Mkia, plur. mikia, a tail. 
Mkimhizi, plur. wakimhizi, one who 

runs away. 
Mkindu, plur. mikindu, a kind of 

palm whose leaves are used to 

make fine mats. 
Mkizi, a kind of fish. 
Mkoha, plur. mikoha, a scrip, a 

small bag. 
Mkoche, plur. mikoche, a kind of 

branching palm with an edible 





Mkojo, urine. 

Mkoko, plur. miJcoko, a mangrove 

Mkohoto, plur. mikokoto, the mark 
made by a thing being dragged 
Mkoma, plur. mikbma, a large tree 

bearing an edible fruit. 
Mkomhozi, plur. wakomhozi, a 


Mkondo wa maji, a current. 
Mkongojo, plur. mikongojo, an old 
man's staff for him to lean upon 
as he walks, 
Mkono, plur. mikono, the arm, es- 
pecially from the elbow to the 
fingers ; the hand, a sleeve, a 
projecting handle like that of a 
saucepan, a measure of nearly 
half a yard, a cubit. 
Ya mkono, handy. 
Chno clia mkono, a handbook. 
Mkorofi, ill-omened. 
Mkuhwa, great, the eldest. See 

Mkuchyo, Magadoxa. 
Mkufu, plur. mikufu, a chain, es- 
pecially of a light ornamental 
Mkufunzi, plur. wakufunzi, a 

Mkuke, plur. mikuke, a spear with 
a sharp point and triangular 
Mkuku, the keel of a ship. 
Mkule, a gar-fish. 

Mkulima, plur. wakidima, a culti- 
vator, a field labourer. 
Mkulimani, plur. wakuUmani, an 

Mkulo, plur. mikulo, a pottle-shaped 
matting bag to strain tui through. 

Mkumavi, a kind of red wood much 

used in Zanzibar. 
Mkumbi (Mgao.), gura-copal tree. 
Mkunga (?), midwife. 
Mkungu, plur. mikungu, the fruit 

stalk of the banana. 
Mkungu, plur. mikungu, a kind of 
earthen pot. 

Mkungu wa kufunikia, a pot lid. 

Mkungu wa kulia, a dish. 
Mkuu, plur. wakuu, a great man, a 

Mkuu wa asikari, a commanding 

3Ikuu wa genzi, a guide. 
Mkuza, large, full grown. 
Mkwamha, a kind of thorny shrub. 
Mkwasi, plur. wakwasi, a wealthy 

person, rich. 
Mkwe, plur. wakwe, a father or 

mother-in-law, a son or daughter- 
Mkweme, a climbing plant bearing 

a gourd with round flat seeds 

rich in oil. 
Mkwezi, a climber, one who goes 

Mlafi, plur. walafi, a glutton. 
Mlala, plur. milala, hyphaene, a 

branching palm. 
Mlamha, a dark-coloured bird that 

eats insects, and drives away 

other birds, even the crows. 
Mlango, plur. milango, a door, a 

Mlanza, a pole for carrying things. 
Mlariha, plur. walariba^ usurer. 
Mle, there within. 
Mlevi, plur. walevi, a drunkard. 
Mlezi, plur. walezi, a nurse, one 

who rears children. 
Mlezo, plur. milezo, a bnoy. 
Mlima, plur. milima, a mountain. 




Mlingote, plui. milingote, a mast. 

MUngote ica Ttalmi or galmi, the 
small mizen-mast carried by 
large dhows. 
Mlingote ica maji, the bowsprit. 
MUnzi, plur. walinzi, a guard. 
Mlisld, plur. u-alisM, a feeder, a 

Mlish", the month Shaaban. 
Mlizamu, a waterspout on a house. 
il/ ?o7e, the comb of a code. 
Mlomo, plur. milomo, a lip. Also, 

Mmoja, one, a certain man. See 

^Mna, there is within. 
Mnada, plur. minada, a sale, an 

Mnadi, an auctioneer, huckster. 
Mnadi hu-, to sell by auction. 
Mnafihi, plur. icanafilu, a hypocrite. 
Mnaja, a prophet going to ask a 

thing of God. 
Mnajimu, plur. wanajimu, an as- 
Mnajisi, plur. tcanajisi, a profane 

person, blasphemer. 
Maara, plur. minara, a tower, a 

minaret, a beacon. 
Mnaziy plur. minazi, a cocoa-nut 

Mnena, one who speaks. 

Mnena l-weli, one who speaks the 
Mnene, stout. See -nene. 
Miieni, plur. icaneni, a speaker, an 

eloquent person. 
Mngazidja, plur. Wangazidja, a 

native of Great Comoro. 
Mngwana, plur. wangicana,a gentle- 
man, a free and civilized person. 

iU'/to, exceedingly, excessively. ilf«o 

always follows the word qualified 
by it. 

Mnofu, meatiness, fleshiness. 

Mnono, fat. See -nono. 

Mnunuzi, plur. icanunuzi, a buyer, 
a purchaser, a customer. 

Mnyamavu, plur. wanyamavu, a 
silent person, still, quiet. 

Mnyang''aniji, plur. tcanyang'anyi, a 
robber, one who steals with vio- 

Mneyo, a tickling, itching, a creep- 
ing sensation. 

Mnyiriri, plur. mmyiriri, the arms 
of the cuttle-fish. 

Mnyonge, plur. icanyonge, an insig- 
nificant, mean person. 

ilf/iT/ororo, plur. minyororo, ormnyoo, 
plur. minyoo, a chain. 

Mmjwa, plur. tcanyica, a drinker, 
one who drinks. 

iHo, -wo, or -mo-, the particle de- 
noting place inside something 
Mumo humo, there inside, [else. 

3IoalU, Mohilla. 

Mofa, small round cakes of vitawa 

Moliulla, a fixed time, a term. Also 

Moja, plur. mamoja, one, same. 
Marnoja pia, it is all one. 

-moja, one. 

Moja moja, one by one. 

Moja haada ica 7itoja, alternately. 

Mtu mmoja, a certain man. 

Moja wapo, any one. 

Mola, Lord. Used of God. 

Moma, a kind of poisonous snake. 

Momhee, Bombay. 

Moris, Mauritius. 

Kutoha Moris, to score twenty- 
nine or more in a game at 




Kicenda 3Ions, to mark less than 
twenty-nine in a game at cards. 
Mororo, soft. See -ororo. 
Moshi, plur. vdoslii, smoke. 
Mosi, one (in counting). 

Ya mosi, first. 
MosTdti, a mosque, the ace of spades. 
Mote, all. See -ote. 
Moto, plur. mioto, fire, a fire, heat. 

Ya moto, hot. 

Kupata moto, to get hot. 
Morjo, plur. mioyo or nyoyo, heart, 
mind, will, self. 

Ya moyo, willingly, heartily. 
Mpagazi, plur. wapagazi, a caravan 

Mpaji, plur. wapaji, a giver, a 

liberal person. 
Mpaka, plur. mipalm, a boundary, 

Mpalia mmoja, adjacent, [limit. 
Mpaha, until, as far as. 

Tutaclieka mpalia Jculia, we shall 
laugh till we cry. 
Mpamhi, plur. wapamhi, a person 

dressed up with ornaments. 
Mpanzi, a sower. 
Mpapayi, plur. mipapayi, a papaw 

Mparamiizi, plur. miparamuzi, a 

sort of tree said to be unclimb- 

MpatanisM, plur. wapatantshi, a 

peacemaker, one who brings about 

an agreement. 
Mpato, interlaced work, lattice. 
Mpeehwa, plur. icapeehica, a person 

sent, a missionary, = Mpelekwa. 
Mpekuzi, plur. wapelcuzi, one who 

scratches like a hen, an inquisi- 
tive person. 
3Ipelelezi, plur. wapelelezi, a spy. 
Mpenzi, plur. wapenzi, a person 
who is loved, a favourite. 

Mpera, plur. mipera, a guava tree. 

^Mpia, new. See -2?ya. 

Mpiga ramli, plur. wapiga, a. for- 
tune-teller, one who prognosti- 
cates by diagrams. Formerly 
they did so by throwing sand, 
whence the name. 

Mpiho, plur. mipiko, a pole to carry 
burdens on. 
Kuchukua mpikoni, to carry on 
a pole over the shoulder. 

Mpingo, ebony. 

Mpini, plur. mipini, a haft, a 

Mpira, india-rubber, an india-rub- 
ber ball. 

Mpishi, plur. wapishi, a cook. 

Mpofu, plur. wapofu, the eland. 

Mpotevu, plur. wapotevu, a wasteful 

Mpotoe, plur. wapotoe, perverse, 
wilful, good-for-nothing. 

Mpumhafu, plur. icapumhafu, a fool. 

Mpwiga, rice, either growing or 
while yet in the husk. 

Mpjungaii, plur. mipungati, a kind 
of cactus. 

Mpuzi, plur. uapuzi, a silly chat- 

Mpwa, the sea-beach (M.). 

jSIpiceke, plur. mipioeke, a shor 
thick stick, a bludgeon. 

Mpya, new. See -p^a. 

Mr aha, plur. miraba, muscles. 
ilfi^M wa miraba minne, a very 
strong man. 

Mrdbba, square. 

Mradi, preferably (?). 

Mramma, the rolling of a ship. 

MrasM, plur. mirashi, a long-necked 
bottle, often of silver, used to 
sprinkle scent from; a woman's 

I- I tt*. Jft-Ol^'i 



Mremo, plur. icaremo, a Portuguese. 

Also Mrenu. 
Mrenalia, the thorn-apple plant. 
Mrenu, plur. TTareizu, a Portuguese. 
Mrithi, plur. warithi, an heir, an 

Mruha, plur. miruba, a leech. 
Mrungura, people who rob and com- 
mit violence at night. 
Mrututu, sulphate of copper, blue- 
Msaada, help. [stone. 

Msafara, plur. misafara, a caravan. 
Msafiri, plur. wasafiri, a traveller, 
'**^ one on a journey. 
, Msahafu, plur. misdhafu, a koran, 
a sacred book. 

Msahafu wa Sheitani, a butterfly. 
Msahau, plur. wasahau, one who 

forgets, a forgetful person. 
Msaji, teak. 
3hala. See Miisala. 
Msalaba^ a cross. 
Msaliti, a betrayer of secrets. 
Msamehe, plur. tcasarnehe, forgiving. 
Msangao, astonishment. 
Msapata, a kind of dance. 
Msasa, sandpaper, a shrub with 

leaves like sandpaper. 
Msayara, kind, gentle. 
Msazo, remainder. 
MseleMsha, plur. waseleMsha, a 

Msemaji, plur, wasemaji, a talker, 

an eloquent person. 
Msemi, plur, wasemi, a talker, a 

Mseto, a sort of food, a mixture of 

mtama and chooko. 
Msewe, plur, misewe, a sort of 

Castanet tied to the leg. 
Mshahaha, similar. 
iVfs/ja/iara, plur. jn/s/iaTiara, monthly 

pay, wages. 



MshakiM, small pieces of meat 
cooked on a skewer. 

Mshale or Mshare, plur. mishale, an 

Msharika, plur. washarika, a 

Mshayi = Mchayi. 

Msheheri or Mshehiri, plur. TFas/ie- 
Aeri, a native of Sheher in 
Arabia, many of whom are settled 
in Zanzibar. The butchers and 
coarse mat makers are almost all 
Sheher men. 

Mshiki, one who holds. 

Mshiki sMTcio, the steersman. 

MsMndani, plur. washindani, ob- 
stinate, resisting. 

Mshindio, woof. 

Msliindo (obscene), coitus. 

MsMpa, plur. misMpa, a blood- 
vessel, a nerve, any disease affect- 
ing these, hydrocele, 

BIsMpavu, plur. wasMpavu, obsti- 

MsMpi, plur. mishipi, a net, a girdle. 

Mshoni, plur. washoni, a tailor, a 
Mshoni viatu, a shoemaker. 

Mshono, plur. mishono, a seam. 

Mshtaka, plur. misMaka, an accusa- 
tion, a charge before a judge. 

Mshtaki, a prosecutor. 

Mshuko, coming down, coming away 
from performing one's devo- 
Mshuko wa magaribi, about a 
quarter of an hour after sunset. 
Mshuko wa alasiri kasiri, about 

5 P.M. 

Mshuko wa esha, about an hour 
after sunset, or from 7 till 
8 p.m. 
Mshumaa = Meshmaa. 




Msiha, plur. irn'siha, a calamity, a 
grief, mourning. 

M<ifu, a flatterer. 

Msifu'mno, plur. wasifuhnno, an 
excessive praiser, a flatterer. 

Msijana, a bachelor (?). 

Msimamizi, plur. wasimamizi, an 
overlooker, a steward, the head 
man over a plautation, who is 
nearly always a free man, often 
an Arab. 

Msinji, plur. misinji, foundations, 
trench for laying foundations. 

Msinzi, plur. misinzi, a sort of man- 
grove tree. 

Msio, a piece of stone to rub liwa 

Msio, a fated thing, what will de- 
stroy or affect a person. See 

Msiri, plur. wasiri, a confidential 
person, one trusted with secrets. 

Msitani [Pemba] = Barazani. 

Msiiu, a forest. 

Msitu wa miti, a thick wood. 

Msomari, plur. muomari, a nail, an 
iron nail. See MarasM. 

Msondo, a very tall drum, beaten on 
special occasions. 

Msonyo, a whistling. 

Mstadi, plur. loastadi, a skilful 
workman, a good hand. 

Mstahamili or Mstahimili, plur. wa- 
stahimili, a patient, enduring, 
long-suffering person. 

Mstaki, plur. wastaki, a prosecutor- 

Mdamu, a shoe; a piece of wood 
fixed to the keel, with a hole to 
receive the heel of the mast. 

Mstari, plur. mistari, a line, a line 
Kupiga mstari, to draw a line. 

Ms o/ele, a custard apple. 

Msudki, plur. misuahi, a tooth stick, 
a little stick of the zamharau 
tree, used as a tooth-brush. It 
is prepared by chewing the end 
until it becomes a mere bunch of 
Msufi, plur. misufi, a tree bearing a 
pod of soft cotton, Eriodendron 
Msukani, plur. misukani, a rudder. 
Msukano. See Keke. 
Msuluhiwa, a peacemaker, 
Msumari = Msomari. 
Msumeno, plur. misumeno, a saw. 
Msumkule, the name of Lion go's 

Msunohari, fir tree, deal. 
Msuruald, plur. misuruaki, the 
wooden button which is grasped 
between the toes to hold on the 
■wooden clogs commonly wora by 
women and in the house. 
Msuzo, the handle of a millstone. 
Msioeni = Msueni, cholera. 
Mta or Mtaa, plur. mita, a district, 
a quarter of a town. 
The mita of Zanzibar, starting 
from the western point and 
going round the outside first, 
and then into the middle, 
are : Shangani, Baghani, Gei e- 
zani, Forthani, Mita ya pwani, 
Kiponda, Mbuyuni, Malindi, 
Funguni, Jungiani, Kokoni, 
Mkunazini, Kibokoni, Kidu- 
tani, Mzambarauni, Kijuka- 
kuni, Vuga, Mnazimoja, Mji 
mpya, Mtakuja, Jumea, Soko la 
Mahogo, Kajificheiii, Mfuuni, 
Migomboni, Tiuyani, Sham, 
Hurumzi, Kutani, Mwavi. All 
these are on the peninsula, 
which joins the mainland only 




at Mnazi moja. Fungnni is ] 
on the point where the creek j 
enters, which almost surrounds \ 
the town. Crossing the creek ; 
by the bridge, there are the 
following mita : — Ng'ambo, 
Mchangani, Gulioni, Kwa 
Buki, Vikokotoni, Kisimani 
kwa kema, Mchinjani, I\Iwem- 
bemjugu, Kikwajuui, Mkadini, 
and then Mnazi moja again. 
Mtaala = Mtala. 
Mtahari, credible. 

Mtai, a scratch, a slight superficial 
Kupiga mtai, to scratch. 
Mtaimho, plur. mitaimbo, an iron 

bar, a crowbar. 
Mtajiri, plur. watajiri, a merchant, 
a rich man. More correctly 
Mtakaso, the rustling of new or 
clean clotlies. 
Kupiga mtaJcaso, to rustle. 
Mtala = Mtaala, practice, study. 
Mtali, plur. mitali, bangles, anklets. 
Mtama, millet, CafFre corn. 

Mfama mtindi, half-grown stalks 

of mtama. 
Mtama tete, fully formed but not 
yet ripe. 
Mtaviba, plur. m?Yam6a, a young she- 
animal which has not yet borne. 
Mtamho, plur. mitamho, a spring, a 

trap with a spring, a machine. 
Mtanashati, a swell, dandy. 
Mtandi, a loom. 
Mtando, the warp in weaving. 
Mtani, plur. watani, one who belongs 

to a kindred tribe or race. 
Mtaoicay plur. wataoica, a devout 

Mtaramu, shrewd, wise. 

Mtatago, a tree or beam thrown 
across a stream. 

Mtego, plur. mitego, a trap. 

Mtendaji, nlur. watendaji, an active 

Mtende, plur. mitende, a date palm. 

Mtepe, plur. mitepe, a kind of dhow 
or native craft belonging chiefly 
to Lamoo and the coast near it. 
Mitepe are sharp at the bows 
and stern, with a head shaped 
to imitate a camel's head, orna- 
mented with painting and tassels 
and little streamers. They carry 
one large square mat sail, and 
have always a white streamer or 
pennant at the mast-head : their 
planking is sewn together, ami 
they are built broad and shallow. 

Mtesi, an adversary, a quarrelsome 
litigious person. 

Mtesteshi, comic. 

Mteule, plur. tcateule, chosen, select. 

Mthamini, a surety. 

Mthulimu, a clieat, a thief. 

Mti, plur. miti, a tree, pole, wood. 
Mti katl, a tall post set in the 
groimd between a prisoner's 
legs, so that when his feet are 
fettered together he can only 
move in a circle round the post. 

Mtishamba^ a chann of any kind. 

Mti, scrofulous and gangrenous 

Mtiha, a darling, a term of endear- 

Mtii, plur. watii, obedient. 

Mtima, heart, chest (old Swaljili 
and Kiyao). 

Mtindi, buttermilk. 

Mtindo, size, form, shape, pattern. 

Mtini, plur. mitini, a fig tree. 

Mto, plur. mito, a river, a stream. 




Mto wa Jiono, a branchiug river, a 
Mto, plur. mito, a pillow, a cushion. 
Mtohive, a kind of wood, of which 

the best hakoras are made. 
Mtofaa, plur. mitofaa, an apple- 
like fruit. 
Mtolii, a swelling of the glands at 
the bend of the thigh followed 
by fever. 
Mtomo, firmness, good building. 
MtomondOjiAuv. mitomoiido^the Bar- 
ringtonia ; its fruit is exported to 
Mtondo, the day after the day afttr 
Mtondo goo, the day after that. 
Mtondoo, plur. mitindoo, Callo- 
phyllum inophyllum ; oil is made 
from its seeds. 
Mtongozi, plur. watongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to allure 
Mtoro, plur. watoro, a runaway. 
Mtoto, plur. watoto, a child. Used 
also generally of anything 
small of its kind, when men- 
tioned in connection with 
something larger to which it is 
attached ; e.g. young shoots, 
small boats, &c. 
Mtoto wa watu, a child of some- 
body, having relations, a woman 
of respectable family as dis- 
tinguished from one of slave 
parentage, a woman therefore 
who has somewhere to go if she 
leaves her liusband, or he her. 
Mtoto wa meza, a drawer of a 
Mtovu, without manners, shameless. 
Mtu, plur. icatu, a person, a man, 
somebody, anybody. 

Hdkuna mtu, there is nobody. 
Mtu gani ? of what tribe ? 
Mtu wa serJcali, a man in govern • 
ment employ. 

Mtidinga, plur. mUulinga, the col- 
lar bone. 

Mtidivu, plur. watulivu, a quiet 

Mtumaini, plur. watumaini, san- 
guine, confident. 

Mtumha, plui-. mitumha, a bale of 
cloth made up for a caravan. 

Mtumbuizi, plur. watumhuizi, a spy, 
an inquisitive person (A.). 

Mtumhwi, plur, mitumbwi, a canoe 
hollowed out from the trunk of 
a tree, distinguished from a 
galawa by having no outriggers, 
and being generally of larger 

Mtumej plur. mitume, an apostle, a 
prophet. Applied especially to 
Mohammed as a translation of 
his title. Apostle of God. 

Mtumke^ plur. watuwake, a woman, 
a wife. 

Mtumishi, plur. watumishi, a ser- 

Mtumwa, plur. watumica, a slave, a 

Mtundu, mischievous, perverse, 

3Itungi, plur. mitungi, a water-jar. 

3Itupa, plur. mitupa, euphorbia. 

Mtupu, bare. See -tupu. 

Mtutu, plur. mitutu (Ar.), a mul- 
berry tree. 

Mtuzi, curry, gravy (M.). Also 

Mticango, plur. mitwango, a pestle 
for pounding and cleaning corn. 

Mil-. See M-. 

MiM, plur. miwa, a sugar-cane. 




Muhatharifu, extravagant. 

Muda or Mda, a space of time, term. 
Muda wa, the space of. 

Mudu ku-. 

Kujimudu,to gain a little strength 
after illness. 

Muhadimu, plur. waJiadimu, a ser- 
vant, one of the original inhabi- 
tants of Zanzibar. These waha- 
dimu pay two dollars a year for 
each household to the Munyi 
mhuu, of which Seyed Majid now 
(1870) takes one ; they also work 
for him. They all live in vil- 
lages in the country, and speak a 
language of which there are at 
least two dialects, materially 
different from the Swahili of the 

Muharabu, plur. wdhardbu, mis- 
chievous, destructive. 

Muharibivu, plur. wahariLivu, a de- 
structive person, one who ruins 
himself, destroys his own chances. 

Muhdruma, a kind of silk handker- 
chief, worn instead of a turban. 

Muhindi, plur. WaJiindi, a native 
of India, especially an Indian 
Mussulman, of whom there are 
two chief sects settled in Zanzi- 
bar, the Khojas and Bohras. 

Muhindi, plur. mihindi, the Indian 
corn plant. Also Mahindi. 

Muhogo, cassava, manioc. 

Muhtasari^ an abridgment, a sum- 

Muhulla, time, a fixed period. 

Muhuri, a seal. 

Mujiza, plur. miujiza, a wonderful 
thing, a nnracle. Also Micujiza. 

Muli or Mulia, clever, knowing. 

MuliJca ku-, to show a light, to 

Midki, a kingdom. 

3Iume, male. See -ume. 

Mumimi, Azrael, the angel of death. 

Muraumje, plur, mamumunye, a kind 
of gourd resembling a vegetable 
marrow. It often grows of such 
a shape that its hard rind, when 
ripe, can be used for bottles, 
ladles, and spoons. 

Mumyani, a mummy. Mummy is 
still esteemed as a medicament. 

Munda, plur. miunda, a piece of 
plank to serve as cap to a post. 
See also 3Ida. 

Mundu, plur. miundu, a bill, a 
small hatchet. 

Munyi, a chief, a sheykh. The 
Munyi mhuu is esteemed the true 
Sultan of the Swahili, at least in 
the island of Zanzibar and the 
parts adjacent. He is descended 
from an ancient Persian family, 
the heiress of which married, 
some generations since, an Arab 
from Yemen. The title is now 
(1874) in abeyance. His chief 
residence is at Dunga, near the 
centre of the island. 

Muomo, plur. miomo, the moustache, 
the lip. 

Muscda, plur. misala, an oval mat 
used to perform the Mohammedan 
devotions upon. 

Musama, pardon. 

Musimi, the northerly winds, which 
blow in December, January, and 
February. The musimi is some- 
times reckoned to extend till 

Musimo — Musimi. 

Mustarehe, enjoyment. 

Mustarifu, with a competency, 
neither rich nor poor. 




Mutaabir, credible. 

Mutia, obedience. 

3Iuuaji, plur. loauaji, a murderer, 

a slayer. 
Muuguzi, plur. tcauguzi, a nurse, 

one who nurses sick people. 
Muumishi, plur. waumisM, a cupper. 
Muundi wa mguu (A.), the shin. 
Muungu, God, plur. miungu. The 
Swahili rarely use Muungu or 
'Mungu alone. They almost 
always say Mwenyiezi 'Mungu. 
Mashini ya Muungu, a poor free 
Muzimo, a place where offerings are 
made to some spirit supposed to 
haunt there. Baobab trees are 
generally supposed to be haunted 
Mvi, grey hairs. [by spii'its. 

Mvili, the shade of a tree. 
Mvinje, Cassiorinus. 
Mvinyo, strong wine, spirits, wine. 
Mviringo, round, roundness. 
3Ivita, Mombas. 
Mvivu, idle. See -vivu. 
Mvua, rain, rains. 

Mvua ya mwaka, the rain which 
falls about August. 
3Ivuje, assafoetida. 
Mvuhe, vapour, steam. 
ilvuhuto, plur. mivuJcuto, a lever. 
Mvulana, plur. wavulana, a young 
man whose beard is just begin- 
ning to grow. 
Mvule, the lesser rains, about 

October or November. 
Mvulini, in the shade. 
Mvumay plur. mivuma, the borassus 

Mvumilivu, plur. wavumilivu. 

patient, long-suffering. 
Mvumo,Q, rubber, six gunies won by 
one side (in cards). 

Mvunda, or Mvunja, plur. wavundn, 
a breaker, a destroyer, one who 
Mvungu, the hollow of a tree, a 
hollow tree. 
Mvungu wa Mtanda, the space 
under a bedstead. 
Mvuvi, plur. wavuvi, a fisherman. 
3Iw-. See M-. 
3Iwa, of. 

Mwaa, plur. miwaa, strips of the 
leaf of a tree called mhoma (?), 
used to make coarse mats and 
Mwafa hu-, to forgive. 
Alwafaha, a conspiracy, an agree- 
ment, a bargain. 
BIwaga Jcu-, to pour away, to empty 

out, to spill. 
3Iwagia hu-, to pour upon, to empty 

out for. 
Mivajisifuni, a self flatterer. 
Mwalca, plur. miaJca, a year. The 
year commonly used in Zanzi- 
bar is the Arab year of twelve 
lunar months. There is also 
the Persian year of 365 days, 
beginning with the Nairuz, 
called in Swahili the Siku a 
mwaka. From this day the year 
is reckoned in decades, each 
decade being called a mwongo. 
The year is called from the day 
of the week on which it com- 
mences : Mwaka juma, Mwaka 
alhamisi, &c. 
Mwaka jana, last year. 
Mwaka juzi, the year before last. 
Mwaka kwa mwaka, yearly. 
Mwake, his, hers, its. See -ake. 
Mwako, thy. See -ako. 
Mwali. See Mwana mwali. 
j Mwali, plur. miwali, a sort of palm 




•with very long and strong leaf 
stalks, •which are used for doors, 
ladders, and other purposes. 

Mwalimu, plur. icaalimu, a teacher. 

Mwamale, treatment, mode of treat- 

Mwambay plur. miamha, a rock. 

Mwamha, plur. miamha, the wall 
plate in a mud and stud house. 

Mimmua, plur. icaamua, a judge. 

Mwamua, husband's brother. 

Micamuzi, plur. waamuzi, a judge. 

Mwana, the mistress of the house, 
a matron. It is polite in Zanzi- 
bar to speak of one's own mother 
as micana. 

Mwana, plur. waana, a son, a child. 
Micanangu, my child. 
Micanao, your child. 
Mvoanaioe, his or her cliild. 
Mwanetu, our child. 

Mwana Adamu, a child of Adam, 
i.e., a human being. 

Mwana maji, a seaman. 

Mwana maua, a sprite represented 
as a white woman with an ugly 
black husband. 

Mwana mke, plur. waana waJce or 
icaanaahe, a woman. 

Mwana mhe wa kiungwana, a lady. 

Mwana mume, plur. waana waume 
or waanaume, a man. 
Mwana micali, a young woman 
whose breasts are not yet flat- 
tened, one who has not yet left 
her father's house. 

Mwanamizi, a soldier crab. 

Mwandihaji, plur. waandikaji, a 
waiter, a table servant. 

Mwandiko, plur. miandiko, a manu- 
script, handwriting. 

Mwandishi, plur. waandishi, a 
writer, a clerk, a secretary. 

Mwanga, plur. mianga, light, a 
light, a kind of rice. 

Mwangalizi, plur. waangalizi, an 
overseer, one who overlooks or 
looks to. 

Mwangaza, plur. miangaza, a light 
hole, the small round holes which 
are often left near the ceilings 
of rooms in Zanzibar. 

Mwango, plur. mz'awgo, a lamp-stand, 
a piece of wood about eighteen 
inches long, from near the bottom 
of which two small pieces project 
at right angles, to hold the com- 
mon clay lamp of the country. 
The micango is generally hung 
against a wall. 

Mwango = Mango. 

^Mwango, plur. miwango, a kind of 

Mwangu, my. See -angu. [shrub. 

Mwangwi, echo. 

Mwani, seaweed. 

'Mwanzi, plur. miwanzi, a bamboo. 
Miwanzi ya pua, the nostrils (?). 

Mwanzo, plur. mianzo, beginning. 

Mwao, a worry, bother. 

Mwapuza, a simpleton. 

MwasM, plur. waasM, a mason. 

Mwatliini, one who calls to prayer 
at the mosque, a muezzin. Also 

Mwavuliy plur. miavuli, an um- 

Mwawazi, the Disposer, a title of 

Mwaya kw = Mwaga ku-, to pour 

'Mweli, plur. waweli, a sick person. 

Mwema, good. See -ema. 

Mwemhamba, thin. See -embamba, 

Mwenibe, plur. miemhe, a mango tree. 

Mwendanguu, a great and irre- 
parable loss. 




Mwendo, going, gait, journey. 
Mwenendo, going on, behaviour. 
Mioenge, plur. mienge, a bundle of 

straw, &c., used to carry a light. 
Mwenyeji, plur. wenyeji, a host, a 
person who has a home in the 
Mwenyeive, plur. wenyewe, the owner, 
self, myself, thyself, himself, 
Mbau za mwenyewey some one 
else's planks. 
Mwenyi, having, possessing. See 
Mwenyi ezi Muungu, Almighty 

Mwenyi clwngo, a one-eyed per- 
Mwenyi inchi, the lord of the 

Mwenyi Jcichaa, a lunatic. 
Mwemji huhutubu, a preacher. 
Mwenyi kupooza, a paralytic. 
Mwenyi mali, a rich man. 
Mwenzangu, plur. wenzangu, my 

Mwenzi, pliu*. wenzi, a companion. 
Mwere, a kind of corn or seed like 
linseed, growing on a close spike 
like a bulrush flower. 
Mwerevu, plur. werevu, a shrewd 

person, a man of the world. 
Mwewe, a hawk, a kite, a kind of 

Mweya ku-, to steal. 
'Mweza, plur. waweza, able, having 
power over. 
Mweza mwenyewe, one's own 
Mioezi, the moon. 

Mwezi, plur. miezi, a month. The 
months in Zanzibar begin on 
the day on which the moon is 

first seen, unless the old month 
has already had thirty days ; if 
80, the day which would have 
been the 31st, is the 1st of the 
new month. 
Mwezi mpungufu, a month of less 

than thirty days. 
Mwezi mwandamu or mwangamu, 

a month of thirty full days. 
Mwezi ngapi ? what is the day of 

the month ? 
Mwezi wa sita, the 6th day of the 
Mwiha, plur. niiiba, a thorn. 
Mwibaji, plur. wehaji, an habitual 

thief, a thievish person. 
Mwigo, a sort of large dove with red 
bill, white neck, and black body. 
It cries Kooo ! Then one answers, 
^^Mwigo!" Kooo! — ^^Niagulie! " 
Kooo ! — " Kwema nendako ? " 
Kooo ! — then one may go on. If it 
answers not, it is a bad omen. 
Mwiko, plur. miiko, a spoon, a 
mason's trowel. Also a measure, 
direction, prohibition, especial- 
ly of a medical practitioner. 
Kushika mwiko, to live by rule, to 
live abstemiously. 
Mwili, plur. miili, the body. 
Mwimo, plur. miimo, side piece of 

a door frame. 
^Mivinda, plur. wawinda, a hunter. 
Mwingajini, a common plant whose 
leaves are said, when rubbed in, 
to cure the aching of the limbs in 
fever ; a decoction of the roots is 
said to be useful in dysentery. 
Mwingi, much, full. 

Mwingi wa maneno, full of 
Mwinyi = Mwenyi, having, with. 
See -enyi. 


M Z 


Mwisho, plur. miisho, end, conclu- 

Micithi (Patta) = Micivi, 

Mwito, calling, suuunons. 

Mtcitu, forest. 
Ya mwitu, wild. 
Mhwa wa mwitu, jackals. 
Mwivi, plur. icevi, a thief. 

*Mwivu, plur. waudvUf a jealous 

Mwizi (A.) = Micivi. 

Mwoga, plur. icaoga, one who fears. 
a coward. 

Mwokosi, plur. waoltosi, one who 
picks up anything. 

Miookozi, plur. waokozi, one who 
saves, a saviour. 

Mwomhaji, plur. waombaji, a beg- 

Mwomhezi, plur. waombezi^ an inter- 

Mwomo = Mdomo. 

Micongo, plur. miongo, a decade of 
ten days, used in reckoning tlie 
nautical or Swahili year, from 
the siku a mwaka. 
Mwongo micangapi, in what de- 
cade is it ? 

'Mwongo, plur. waicongo, a liar, a 
false person. 
Simekuwa 'mwongo f am I not a 

Mwongofu, plur. icaongqfu, a con- 
vert, a proselyte. 

Minujiza, plur. miujiza, a miracle. 

Mzaa, plur. tcazaa, a parent. 

il/zaa bibi, a great-grandmother. 

Mzahibu. plur. mizahibu, a vine. 

Mzaha, sport, ridicule, derision. 
Knmfanyizia mzaha, to deride 

Mzalia, plur. icaznlia, a native, a 
slave born in the country. 

I Mzalisha, plur. wazalisha, a mid- 
1 wife. 
Mzaramu, a pool of water. 
Mzazi, plur. wazazi, a parent, fruitful. 

(St mzazi, barren. 
ilfzee, plur. icazee, an old person, an 

Mzemhe, plur. wazewhe^ a careless 

Mzige, a locust 
Mzigo, plur. mizigo, a burden, a 

Mzima, an extinguisher, one who 

puts out. 
Mzima, plur. wazima, a living or 
healthy person. 

Jftw mzima, a grown person. 
Mzimu. See Zimwi, Muzimo, 

Mzinga, plur. mizinga, a hollow 
cylinder, a hollowed piece of 
wood used as a beehive, a ran- 

i?ea?e i/a mzinga, a pillar dollar. 
Mzingi or Mzinji, plur. mizingi, 

foundations, trench for laying in 

the foundation. Also Msinji. 
Mzingile mwam^iji, a puzzle, a 

Mzingo, the circumference, brink. 

Mzingo wa, around. 
Mzio, that which wouldbe deleterious 

to any one ; each person is said to 

have his special mzio — of one it is 

cuttle-fish, of another, red fish, 

and so on. Also Msio. 
Mzishi, plur. wazishi, a burier, one 

who will see to one's funeral, a 

special friend, 
M~o, sixty pishi. 
Mzofafa, on tiptoe. 
Mzoga. plur. mizoga, a dead body, a 




Mzomari. See Maraslii = Zomari. 

Mzungu, plur. mizungu, a strange 
and startling thing, 

MzungUi plur. Wazungu, a Euro- 
pean, one who wears European 

Mzungu wa pili, queen in cards. 

Mzungu wa tatu, knave in cards. 

Mzungu wa 'nne, king in cards. 

MzunguhOj plur. mizunguico, a wan- 
dering about. 

Mzushi, a heretic, an innovator. 

Mzuzi, plur. wazuzi, a tale-bearer, 
one who reports maliciously or 
untruly the word of others. 

Mzuzu, plur. wazuzu, a simpleton. 

Mzwea^ used to. 

N is pronounced as in English. 

An i sound is generally connected 
with an initial n. It sometimes 
precedes more or less distinctly, 
and may be written in or 'n, making 
the n a distinct syllable. Some- 
times the n flows into the following 
letter, so that the i sound is alto- 
gether lost. Very often it follows 
it as in the common syllable ni or 
ny. It is characteristic of the Zan- 
zibar dialect to make the initial i 
sound distinct. Thus inchi, a coun- 
try, is at Mombas 'nti. 

Ni is often contracted into 'n or 
n, and where n would be dropped 
ni sometimes is so, as in the first 
person of the future tense, nitapenda 
or 'ntapenda or tapenda. 

N cannot be placed before 6, ch, 
f, k, I, p, r, s, t, V, or w. 

Before h, w, and perhaps v, it be- 
comes w, and w changes into h. 

Before h, p, and perhaps t, it is 
dropped, and the consonant 
gets an explosive sound. 

Before Z, r, and perhaps t, the n 
remains, but the other conso- 
nant becomes a d. 

Before cli, J^ m, n, and «, it in 
merely dropped. 

N can stand before d, g, j, y, 
and z. 

N before h is in two cases at least 
contracted into h. 

Hapenda = Nikapenda. 

Hipenda = Nikipenda. 

There is a sound in Swahili which 
is treated as a simple consonant, 
which does not occur in European 
languages as an initial sound. It 
is very nearly the same with the 
final ng in English, in such words 
as loving, going, &c. The sounds of 
n and g seem both audible, but so 
blended that neither of them can be 
carried on to the following vowel. 
It is here written ng\ to distinguish 
it from the common sound ng, in 
which the g passes on to the follow- 
ing vowel. There is some little 
difierence in the way in which dif- 
ferent persons pronounce it ; it has 
sometimes more of a gn sound, and 
might be so written it it be under- 
stood that the two letters are so 
fused together that neither can be 
heard as if it stood alone. It has 
been sometimes written n, which is 
either a mistake or very misleading. 
That the sound really is ng, may be 
proved by the fact that such words 
as begin with it are treated as words 
beginning with n, and that when 
other prefixes are applied they are 




treated as if the root began with g. 
It is not, however, a very common 
sound in Swahili. 

There is another sound com- 
pounded of n and i, which is very 
fairly represented by the Spanish n, 
or by ni in such English words as 
companion, &c. It is pronounced 
perhaps in Swahili with a slightly 
broader and more nasal sound. It 
is here written ny, to distinguish it 
from the common syllable ni, in 
which the i has a vowel sound. 

The ny sound in the dialect of 
Zanzibar sometimes represents an n 
in more northern Swahili, as in 

Eunica or Jciinywa, to drink. 

The change from n to ny has in 
many verbs the effect of giving a 
causative meaning, as in kupona, to 
get well, kujponya, to make well, to 

N-, or ni-, the sign of the first per- 
son singular of verbs, I. 

-»-, or -ni-, the objective prefix 
proper to denote the first person, 

N- (see ny-). 

1. A prefix frequently occurring 
in substantives which do not 
change to form the plural. If 
followed by d, g, j, or z, it is 
pronounced with them and does 
not form a distinct syllable. 
Before other consonants it forms 
a distinct syllable, and may be 
written 'n- or sometimes in-. 

2. The plural prefix of substan- 
tives which begin in the singular 
with U-, followed by a conso- 
nant. The u is dropped and n 
pref xed before d, g, j, and z. 

Before h, and perhaps v, the n 
changes into m, before w the mo 
become mb. Before Z or r the 
nl or nr become nd. Before k, 
p, and t, the n is dropped and 
the other consonant gets an ex- 
plosive or aspirated sound, and 
may be written k% p\ and t' ; 
before ch, f, m, n, and s, the n is 
merely dropped. Where, how- 
ever, dropping the u- would 
leave the word a monosyllable, 
the u- is retained, and ny pre- 
N- (see ny-). The prefix proper to 
adjectives agreeing with sub- 
stantives of the class which does 
not change to form its plural 
of whichever number, or with 
plural substantives which make 
their singular in u-. Where the 
simple form of the adjective 
begins with a vowel, ny- is pre- 
fixed, except -ema, good, which 
makes njema or ngema. The 
changes before a consonant are 
the same as those given just 
above for the plural nouns in u-. 
Nyumla mhaya, not nhaya. 

„ chache, not nchache. 

„ ndogo. 

„ fupi, not nfupi. 

„ ngema. 

„ njema. 

„ kubwa, not nkvhwa. 

„ moja, not nmoja. 

„ nane, not nnane. 

„ pana, not npana. 

„ 'mpya, not npya oip>ya- 

„ ndefu, not nrefu. 

„ tatu, not ntaiu. 

„ mhili, not nwili or npiJi. 

>» nzuri. 


N A 


Na, and, also, with ; by, of the agent 
of a passive, and with, of the 
sharer in the action of a reci- 
procal verb. 

Na when joined with a pronoun 
commonly forms one word with 

Nami, and I, or with me. 

Nawe, and thou, or with thee. 

Nao, nayo, nacho, nalo, and or 
with them, it, &c., &c., &c. 

Na joined with the verb kuwa, to 
be, or with the personal prefix 
only, constitutes the verb to 
have. The object is frequently 
joined with the na, — ana, or 
anazo, anaclio, &c., &c., he has. 

AlieJio nacho, which he has 

Alicliokuwa nacho, which he had. 

Atakachohuwa nacho, which he 
will have. 

Atahuwa nacho, he will have it. 

The verb kuwa na is used some- 
times in the sense of being, as 
Palikuwa na mtu, there was a 

Hakuna, there is not. 

Kuna, there is. 

Zinazo, they are. 
-na-, the sign of the present tense 
of a continuing action. 

Anakwenda, he is going. 

Anasema, he is saying. 

This tense has sometimes the 
effect of a present participle. 

Akamwona anakuja, and he saw 
him coming. 

N.B. — At Mombas the -na- tense 
is used as a past tense. At 
Zanzibar it is the most usual 
Na or 'Nna = Nina, I have. 
Naam or Na'am, yes. 

Nabihuha ku-, to exhort. 

Nabii, a prophet. 

Nadi ku, to proclaim, to make a 
bid fur a thing, to sell by auction. 
See Mnadi. 

Nddira, rare. 

Nafaka, corn, corn used as money. 
Mtama, or millet, was formerly 
used in Zanzibar as small 
change : it was superseded by 
the introduction of pice from 
India about the year 1845. 

Nafasi, space, room, time, oppor- 

Nafisisha ku-, to give space, to make 

Nafsi or Nafusi, self, soul, breath. 

Nafuu, profitable. 

Nahau, spelling, grammar. 

Nahma ku, to revenge. 

Nahotha ya maji, water-tank. 

Nai, a sort of anvil fixed in a forked 
piece of wood. 

Najisi = Nejjis, profane. 

NakhotJia or Nahoza, captain of a 
vessel, master mariner. 

Nakili ku-, to copy, to transcribe. 

Nakishi, Naksh, or Nakshi, cavviDg. 
Kukata naksh, to carve, to orna- 
ment with carving. 

Nakishiwa ku, to be carved or in- 

Nakl, a copy. 

Nako, and it was there. 

Ndkudi, cash, ready money. 

Nama ku- = Inama ku-, to bend 
down, to bow the head. 

Nami, and I, or with me. 

Na'mna or Namuna, sort, pattern. 

Namua ku- (Mer.), to take out of a 
trap, to extricate. 

Nana or Na'ana, mint. 

Nana, mistress (N.). 




Nanazi, plur. mananazi, a pine- 
Nane, eight. [apple. 

-nane, eight. 

Ya nane, eighth. 
Nanga, an anchor. 

Kutia nanga, to anchor. 
Kangonango, a worm (?). 
Nani ? Who ? 

Naiiigicanzula, a kind of lizard. 
Nao, and they or with them, and it 

or with it. 
Naoza = NaTchotJia, a captain. 
Na])0, and there, and here. 
Nasa ku; to catch in a trap. 
Nasi ku; to warn. 
Nasihu, luck, fortune. 

Kica nasihu, by chance, perhaps. 
Nasihu 1:u, to appoint. 
Nasiha Itu-, to suggest. 
Nasihi ku-, to entreat, to beseech. 
Nastahiba, I see it better, prefer. 
Nasur, an abscess. 
Nata ku-, to be adhesive, to stick. 
NatJiari, choice. 
Nathiri, a look, a glance, a vow. 

Kuiceka nathiri, to vow. 

Kuondoa nathiri, to perform a 
Nathiri ku-, to glance. 
Natoa, a blemish (?). 
Nauli, freight. 
Naica ku-, to wash oneself. 

Kunawa mikono, to wash one's 
Nazdr, quarrel. 
Nazi, a cocoa-nut, a fully ripe nut. 

Nazi kavu, copra, cocoa-nuts dried 
fit for pressing. 
Naziri = Nathiri. 
Naziyana ku-, to quarrel. 
'Ncha, the point, the end, tip, a 

strand in cordage. 
Nchi. See IncUi. 

Ndaa (M.), hunger, = Njaa. 
Ndama, a calf, the young of a 

domestic animal. 
Kdani, within, inside. 
Ndani ya, inside of. 
Kioa ndani, inner, secret. 
Ndani kwa ndani, secretly. 

Kusema cha ndaroho, to speak a 
secret language. 
Ndefu = Ndevii, the beard. Sing. 

udevu, one hair of the beard. 
Ndefu, long. See -refu. 
Ndege, a bird, birds, an omen. To 
see a woman with a load is lucky, 
and would be culled ndege njema. 
To see a man by himself carrying 
nothing is unlucky, and is ndege 

Unga wa ndere, a magic poison. 
Ndewe, a hole pierced in the lobe of 

the ear, 
Ndezi, a kind of animal. 
Ndi-, a prefix used with the short 
form of the pronoun to express, 
it is this, this is the one, I am 
he, you are he, &c. 
I, Ndimi, 
Thou, Ndiice. 
He or she, Ndiye. 
It, Ndio, ndiyo, ndicho, ndilo^ 

ndipo, ndiko, ndimo. 
We, Ndisi. 
You, Ndinyi. 

They, Ndio, ndiyo, ndivyo, ndizo. 
Ndiyo yalio, that is just it, that 
is how matters stood. 
Ndia (M.) = Njia. 
Ndimi, tongues. See TJlimi. 
Ndio, yes. 

Ndiioa (M.) or Njiwa, a pigeon. 
Ndid, bananas, plantains. 




Ndizi Bungala, a thick sweet 
kind of banana. 

Ndizi mjenga, a long kind of 
banana used in cooking. 

Ndizi msusa, a large ridged kind 
of banana. 
Ndoa, marriage. 
Ndonya, a lip-ring, worn by the 

Ndoo and Ndooni (M.) = Njoo and 

Njooni^ come. 
Ndoo, a pail, a bucket. 
Ndoto, a dream. 
Ndovu, an elephant. 
Ndugu, a brother or sister, a cousin, 
a relation, 

Ndugu Jiunyonya, a foster brother, 
Ndui, small-pox. [&c. 

Nduli, savage, given to slaying, a 

man wholly without patience. 
Ndume, male, from -lume or -ume. 
Ndusi, a bos. 
Nehii = Nahii, a prophet. 
Neema, grace, favour. 
Neemesha Jcu-, to enrich. 
Nefsi = Nafd = Nafun, self. 
Negesha ku-, to charge with, to at- 
tribute falsely to. 

Ahamnegesha mwivi, and he 
called him a thief. 
Nejjis, or Nejisi, or Najisiy profane, 

NelU, a pipe, a water-pipe. 
Nembo, tribal murks. 
Nena ku-, to speak, to name, to 

Nenana ku-, to talk against one 

another, to quarrel. 
-nene, thick, stout, fat, whole, com- 
plete, plump, sleek. 
Nenea ku-, to talk to, of, at, for, or 

against, to blame, to scold, to re- 


Nenepa ku-, to grow fat, used es- 
pecially of persons. 
Neno, plur. maneno, a word, a thing. 

Sikufanya neno, I have done no- 
Nenyekea ku-, to be humble, to con- 
-nenyekevu, humble, condescending. 
Ne2Ja ku-, to sag, to dip in the 

middle as a long rope does. 

Neupe or Nyeupe, white. See -eupe. 

Neusi or Nyeusi, black. See -eusi. 

-nga- or -nge-, the prefix of the 

present conditional tense. 

ni-nge-kuwa, I should be. 
Ngadu, land crabs. 
-ngawa, though. 

Ng'aa liu- = Ng'ara ku-, to shine. 
■ngali-, the prefix of the past con- 

ni-ngali-kataa, I should have re- 
Ngama, the hold of a ship. 
Ng'amha, a hawkshead turtle, from 

which tortoiseshell is procured. 
Ng'amho, the other side of a river 

or creek. 
Ngamia or Ngamiya, a cameL 
Ng'anda, a handful. 
Ngano, a tale, a fable. 
Ngano, wheat. 

Amekula ngano, he has been dis- 
graced ; that is, having been 
as if in paradise, he has now 
to eat the food of ordinary 
Ngao, a shield or buckler ; they are 

circular and very small. 
Ngara, the young cob of Indian 

Ng'ara ku-, or Ng'ala, or Ng'aa, to 

shine, to glitter, to be transparent, 

to be clear. 




Ngariba, a circumcisor. 

N'gariza hu-, to fix the eyes, to glare. 

Amening^ ariza viaclio, he glared 
at me. 
Ngaica, a civet cat (?). 

The ngawa is a larger animal 
than the fungo. 
Ng'aza hu-, to make to shine, or to 

be brilliant. 
Ngazi, a ladder. 
Ngazidja, Great Comoro. 
'A^e, a scorpion. 

'Tige-, sign of the conditional pre- 
sent, would. 

Yangedumu, they would still con- 
Ngedere, a small black monkey. 
Ngema, good. See -ema. 
Ngeu, ruddle used by carpenters to 

mark out their work. 
-ngi or -ingi, many, much, 
Ngiliza. See Ingiliza. 
-ngine, other, diiferent. 

Wangine — wangine, some — other. 
Ng'oa ku; to pull up, to root up, to 

pull out. 
Ngoa, lust. 

Kulia 7igoa, to weep for jealousy. 

Kutimia ngoa yakwe, to satisfy 
his desires. 
Ng'ofic, the roe of a fish. 
Ngoja ku-, to wait, to wait for. 
Ngoje, Angoxa. 

Ngojea ku-, to wait upon, to watch. 
Ng'oka ku-, to be rooted up. 

Moyo unaning'oka, I was startled 
out of my wits. 
Ngoh, rope. 

Ngoma, a drum, a musical perform- 
ance generally. 
Ng^omhe or Gnoinbe, an ox, a cow., a 
bull, cattle. 

Ng^ombe nduine, a bull. 

Ngome, a fort. 

Ng'onda ku-, to cure or dry fislj, «S:c. 


Ana ng'onga (A.), he is inclined 
to vomit. 
Ng'ong'e, the strips of leaf or fibre 

used for sewing matting, and for 

Ng'ong'o, the thick edge of a strip 

of matting. 
Ngono, the share of her husband's 

company which is due to each 

Ngovi = Ngozi, skin. 
Ngozi, skin, hide, leather. 
Nguchiro, a mangouste. Also, a 

sort of bird = Mcliiro. 
Ngumi or Nyamgumi, a whale. 

Kupiga ngumi, to strike with the 
Ngumu, hard. See -gumu. 
Nguo, calico, cotton cloth, clothes. 

Nguo ya meza, a table-cloth. 

Nguo ya maki, stout cloth. 

Kutenda nguo, to stretch the 
threads for weaving. 
Nguri, a shoemaker's tool shaped 

like a skittle. 
Nguru, a kind of fish. 
Nguruma ku-, to roar, to thunder, 
JSgurumo, a roar, distant rolling 

Nguruvu, a kind of jackal with a 

bushy tail. 
Nguruwe or Nguuwe, a pig, swine. 
Nguruzi, a plug. 
Nguue = Ngurmce, a pig. 
Nguue, red paint. 
Nguva, a kind of fish. 
Nguvu, strength, power, authority. 

Kica nguvu, by or with strength, 
by force, strongly, rankly. 




Nguzo, a pillar, pillars. 

-ngwana, free, civilized. 

Ngwe. See Ugwe. 

2^gwe, an allotment or space for cul- 

Ngwena, a crocodile, a seal. 

Ngwiro, a large kind of ant. 

Ni, I am, was, is. 

Ni is used to express is or was, for 
all peroons and Loth numbers. 

Ni (M.), by, with the agent of a 
passive verb. 

iVi-, W-, or N; I, the sign of the 
first person singular. Before the 
-ta- of the future it sometimes 

-711- or -11-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person singular. 

-7ii, added to substantives, forms a 
sort of locative case, signifying 
in, at, into, to, from, from out 
of, near, by. 

1. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., beginning with 'm or mw, 
this case implies within, inside 
of, or the coming or going to 
or from the inside of the thing 

2. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., beginning with p, it signi- 
fies nearness to, or situation at, 
by, before, near. 

3. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., in kw, it denotes going or 
coming to or from, or at, from, 
and in, in a vague sense, or of 
things far off. 

-ni, added to verbs in the impera- 
tive forms the second person 
plural. It is sometimes suffixed 
to common phrases, as huaheriai, 
good-bye, and twendtzetuni, let us 
go, and Ls explained as a short 

form for enyi, or nyie, you ! yoii 

there ! 
-ni, enclitic form for nini, what ? 
-ni, enclitic for nyi as an objective 
suffix (N.). 

Nawaambiani, I tell you. 
Nia, mind, intention, what one has 

in one's mind. 
Nia hu, to have in one's mind, to 

think to do. 
Nikaao, which I inhabit. 
Nikali, and I am or was. 

Nikali nikienda, and I am going. 
Nil, blue (for washing). 
Nikwata, the little wall lizard. 
Nili, I being. 

Nili hall ya kiiwa juu yoke, I 
being on his back. 
Nina, I have. 
Nina, mother (N.). 
Ninga, a kind of green bird some- 
thing like a dove, a woman'a 

Ning^inia ku-, to swing. 
Ning'iniza ku-, to set swinging. 
Nini ? What ? 

Kwa nini, or Ya nini ? why ? what 
Ninyi, ye, you. 

Ninyi nyote, all of you, all to- 
Nipe, give me. See Pa ku-. 
Nira, yoke. 
Nisha, starch (?). 
Njaa, hunger, famine. 
'iV/e, outside, forth. 

^Nje ya, outside of. 

Kwa 'nje, outwardly, on the out- 
Njema, good, very well. See -ema. 
Njia or Ndia, a way, a path, a road, 

Njia panda, cross roada. 




Njiri, a kind of animal. 

Njiwa, a pigeon, pigeons. 
Njiwa manga, tame pigeons. 
Njiwa ya mwi'tu, a wild pigeon. 

Njomho, a fish barred with black and 

Njoo, come. 

Njooni, come ye. 

Njozi, an apparition, vision. 

Njiiga, a dog-bell, a small bell 
worn as an ornament. 

NjugUy ground nuts. 

Njugu nyassa, soft ground-nuts. 
Njngu mawe, hard ground-nuts, 

Njumu, inlaid with silver, inlaying 
work. See Mjumu. 

Njriwa = Njuga. 

Nnaokaa, where I am living, which 
I am inhabiting. 

-fine, four. 

Ya 'nne, fourth. 

Noa hu, to whet, to sharpen on a 

Noher, a servant. 

Xohoa, the second head man at a 
plantation, generally a slave. 

Noleo, plur. manoleo, the metal ring 
round the haft where a knife is 
set into its handle. 

Nona hu-, to get fat, applied espe- 
cially to animals, 

Nong'ona hu-, to whisper, to mur- 

Nong^oneza hu-, to whisper to. 

Nong'onezana hu-, to whisper to- 

-nona, fat. 

Nonoa hu- (?). 

Noondo, or Nondo, a moth. 

Nshi (A.), eyebrow. 

Nso, the kidneys. 

'Nta, wax, bees' -wax. 

'liii — Inchi, laud, country, earth. 

Nuele or Nioele — Nyele, hair. 
Nuia hu-, to have in one's mind, to 

Nuha hu-, to give out a smell, to 
Ttimhaho ya hunuha, snuff. 
Nuhato, plur. manuhato, a good 

smell, a scent. 
Nuhiza hu-, to smell out like a dog. 
Nuhta, a point, a vowel point. 
Nuna hu-, to sulk. 
Nundu, a hump, a bullock's hump. 
Nungu, a porcupine. 
Nungu [Pemba], a cocoa-nut. 
Nung^uniha hu-, to murmur, to 

Nunua hu-, to buy. 
Xunulia hu-, to buy for. 

Numdiwa hu-, to have bouglit 
for one. 
Nura hu-, to say the words of an 

Ntiru, light. 
Nusa hu-, to smell. 

Tumhaho ya hunusa, snuff. 
Nuss, or Nusu, or Nussu, half. 
Nusuru hu-, to help. 
Nioa hu- or Nywa hu-, to drink, to 

Nweleo, plur. manweleo, pores of 

the skin. 
Nwewa hu-, to be absorbed, to be 

Ny-, a common prefix to substan- 
tives which do not change to 
form the plural, where the root 
begins with a vowel. 
Substantives in u- or w- followed 
by a vowel make their plural 
by substituting ny- for the -u. 
Dissyllables in u- make their 
plural by merely prefixing ny-. 
Ny-, the prefix proper to adjectives. 




agreeing with substantives of 
either number of the class 
wliich do not change to form 
their plural, or with the plural 
of substantives in u-, when the 
root of the adjective begins 
■with a vowel, except -ema, 
good, which makes njema or 
Nya Jcu-, to fall (of rain) ; the Jcu- 
bears the accent, and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mvua inakimya, the rain is fall- 
ing (Zanzibar). 
Mvua yanya, rainfalls (M.). 
Nyaa, nails of the fingers (N.). 
Nyaka ku-, to catch. 
Nyakua ku-, to snatch. 
^yala, sheaths. See Ala. 
JKyalio, cross pieces put in the 
bottom of a pot to prevent the 
meat touching the bottom and 
Nyama, flesh, meat, an animal, 
animals, beasts, cattle. 
Nyama mbioayi, savage beasts. 
Nyamaa ku-, to continue silent, not 

to speak, to acquiesce. 
-nyamavu, silent. 

Nyamaza ku-, to become silent, to 
leave off talking, to cease (of 
Nyamgumi, a whale. 
Nyanana, gentle. See -anana. 
•nyangdlika, a sort of a. 

Kitu kinyangdlika, a sort of a 

Mnyangalika ganil What sort 
of a man is it ? 
Nyang'anya ku-, to rob, to take by 

Nyangari, large (spider) shells. 
Nyani, an ape, apes. 

Nyanya, a small red fruit used as a 
vegetable, &c. 

Nyanya ya kizungu, ft sort of 
small tomato. 
Nyanyasa ku-, to profane, contemn. 
Nyara, booty. 
Nyasi, grass, reeds. 
Nyati, a buffalo, buffaloes. 
Nyatia ku-, to creep up to, to stalk 

(an animal, &c.). 
Nyauka ku-, to dry up, to wither, 

to shrivel. 
Nyawe, his mother (M.). 
Nyayo, pliir. of uayo. 
Nyea ku-, to cause to itch, to iteb 

Imeninyea, I itch 
Nyefua ku-, to devour like a beast 

of prey. 

Kuwa na nyegi, to be in heat. 
Nyekundu, red. See -ekundu. 
Nyele, or Nuele, or Nicele, the hair, 
sing, unyele, one hair. 

Nyele za kipilipili, woolly hair. 

Nyele za singa, straiglit hair. 
Nyembamba, thin. See -emhamha. 
Nyemelea ku-, to go quietly and 

secretly up to a thing in order 

to seize it. 
Nyemi, a great dance. 
Nyenya ku-, to talk a person into 

telling something. 
Nyenyekea ku-, to be humble. 
Nyenzo, rollers, anything to make 

things move. 
Nyepesi, light. See -epesi. 
Nyesha ku-, to cause to fall. 

Kunyeslia mvua, to cause it to 
Nyeta ku-, to be teasing, ill-condi- 
tioned, never satisfied. 
Nyeupe, white. See -eupe. 
Nyeusi, black. See -eusi. 


N Y W 


•nyevu, damp. 

Nyie or Enyie, you there, I say ; 

used in calling people at a dis- 
Nyika, wilderness, cut grass (A.). 
Nyima Jcu-, to refuse to, to withhold 

from, not to give to. 
Nyiminyimi, into little bits. 
Nyingi, many, much. See -ingi. 
Nyingine, other, another. See 

NyingHnia Jcu-^ to sway, swing. 

Also ISing'inia. 
Nyinyi, you. 
Nyinyoro^ a bulbous plant which 

throws up a large head of red 

Nyoa, plur. manyoa, a feather, = 

Nyoa ku; to shave. 
Nyoi (?), a locust. 
Nyoka, a suake, a serpent, snakes. 
Nyoka hu-, to be straight, to be 

stretched out. 
Nyonda, temptation, trial. 
Nyondo, a moth. Also Noondo. 
Nyonga^ the hip. 

Nyonga ya sarara (A.), the loins. 
Nyonga hu-, to twist, to strangle. 
Nyongqnyonga Tcu-, to go from side 

to side, to wriggle. 
-nyonge, mean, insignificant, vile. 
Nyongo, bile. 
Nyong'onyeya ku-, to be weary, 

languid, to get slack and power- 
Nyonya ku-, to suck. 
Nyonyesha ku-, to suckle. 

Mafuta ya nyonyo^ castor oil (?). 
Nyonyoa ku-, to pluck a bird, to 

pull out feathers. 
Nyonyoka = Nyonyoa. 

Nyonyota ku-, to make to smart. 
Kyororo, soft. See -ororo. 
Nyosha ku-, to stretch, to straighten, 
to extend. 

Kujinyosha, to lie down, to take 
a nap. 
Nyofa, a star, stars, point of the 

Nyote, all, agreeing with ninyi, you. 

See -ote. 
Nyoya, plur. manyoya, feather. 
Nyoyo, hearts. See Moyo. 
Nyua, plur. of ua, a courtyard, en- 
Nyuki, a bee, bees. 

Asali ya nyuki, honey. 
Nyukua ku-, to tweak, to pinch 

Nyuma, at the back, afterwards. 

Nyuma ya, behind, after. 

Nyumaye, after it, afterwards. 

Kuriidi nyuma, to go back. 
Nyumha, a house, houses. 
Nyuraho, the wildebeest, catoblepas 

Nyumhu, a mule, mules. 
Nyundo, a hammer, hammers. 
Nyuni, a bird, birds (M.). 
Nyungo, plur. of Ungo. 
Nyungu, a cooking pot. 
Nyungunyungu, sores in the leg, 

said to be caused by the biting of 

•worms bearing the same name. 
Nyunyiza ku-, to sprinkle, to 

sprinkle upon. 
Nyunyunika ku-, to murmur (?). 
Nt/usM, the eyebrow. 
Nywa ku- or Nwa ku-, to driuk, 

suck up, absorb. The ku- bears 

the accent and is retained in the 

usual tenses. 
Nywea ku-, to get very thin, to 

Tfaste away. 




Nywesha hu-, to give to drink. 
Nzi, plur. manzi, a fly. Also Inzi. 
Nzige, a locust. 
Nzigunzigu, a butterfly. 
Nzima, sound. See -zima. 
Nzito, heavy. See -zito. 
Nzuri, fine. See -zuri. 

is pronounced a little more like 
aw than is usual in English. 

U before o sometimes becomes a 
w, but very often disappears, as : 
Koga for huoga, to bathe. This 
word and some others in o are 
sometimes incorrectly conjugated 
as if beginning in ho. 

-o or -0-, sign of the relative, re- 
ferring to substantives in the 
singular which make their plural 
in mi-, or to singular substantives 
in U-. 

-0, the short form of wao, they or 

Oa ku-, to marry, used of the bride- 
groom. Passive, huolewa. 

Oana ku-, to intermarry, to marry 
one another. 

Oawa ku-, to become married (of 
the man). 

Oaza ku-, to marry. 

Oga ku-, to bathe, frequently pro- 
nounced koga. 

Ogofisha ku-, to frighten, make 
afraid, to menace, to threaten. 

Ogofya ku-, to frighten. 

Ogolea ku-, to swim, to swim about. 

Ogopa ku-, to fear, to be afraid. 

Oka ku-, to bake, to cook by fire 

Okoa ku-, to save, to take away. 

Okoka ku-, to become saved, to 
Okota ku-, to pick up. [escape. 

Ole, woe. 

Ole loangu, wenu, &c., woe unto 
me, unto you, &c. 
Olewa ku-, to marry or to be mar- 
ried, used of tlie bride. 
Oleza ku-, to make like, to follow a 

Omla ku-, to pray to, to beg of, to 

Ombea ku-, to intercede for, to beg 

on behalf of, to pray for. 
Oniboleza ku-, to wail. 
Omo, the head of a ship. 

Pepo za omo, head winds (?). 
Ona ku-, to see, to perceive, to feel. 

Kuona kiu, to feel thirst. 

Eujiona, to think oneself, to 
afiect to be. 

Naona, I think so. 
Oitana ku-, to meet. 
Onda ku- (M.) = Onja ku-, to taste, 

to try. 
Ondo, plur. maondo (A.), the knee. 
Ondoa ku-, to take away. 
Ondoka ku-, to go away, to get up, 
to arise. 

Ondoka mhele yangu, depart from 

Kuondoka katika ulimwengu Jitku, 
to depart out of this world. 
Ondokea ku-, to rise to, or out of 

respect to. 
Ondokelea ku-, to arise and depart 

Ondolea ku-, to remove, to take 
away from. 

Kuondolea huzuni, to cheer. 
Ondosha ku-, to make to go away, 

take away, abolish. 
Otiea ku-, to see for to anticipate 

for, to bully, to oppress. 




Onekana hu-, to become visible, to 

appear, to be to be seen. 
Ongea ku-, to spend time, to waste 

time in talking. 
Ongeza ku-, to make greater, add to. 

Kuongeza ure/u, to lengthen. 
Ongezeka ku-, to increase. 
Ongoa ku-, to convert, to lead 

Ongofya ku-, to deceive by promises. 
Ongoka ku-, to be converted, to be 

led aright, to be healed. 
Ongokewa ku-, to prosper. 
Ongonga ku-, to feel nausea. 
Ongoza ku-, to drive, to lead. 
Ongua ku-, to hatch. 
Onguliwa ku-, to be hatched. 
Onguza ku-, to scorch, to scald. 
Onja ku-, to taste, try, examine. 
Onya ku-, to warn, to make to see. 
Onyesha ku-, to show. 
Opoa ku-, to take out, to fish up. 
Opolea ku-, to fish up with, for, by, 

Orfa, or Orofa, or Ghorofa, an upper 

-ororo, soft, smooth. It makes jororo, 

with nouns like kasha, and 

nyororo with nouns like nyuniba. 
Osha ku-, to wash. 
Osheka ku-, to have been washed. 
Osia, learning of old times. 
Ota ku-, to dream (kulota, Mer.). 
Ota ku-, to grow. 

-ote or ofe, all, every one, the 
whole. It varies like the pos- 
sessive pronouns. 

Mertkehu zote, all the ships. 

Merikebu yote, the whole ship. 

Twende sote, let us go together. 

Twende wote, let us both go. 

Lo lote, cho cTiote, &c., whatsoever. 
GUa ku-, to lie ia wait for. 

-ovu or -hovu, rotten, bad, corrupt, 
I wicked. It makes mbovu with 
nouns like nyumha. 
Ovyo, trash, any sort of thing. 
Owama ku-, to be steeped. 
j Owamisha ku-, to steep. 
Oza ku-, to rot, to spoil, go bad. 
Also, to marry (of the parents). 


P is pronounced as in English. 

P, at the beginning of a word, has 
frequently an aspirated or rather 
an explosive sound, such as Irish- 
men sometimes give it. This is 
very marked in the name of the 
island of Pemba or P'emba. F'e'po, 
the plural of upepo, wind, has a 
very strong explosive sound given 
to the first p, but in upepo both ^'s 
are smooth, like an ordinary Eng- 
lish p. It is probable that this 
explosive sound represents a sup- 

P followed by a y sound some- 
times becomes/; ku^gopa, to fear, 
kuogofya, to frighten ; kuapa, to 
swear, kuafya, to make to swear. 

Pa- or P-, the prefix proper to ad- 
jectives, pronouns, and verbs 
of both numbers governed by 
mahali, place or places. 

The prefix proper to pronouns 
following the case in -ni, when 
it denotes nearness, at, by, near. 

The prefix pa- is often applied to 
a verb in the sense of the 
English there. 

Palina or palikiiwa na, there was. 
Hapana, there is not. 
2 B 


P A 


It is not quite so indefinite as hu-. 
Pa hu-, to present with, to give to. 

The Itu bears the accent ; hupa 

cannot be used without a person 

as its object, and tlie objective 

prefix bears the accent. Ali- 

hupa, he gave you; aUmpa, he 

gave him. The passive is hu- 

pawa or Jmpewa, and means, to 

have given to one, to receive. 
Paa, a gazelle, a small kind of 

Paa, plur. mapaa, a thatched roof. 

Nyumha ya mapaa manne, a roof 
of four slopes. 
Paa Tiu-y to ascend, to go up. 
Paa 7cu-, to scrape. 

Kupaa samaki, to scrape the 
scales off a fish. 

Kupaa sandarusi, to clean gum 

Kupaa moto, to take fire and 
carry it on a potsherd, &c. 
Paanda, a trumpet. 
Paange, a horsefly, a gadfly. 
PaangOy plur. mapaango, a cave, 

a den. 
Paaza ku-, to make to rise. 

Kupaaza pumzi, to draw in the 
Paaza ku-, to grind coarsely, not to 

make fine meal. 
Pacha, a twin. 

Kuzaliwa pacha, to be lx)m twins. 

Pacha ya nje, a child of which 
its mother was pregnant while 
suckling a previous child. 
Pachika ku-, to put an arrow on 

the string, to stick a knife in 

one's girdle, &c. 
Padiri or Padre, plur. mapadirl, 

a padre, a priest, a clergyman. 
Pofuy lungs. 

Paga ku-, to strike hard, to harpoon 

a whale. 
Pagaa ku-, to carry on the shoulders, 
to possess (of an evil spirit). 

Amepagawa na pepo, he is pos- 
sessed of an evil spirit. 
Pagaza ku-, to make to bear, applied 

to an evil spirit causing a man to 

fall sick. 
Pagua ku-, to take off, strip off (as 

boughs and leaves). 
Pahali, in the place, at the place. 
Paja, plur. mapaja, the thigh. 
Paje, red mtama [Pemba]. 
Paji la uso, the forehead. 
Paka, a cat, cats. 
Paka ku-, to rub in, to smear on. 
Pakaa ku- — Paka ku-. 
Pakacha, plur. mapakacha, a basket 

made by plaiting together part 

of a cocoa-nut leaf. 
Pakacha, plur. mapakacha, people 

who prowl about at night to do 

Pakana ku-, to border upon. 
Pakanya, rue. 

Pakasa ku- (Mer.), to twist rope. 
Pakata ku-, to hold a child on the 

lap or in front. 
Pake, his, hers, or its, after mahali, 

or the case in -ni signifying 

nearness. See -ake. 
Pakia ku-, to load a ship, to be 

loaded with, to carry as cargo, 

to have on board. 
Pakicha ku-. 

Kupakicha migun,to cross the legs 
in sitting; reckoned improper 
in Zanzibar. 
Pakilia ku-, to embark for, to put 

on board for. 
PaMza ku-, to stow on board ship, 





PaTco, thy, your, after maliali, or 
the case in -ni denoting nearness. 
See -aJio. 
Pahua liU; to take out of the pot, 

to dish, to lade out. 
Pakuna ku, to scratch. 
Pakutokea, a place to go out at, an 

Pale, there, that place, of things 

not very far off. 
Palepale, just there, at that very 

Palia ku-y to hoe. 

Eupalia moto, to pick up for. and 

take live embers to a person. 
Kupaliwa na mate or maji, to 
choke with spittle or with 
what one is drinking, so as to 
send it into one's nose, ears, 
Palikuwa na, there was or there 

Palilia hu-, to hoe up, to draw the 
earth up round growing crops, to 
hoe between crops. 
Paliliza ku-, to cause to be hoed. 
Paliza ku-, to lift up the voice. 
Palu, plur. mapalu, little cakes of 

sugar, bhang, and opium. 
Pamba, cotton. 

Parriba ku-, to adorn, to deck out, 
Kupamha merikehu, to dress a 

Ku'mpamha mayiti, to put cotton 
in ears, mouth, &c. of a dead 
person before burying him. 
Pambaja ku-, to embrace. 
Pamhana ku-, to meet in a narrow 
place where two cannot go 
abreast; applied to ships it 
means, to go alongside, to get 
foul of one another. 

Pamhamsha ku-, to bring together, 

to compare. 
Pamhanua ku-, to distinguish, to 

separate, to discriminate. 
Pambanulia ku-, to describe by 

Pambanya ku-, or Parribanyiza ku-, 

to overbear by loud talking, &c. 
Pambauka or Pambazuka ku-, to 

become light in the morning. 
Pambazua ku-, to speak plainly. 
Pambele, in front. 

Pambo, plur. mapambo, adornment, 
Pambo la «?/wm6a, house furniture. 
Pamoja, in one place, together. 

Pamoja na, together with, with. 
Pana, there is or are, was or were. 
-pana, broad, wide. It makes yana 

with nouns like nyumba. 
Pana ku-, to make mutual gifts. 
Panapana, flat, level, even. 
Panapo, where there is, are, was or 

Panchayat, five head men (Hind.), 

governing council. 
Panda (M.) = Panja. 
Panda, a bifurcation, as where a 
road divides into two, where 
two streams join, where the 
bough of a tree forks. 
Njia panda, cross roads, or where 
three ways meet; there is a 
superstitious custom of empty- 
ing rubbish and dirt at such 
Panda ku-, to mount, to get up, 
ascend, ride, to go on board, to 
go ashore (of a ship). 
Panda ku-, to set aside. 
Panda ku-, to plant, to sow. 
Pandana ku-, to lie across Cue 

2 B 2 




Pande mhili, on both sides. See 

Pandisha ku-, to make to go up, to 

hoist, to raise. 
Panga ku-, to rent, to hire a house. 
Panga ku-^ to put in a line, to set 

in order, 
Panga, plur. of upanga. 
Pangana ku-, to be in rows. 
Pangine, another place, other places. 
See -ngine. 

Panginepo, elsewhere. 
Pangisha ku-, to let a house to. 
Pangisha ku-, to make people sit in 

rows or in order. 
Pangu, my. See -angu. 
Pangusa ku-, to wipe. 
Panja, the forelock. 

Mapanja, the receding of the 
hair on each side of the fore- 
Panua kur, to widen, to make 

Panulia ku-, to widen for, to set 

wide apart. 
Panuka ku-, to become broad, to 

Panya, a rat, rats. 
Panyamavu, a quiet place, a calm 

spot. See -nyamavu. 
Paza ku-, to set up, to raise. 

Kupanza mtambo wa bunduki, to 
cock a gun. 
Panzi, a grasshopper, a kind of 

Panzi ya nazi, brown rind of the 

cocoa-nut kernel. 
Pao, their. See ao. 
Pao, clubs (in cards). 
P^apa, a shark. 
Papa liapa, just here. 
Papa ku-, to transude, to allow 


Papasa ku-, to touch gently, to 

stroke, to feel, to grope. 
Papasi, ticks, especially those found 

in native huts. 
Papatika ku-, to flutter like a bird. 
Papatua ku-, to shell, to husk. 
Papayi, plur. mapapayi, papaws, a 

common kind of fruit. 
Papayuka ku-, to be delirious, to 

Papayuza ku-, to make delirious. 
Papia ku-, to eat all one can get, to 

eat without bounds. 
Papua ku-, to tear. 
Papura ku-, to claw, to scratch 

Papuri, thin cakes flavoured with 

Papurika ku-, to be lacerated. 
Papuriana ku-, to pick holes in one 

another's reputation. 
Para, a scraping, sliding. 
Para, plur. mapara, cakes of sem- 

Parafujo, a screw. 
Paraga ku-, to climb a tree. 
Parahara, a large kind of antelope. 
Parapara ku-, to paw the ground 

like a horse. 
Paruga ku-, to be rough and grat- 
Paruza ku-, to grate, to graze, to be 

harsh and rough, to strike a 

Paruzana ku-, to graze (as of two 

boats, &c.). 
Pasa ku; or Pasha ku-, to come to 
concern, to become a duty. 

Imekupasaje ? What have you 
to do with it ? 

Imenipasa, I ought. 
Pasha ku-, to lend money to, to 
give privately or beforehand. 




Kicpasha mofo, to warm up, to 
set before the fire. 
Past, a clothes-iron. 

Kupiga pasi, to iron. 
Pasipo, without, where there is not. 
Pasiwe, without there being. 
Pastia ku; to cleave, to split, to 

Pasuka Jcu-, to become rent, to 

burst, to crack, to be split. 
Pasukapasuha Jcu-, to be split up, 

rent to pieces. 
Pata, a drawn game at cards where 

each side marks sixty. 
Pata ku-, to get, to reach, to suffer, 
to find an opportunity, to suc- 
ceed in doing, to happen to. 

Kupata is often used with other 
verbs where we use may or 
might : 
Apate huja, that he may come. 

Kisu chapata, the knife is sharp. 

Kisu Tiakipati, the knife is blunt. 

Kilichomjyata, what happened to 
him. I 

Chapataje ? What is it worth ? 

Kupata hasara, to lose. 
Pata ku, to make a lattice, as by 

weaving sticks or canework. 
Patana ku-, to agree, to come to an 

Patanisha hu-, to bring to an agree- 
Patasi, a chisel. 
Pathiica ku-, to be born. 
Pati, a coloured kind of stuff. 
Patia ku-, to get for. 
Patiala, a great cheat, a thorough 

Patikana ku-, to be procurable, to 

be got. 
Patiliza ku-, to visit upon, to re- 
member against. 

Pato, plur. mapato, what is got, 

gettings, income, proceeds. 
Patia, a hinge. 
Patwa ku-, to be eclipsed. 

Properly, to be got, referring to 
the superstition that a huge 
snake has seized the moon or 
Pau (plur. of TJpau), the purlins 
of a roof, the small sticks tied 
horizontally to fasten the thatch 
to. Also, rafters (?). 
Payo, plur. mapayo, one who can- 
not keep a secret. 
Paijuka ku-, to blab, to talk without 

Payuza ku-, to make over-talkative. 
Tembo limempayuza, the palm 
wine has made his tongue go. 
Pazia, plur. mapazia, a curtain. 
Pea, a rhinoceros. 
Pea ku-, to sweep (M.). 
Pea ku-, to grow to full size, to get 
its growth, to become such that 
there is nothing more to do, to 
reach its limit. 
Pekeclia ku-, to bore a hole, to get 
fire by twirling a stick, to trouble 
people by tales and tale-bearing. 
Peketeka ku-, to scorn, to have no 

fear about one. 
Pekee, onliness. 

Wa pekee, only. 
Peke yangu, &c.,by myself, I alone. 
Peke is never used in Zanzibar 
without a possessive pronoun 
following it, and signifies that 
the person or thing is alone, or 
that it is the only one. 
Pekeyefu, by ourselves, or we 
Pekua ku-, to scratch like a hen. 
Pele, plur. of upele, the itch. 




Peleka hu-, to cause to arrive at a 

place distant from the person 

speaking, to send, to take, to con- 
Pelekea hu-, to send, take, or conduct 

to a person. 
Peleleza ku-, to spy out, to look 

curiously into. 
P'embe, horn, corner, ivory. 

Pemhe ya nyoka, a small white 
horn, esteemed to be a great 

Kuwa na pemhe pemhe, to have 
corners, to be angular, to be all 

Pemheni, in the corner. 

Pemhe za mwaka, the four seasons, 
points of the world. 
Pembea, a swing. 
Pembeleza ku-, to beseech. 
Pemheza ku-, to rock, to lull. 
Penda ku-, to like, to love, to wish, 

to approve, to choose, to prefer. 
Pendekeza ku-, to make pleasing. 

Kujipendekeza, to ingratiate one- 
self with, to flatter. 
Pcndelea ku-, to favour. 
Pendeleo, plur. mapendeleo, a favour. 
Pendeleza ku-, to make another love 

Pendeza ku-, to please, to become 

Pendezewa ku-, to be pleased, to be 

Pendo, love. 

Pendo la malt, the love of riches. 
Pengi, many places. See -ingi. 
Pengo, a notch, a place where a 
triangular bit is broken out. 

Ana pengo, he has lost a front 
Penu, your. See -enu. 
Penya ku-, to penetrate. 

Penyesha ku-, to pierce, to put 

through, to cause to penetrate. 
Penyi, having (of place), where is 
or was. 

Penyi mtende, where the date tree 
Pepa ku-, to stagger. [was. 

Pepea ku-, to fan. 
Pepeo, plur. mapepeo, a fan, a screw 

Peperuka ku-, to be blown away. 
Peperusha ku-, to blow away. 
Pepesa ku-, to wink. 
Pepesuka ku-, to totter. 
Pepeta ku-, to sift, to toss in a flat 

basket, so as to separate the chaff 

and the grain. 
Pepetua ku-, to force open. 
Pepo, a spirit, a sprite, an evil 

Pepo mhaya, an evil spirit. 

Peponi, paradise, in paradise. 

Pepo (plur. of upepo), much wind. 

Pepo za chamchela, a whirlwind. 

Maji ya pepo, fresh water. 
Pepua ku-, to sift apart the whole 

from the broken grains. 
Per a, plur, mapera, a guava. 
Pesa, plur. peso, or mapesa, pice, the 

Anglo-Indian quarter anna, the 

only small coin in Zanzibar ; 

sometimes a dollar is worth 140, 

sometimes only 112. 
Pesa ku- (M.) = Pepesa ku'. 
Peta ku-, to bend round, to make 

into a ring. 
Peta kU' = Pepeta ku-. 
Petana ku-, to bend round, to be 

bent in a circle. 
Pete, plur. pete or mapete, a ring. 

Pete ya masikio, an earring. 
Petemana ku-, to be bent round. 
Peto, plur. mapeto, a bundle, a tljing 

carried, a large matting bag. 




Fetu, our. See -etu. 
-pevu, full grown. 
Pevua hu-, to make full grown. 
Kujipevua, to think oneself a 
Pevuka ku-, to become full grown, 

to reach its full size. 
Pewa hu-i to get from some one, to 

be presented with, to receive. 
Pezi, plur. mapezi, a fin. 
-pi subjoined to the personal sign 
makes the interrogative which ? 
See Api. 
Nitawezapi ? How can I ? 
-pia or -pya, new. 
Pia, all, the whole, entirely. 

Pia yote, completely, utterly. 
Pia, a top, a humming-top. 
Piga ku-, to strike, to beat, to flap. 
Kupiga na incM, to strike on the 

Kupiga is used of many actions in 
which the idea of striking does 
not always seem to be implied. 
Kupiga homba, to pump. 

„ hunduki, hastola, &c., to 
fire a gun, a pistol, &c. 
„ chapa, to print. 
„ falaki, to prognosticate 

by the stars. 
^ fundo, to tie a knot. 
„ kelele, to shout. 
„ kengele, to ring a bell. 
„ kilemba, to wind a cloth 
round the head so as to 
make a turban. 
„ kiowe, to scream. 
„ kofi, to box the ears, to 

„ kura, to cast lots. 
„ makofi, to clap the hands. 
„ magote, to kneel. 
y, mhinday to whistle. 

Kupiga mhio, to run, to gallop. 
„ mbizi, to dive. 
„ miao, misoiw, or miunzi, 
to make a whistling 
„ mikamhe, in bathing, to 
duck under water and 
fling over one leg. 
Kupiga mizinga ya salaamu, to 
fire a salute. 
„ mstari, to rule a line. 
„ mtakaso, to rustle like 

new clothes. 
„ mvuke, to smoke meat, 
„ nyiayo, to gape. [&c. 
„ past, to iron. 
„ pemhe, to gore. 
„ pigo, to strike a blow. 
„ pua, to snort. 
f, ramli, to prognosticate 

by diagrams. 
jt randa, to plane. 
„ teke, to kick. 
„ umemey to lighten, to 

„ uwinda, to draw the ends 
of the loin cloth be- 
tween the legs and 
tuck them in. 
„ yowe, to cry for help. 
„ zomari, kinanda, &c., to 
play upon the flageo- 
let, guitar, &c. 
Pigana ku-, to fight. 

Kupigana kwa mhavu, to wrestle. 
Piganisha ku-, to make to fight, to 

set on. 
Piganishana ku-, to set on to fight 

Pigilia ku-, to beat as the stone 
roofs are beaten. Small woodea 
rammers are used, and a great 
number of people are engaged for 




about three days, with music and 

songs ; the object of this beating 

is to prevent the roof cracking as 

it dries, and to consolidate it 

while moist. 
Figiza Jcu-, to make to beat. 

Kupigiza tanga, to go so close to 
the wind that the sail flaps. 
Pigo, plur. ma^ngo, a blow. 
Fika ku-, to cook. 
Pikia ku-, to cook for. 

Kupikiwa, to have cooked for one. 
Pilao, pillaw, an Indian dish. 
P'ili, a large kind of snake. 
Pibi, two (in counting). 

Ya pill, the second. 

Ya pill yake, the next. 

Yule wa pili, the other. 

Mara ya pili, a second time, again. 
PMlipili hoho, red pepper. 
Pilipili manga, common pepper. 
Pima, plur. mapima, a fathom. 
Pima ku-, to measure, to weigh. 

Kupima maji, to sound. 
Pinda ku-, to bend. 

Kupinda na mguu, talipes. 
Findana hu-, to bend together. 
Pindi, plur. mapindi, a twisting, a 

Avriggle, cramp. 
Pindi, if, when (?), although. 
Pindo, plur. mapindo, the longer 

edge of a cloth, selvedge. 
Findua ku-, to turn over, to upset. 

Kupindua kwa damalini, to wear 

Kupindua kwa gosTiini, to tack. 
Pinduka ku-, to be turned over, to 

be upset. 
Pinga ku-, to hinder, to block the 
way, to lay a wager. 

Kupinga chombo kwa shikio, to 
turn a dhow on one side by : 
means of the rudder. 

Pingamizi, a meddler, one who in- 
terferes to spoil a bargain, or to 

give trouble. 
Pingia ku-, to fasten a door, &c., by 

means of a bar. 

Pingili ya mua, the piece of a 
sugar-cane which lies between 
two knots. 
Pingo, plur. mapingo, a bar. 
Fingu, fetters, consisting generally 

of two rings and a bar. 
Pini, plur. mapini, a haft, a hilt. 
Pipa, plur. mapipa, a barrel, tub, 

cask, pipe. 
Pipya, new. See -pya. 
Pirikana ku-, to be strong and well 

Pish a ku-, to make to pass, espe- 
cially without intending to do so, 

let pass, make way for. 
Pishana ku-, to pass while going 

opposite ways. 
Pishi, a weight of about 6 lbs. = 4 

Pislio, cautery, marks of cautery. 
Pisi, parched maize. 
Pisi = Fisi. 

Fiswa ku-, to become silly, to dote. 
Pita ku, to pass, surpass, excel, 
Pitisha ku-, to make to pass, to 

Po, -po, or -po-, a particle signifying 
where, or when, while, as, if. 

Po pote, everywhere, wherever. 
Poa ku-, to become cool, to become 
Podo, a quiver. [well. 

Pofu, plur. mapofu, scum, bubble, 

Pofua ku-, to spoil the eyes, to make 

Pofuka ku-, to have the eyes spoilt, 

to become blind. 



Pogo, on one side. 

Kwenda pogo, to go onesidedly, 
not straight. 
Pointa, the wrist-stitching of a 

Poka hu-y to take suddenly and 
violently, to rob. 

Kupohwa, to be robbed. 
PoTiea hu; to receive, to take from 

some one else. 
Pohelea ku-, to receive for or on 

account of another. 
Pokezana ku-y to go on with by 

Pokezanya ku-, to shift a burden or 

work from one to another as each 

gets tired. 
Pokonya hu-^ to snatch away, to 

Pole, a little, slightly. 

Amengua pole, he is not very well. 
Polepole, gently, moderately.quietly. 
Pomhe, native beer. 
Pomhoo, a porpoise. 
Pomoka ku-, to fall in, to cave in. 

See Bonioka. 
Pomosha ku-, to cause to fall in. 
Pona ku-y to get well, to become 

Ponda ku-, to pound, to beat up, to 

Pondeka ku-, to be crushed. 
Pondekana ku-, to crush and bruise 

one another, as mtama stalks do 

after much rain and wind. 
Pono, a kind of fish said to be 
nearly always asleep. 

Ana usingizi kama pono, he is 
never awake. 
Ponoa ku; to strip off. 
Ponya ku-, to make well, to cure, 
to save. 

Jiponye I Look out ! 

Ponyesha hu-, to cause to be made 

well, to cure. 
Ponyoka ku-, to slip off, slip out of 

one's hands. 
Ponza ku-, to put in danger. 
Poopoo, a bullet, a musket ball. 
Pooza, plur. mapooza, a thing which 

never comes to perfection. 
Pooza ku-, to become useless, to 
wither and drop. 

Mwenyi kupooza, a paralytic. 
Poozesha ku-, to paralyze. 
Po^jo, a bat. 
Popoo, the areca nut, commonly 

chewed with betel-leaf, lime, and 

Popotoa ku-, to wring, twist, strain, 

Popotoka ku-, to be distorted. 
Pora, a young cockerel not yet old 

enough to crow. 
Poroa ku-, to cool, to get thin or 

Poromoka ku-, to slip down a steep 

place. Also Boromoka. 
Posa ku-, to ask in marriage. 
Posha ku-, to give rations to. 
Posho, rations. 
Poso, a demand in marriage. 
Posoro, an interpreter, a middle- 
Pole, all, of time or place. See 

Potea ku-, to become lost, to get lost, 
to perish, to become lost to. 

Kisu kimenipotea, I have lost my 
Potelea ku-, to perish. 

Potelea mhali, go and be hanged. 
Poteza ku-, to cause to be lost, to 

cause to perish. 
Potoa ku-, to go crooked, to turn 

aside. See Jipotoa. 



F u N 

-potoe, obstinate, good for nothing. 

Potoka ku-^ to become crooked, to 
be turned and twisted. 

Povu, scum, skimmings, bubble, 

Povuka ku- = Pofuka ku-^ to be- 
come blind. 

Poza ku-, to cure, to cool by lading 
up and pouring back again. 

Pua, the nose, the apex of an arch. 
Mwanzi loa pua, the division 
between the nostrils, the nos- 

Pua, steel. 

Pua ku-, to shell beans, peas, &c. 

Pugi, a very small kind of dove. 

Pujua ku-. 

Kujipujua, to cast off all shame. 

Pukusa ku-, to rub the grains off a 
cob of Indian corn, to make to 
fall off, to shake fruit from a tree, 
to throw coins among a crowd, 


Pukute ya wait, rice so cooked 
that the grains are dry and 

Pukutika ku-, to shed, to drop like 
leaves in autumn. 

Pulika ku-, to hear, to attend to 

Pulikana ku-, to hear one another. 

Puliza ku-, to puff or blow with the 
mouth. Also, to let go an anclior, 
to let down a bucket into a well. 

Puliki, a spangle, spangles. 

Pululu, plur. mapululu, wilderness, 
waste country. 

Puluni or Pululuni, in the wilder- 

Puma ku-, to throb. 

Pumha, plur. mapumba, a clod, a 

Pumhaa ku-, to be sluggish about. 
Pumhazika ku-, to become a fool. 
Pumho or pumbu, the scrotum. 
Mapumhu, or koko za pumbu, or 
mayayi ya pumho, testicles. 
Pumu, an asthma, the lungs. 
Pumua ku-, to breathe. 
Pumuzi, breath. 
Kupaaza pumuzi, to draw in the 

breath, to inspire. 
Kushusha pumuzi, to breathe out, 
to expire. 
Pumzi = Pumuzi. 
Pumzika ku-, to rest, to breath one- 
Pumzikio, plur. mapumzikij, a rest- 
Puna ku-, to peel, scrape, scrape off. 
Punda, a donkey, donkeys. 

Punda milia, a zebra. 
Punde, a little more. 

Mrefu punde, a little longer. 
Punga (sing. Upunga), the flower 
and very first stage of the cocoa- 
Punga ku-, to swing, to sway, to 
wave. Swaying the arms in 
walking is thought to give 
elegance to a woman's carriage. 
Kupunga pepo, to expel an evil 

spirit by music, dancing, &c. 
Kukunga upepo, to be fanned by 
the wind, to beat the air. 
Pungia ku-, to wave to, to beckon 
Eupungia nguo, to wave a cloth 
up and down by way of beckon- 
ing to some one to come. 
P'ungu, a kind of fish, a large bird 

of prey. 
Pungua ku-, to diminish, waste, 

wear away. 
Punguani, a defect (M.), 




Punguha T:u-, to become smaller, to 

fall short. 
Pnnguza hu-, to diminish, to make 
less, to lessen. 

Kupunguza tanga, to reef a sail. 
Punja hu-y to swindle, to sell a 

little for the price of a large 

Punje, grains of corn, 
Puo, nonsense. 
Pupa, eagerness, excessive rapidity. 

Kula Tiica pupa, to eat so vora^* 
ciously that one's companions 
get little or none. 
Puputiha ku-, to fall in a shower. 
Pura hu-, to beat out com. 
Puruha liu-, to fly off. 
Purukusha ku-. 

Kujipurukusha, to refuse to 
attend to, to make light of a 
Puta ku-, to beat. [matter. 

Putika ku-, to be well beaten. 
Putugali, a fowl [Pemba]. 
Puwo, nonsense. 
Puza ku-, to talk nonsense, to 

Puzia ku-, to breathe, to blow with 

the mouth. 
Puzika ku-, to talk nonsense, to be 

detained gossiping. 
J'lca ku-, to ebb, to become dry. 
Pwaga ku- = Kupwaya, 
Pwai ku-, to be loose, to waggle 

about. See Ptcaya. 
Picani, the shore, on the beach, 

near the shore. 
Picaija ku-, to give a final cleaning 

to rice by repouiiding it. 
Pwaya ku-, to be loose (of clothes). 
Pwayika ku- to be quite clear of 

husks, dirt, and dust. 
Pwaza ku-, to cook muhogo cut up 

into small pieces. 

Picea ku-, to be dry. 

Sauti imenipwea, I am hoarse. 
Pwekee, only, alone (A.). 
Pweleka ku-, to be dried up, to be 

left high and dry. 
Pweica ku-, to become or be left 

Kupwewa na sauti, to become 
Pweza, a cuttle-fish. 
-pya, new, fresh. It makes 'mpya 

with nouns like nyumba ; jipya, 

with nouns like kasha ; and ^(p?/a, 

with nouns of place. 


B is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabic B is much stronger 
and more grating than the English, 
more so perhaps than even the 
Scotch and Irish r. In Arabic words 
it is correct to give the r this strong 
sound, but in Swahili mouths it 
is generally smoothed down to- 
wards that indeterminate African 
sound which is frequently written 
as an I. The Swahili, however, 
often prefer to write and pronounce 
it as a smooth English r. (See L.) 

Badi, a crack of thunder, crashing 
thunder, thunder near at hand. 

Badu = Badi. 

Raff, the wall at the back of a re- 

Bafiki, plur. rafiki or marafiki, a 

Baha, peace, joy, ease, pleasure. 

Bahani, a pledge, a mortgage. 

Baliisi = Bakhisi. 

Bahman, a chart, a map. 




Bai hu-, to put moisels of food into 
a person's mouth as a mark of 
honour or aflfection. 

Rajahu, the seventh month of the 
Arab year. It is esteemed a 
sacred month because Moham- 
med's journey to Jerusalem is 
said to have taken place on the 
27th of it. 

BahMsi, or Ttahisi, cheap. 

Bakldsisha Tcu-, to make cheap, to 

BaTdbisha hu-, to put together, to 
set up and put in order. 

RaMhyueo, the composition of a 

Bamathani, the month of fasting. 

Bamha, plur. maramha, a piece of 
Madagascar grass cloth. 

Bamha Tcu-, to lick. 

Bamha, a chisel-shaped knife used 
by shoemakers. 

Bamli, sand (Ar.). 

Kupiga ramli, to divine by dia- 

Bammu, sadness. 

Banda, a plane. 

Kupiga randa, to plane. 

Banda hu-, to dance for joy. 

Bangi, colour, paint. 

Barua hu-, to rend, to tear. 

Bas il mail, chief possession. 

BasMa ku-, to sprinkle. 

Basi, head, cape. 

Bdtaha, wet. 

Bdtel, or ratli, a weight of about a 

Bathi, satisfied, content, gracious, 
approving, approval, blessing. 
Kuwa rathi, to be satisfied, to be 

content with. 
Niwie rathiy forgive me, excuse 

KunratM, don't be offended. 
Bathiana ku-, to consent, assent. 
Batihu ku-, to arrange. 
Ratli = Bdtel. 
Rausi ku-, to trim a sail. 
Bayia, a subject, subjects. 

Bayiat al Ingrez, British subjects. 
Re or Ret, the ace in cards. 
Rea or Reale, a dollar. 

Reale ya thahahu, an American 
gold 20-dollar piece. 

Reale Fransa or ya Kifransa, a 
French 5-franc piece. 

Reale ya Sham or Fetha ya Sham, 
black dollars. 
-refu, long. It makes ndefu with 

nouns like nyumha. 
Regea ku- = Rejea ku-. 
Regea ku- or Legea ku-, to be loose, 

slack, relaxed, feeble. 
Rpgesha ku- or Regeza ku-, to loosen, 

to relax. 
Rehani = Rahani. 

Kuweka rehani, to pawn. 
Rehema, mercy. 

Rehemu ku-, to have mercy upon. 
Rei = Re. 

Rejea ku-, to go back, return, refer. 
Rejeza ku-, to make to go back, to 

Rekahisha ku-, to put on the top of. 
Rekebu ku-, to ride. 
■remo, Portuguese. 
Rihani, a scented herb, sweet basil. 
„ ya kipata, with notched 

„ ya kiajjemi, with long 
sh-aight leaves. 
Ringa ku- = Kulinga, to sway to 

the tune of a song (only the chief 

men may do this). 
Bisasi, lead. Also Lisasi. 

Bisasi ya hunduhi, a bullet. 




Bisimu Jcu-^ to make a first bid | 

when anything is offered for sale. I 
RUM liU; to inherit (-th- as in thing). 
Bithia Jcu- (-th- as in this), to be 

contented with, to acquiesce in. 
Bithika Jcu-, to satisfy, to content. 
Riza, a door chain. 
Biziki, necessaries, all that a man 

has need of. 
Boho, a quarter, a quarter of a 

Boho Ingreza, an English sove- 
Bohota, a packet or parcel of goods. 
Boda, sheave of a pulley. 

Kupiga rofya, to fillip. 
Boho, soul, spirit, breath, life. 
Boho, greediness, the throat. 
Buhani, a pilot, a guide. 
Budi hu-, to return, to go back, to 

correct, to keep in order. 
Budiana Tcu-, to object to. 
Budiha Ttu-, to be made to return, to 

be kept in order, to be capable of 

being kept in order. 
Budisha hu-y to make to return, to 

give back, to send back. 
Budufya hu-, to double. 
Bufuf, the shelf in a recess. 
Euhusa = Buksa, leave. 
Buhusa Tiu- = Buhhusu Jcu-, to give 
BuJca Jcu-, to fly, to leap. [leave. 
Bukaruka ku-, to hop. 
BuJiia ku-, to fly or leap with, &c. 
Buksa, or Buhusa, or BuJcJiusa, leave, 
permission, liberty. 

Kupa ruksa, to give leave, to set 
at liberty, to dismiss. 

Buksa, you can go. 
Bukhusu ku- or Buhusu ku-, to give 

leave, to permit, to allow, to dis- 

BukJiuthu ku-, to run. 

Bukwa ku-. 

Kurukwa na akili, to lose one's 
senses, to be stunned. 

Bungu, a club, a mace. 

Bupia, a rupee. 

Bupta = Bohota, a bale. 

Busasi = Bisasi, lead. 

Busha ku-, to make to fly, to throw 
up or off, to throw a rider, to 
splash about. 

Bushia ku-, to throw upon, to splash. 

Bushwa, a bribe. 

Butuba, dampness. 

Butubika ku-, to be damp. 

Butuhisha Jcu-, to make damp. 

Buwasa, a pattern from which any- 
thing is to be made. 

BuzuJcu ku-, to supply with needful 
things, especially of God provid- 
ing for His creatures. 


S is pronounced as in eetieral, or 
like the ss in German. 

Sli is pronounced as in English, 
or like sch in German. 

S and sh are distinct in Arabic 
and are generally distinguished in 
good Swahili. There are, however, 
many words in which they are used 
indifferently, and in common talk 
the sh seems to be rather the more 
common. Many natives seem un- 
conscious of any difference between 

S is used for the Arabic tha by 
persons who cannot pronounce th. 

In the Pemba dialect sh is often 
used for ch. 
1 Mashungica = MacJmngica. 




Saa, hour, clock, watch. | 

Saa ngapi ? what o'clock is it ? 
According to Arab reckoning 
the day begins at sunset. Mid- 
night is iisiku saa ya sita ; four 
A.M. saa a kumi ; six a.m. saa 
a thenashara ; noon, saa a sita. 
Saa ! You ! I say ! You now 1 

Njoo saa! Come along, do 1 
Saa ku-, to remain over, to be left. 
Saala, plur. masaala, a question. 
Saanda, a shroud, a winding-sheet. 
Saba, or Sahaa, seven. 

Ya saha, seventh. 
Sahaa, a stay (in a dhow). 
Sahahu, cause, reason. 

Kwa sahahu ya, because of, be- 
Sahaini, seventy, = Sabwini. 
Sahatasliara, seventeen. 
Sabuni, soap. 
Sabuni ku-, to bid, to be in treaty, 

to buy. 
Saburi, patience. 
Sahuri ku-, to wait. 
Sabwini, seventy. 
Sadaka, an offering, an alms, an act 

of charity, anything done for the 

love of God. 
Sadiki ku-, to believe. 
Safari, a journey, a voyage, used for 
" time " or " turn." 

Safari Mi, this time. 
Saff, serene. 
Safi, pure, clean. 
Safi, ku-, to clean. 
Safidi ku-, to clear up, to make 

smooth and neat. 
Safihi, rudeness 
Sajika ku-, to be purified. 
Safina (Ar.), a vessel. 
Safiri ku- to travel, to set out on a 

journey, sail, start. 

Safirisha ku-, to make to travel, to 

see any one off. 
Safisha ku-, to make pure or clean. 
Safu, a row, rows, a line. 

Safu za kaida, regular rows. 
Safura, biliousness, gall, a com- 
plaint in which people take to 

eating earth. 
Saga ku-, to grind. 

Kusagwa na gari, to be run over 
by a cart. 
Sagai, a spear, a javelin. 
Sagia ku-, to grind with or for. 

Mawe ya kusagia, millstones, a 
mill, a handmill. Two loose 
stones are often used, the upp^r 
one is called mwana, and the 
lower mama. 
Sahani, a dish. 

Sahari, checked stuff for turbans. 
Sahau ku- or Sdhao ku-, to forget, to 

make a mistake. 
Saliauliwa ku-, to be forgotten. 
Sahib, sir. 
Sahibu, a friend. 

Kutia sahili, to sign. 
Saliihi, correct, right. 
Sahihi ku-, to be correct, to be 

SahiJiisha ku-, to correct. 
Saili ku-, to ask, to question, 
Sailia ku-, to ask on behalf of. 
Saka ku-, to hunt. 
Sakafu, a chunammed floor, a floor 

or roof of stone, covered with 

a mixture of lime and sand, and 

beaten for about three days with 

small wooden rammers. 
Sakama ku-, to become jammed, to 
Sakani, a rudder. [stick fast. 

Saki ku-, to come close to, to toucli, 

to come home. 

S A K 



Sahifu Jcu; to make a chunammed 
floor or roof. 

^aZa, prayer, the prescribed Moham- 
medan form of devotion includ- 
ing the proper gestures. 

Salaama = Salama. 

Salaam, or Salaamu, or Salamu, 
compliments, safety, peace. 
Kupiga mizinga ya salamu, to 
fire a salute. 

Salahisha hu-, or SeleMslia, or Sulu- 
Idslia, to make to be at peace. 

Salala, the meat near the backbone, 
the undercut of meat. 

Salama, safe, safety. 

Salt Jcu-, to use the regular Moham- 
medan devotions, to say one's 

Salia ku-, to be left, to remain. 

Salimu ku-, to salute. 

Salimia ku-, to salute, to send com- 
pliments to. 

Saliti ku-, to betray secrets. 

Saluda, a sweetmeat made of safl'ron, 
sugar, and starch. 

Sama ku-, to choke, to be choked. 

Samadi, manure. 

Samaki, a fish, fish. 

Samani, tools, instruments, ma- 

Samawati, the heavens. 

Samawi, blue, sky colour. 

Samlmsa, a little pasty. 

Samche ku-, to forgive, to pass over. 

Samiri ku-, to load a gun. 

Sa'mli, ghee, clarified butter. 

Sana, very, much. It is used to 
intensify any action. 
Sema sana, speak loud. 
Vuta sana, pull hard. 

Sanamaki, senna. 

Sanamu, an image, a likeness, a 
statue, a picture, an idol. 

Sandale, sandal wood. 
Sandarusi, gum copal, gum amiui. 
Sanduku, a chest, a box. 
Saniki ku-, to make excuse. 
Saim ku-, to tout for customers. 
Sarafu, a small coin. 
Sarifa or Sarf, exchange, rate of 

Sarifa gani ya niji sasa 1 What 

is the current rate of exchange ? 

Sarifu ku-, to use words well and 

Sdruf, grammar. 
Sarufu, a small gold plate with a 

devout inscription, worn on the 

forehead as an ornament. 
Sasa, now. 

Sasa hivl, directly, at once. 
Sataranji, chess. 
Sauti, voice, sound, noise. 
Saioa, equal, right, just. 

Kitu kisichokuka sawa naye, some- 
thing unworthy of him. 
Saivanisha ku-, to make alike, 

equal, even, &c. 
Sawasaiva, like, alike, even, all the 

same, level, smooth, equal. 
Saivawa, peas (Yao.). 
Sawazisha ku-y to make equal or 

-sayara, gentle, quiet, long-suffering. 
Sayidia ku-, to help. 
Say Hi ku- = Saili ku-. 
Saza ku-, to leave over, to make 

to remain. 
Sazia ku-, to leave for. 
Sebabu = Sabahu, cause, reason. 
Sebula or Sebule, reception room, 

Sefluti, a poultice. 
Sehemu, part, share, dividend. 
Sekeneko, syphilis. 
Selalia, a weapon. 




Kupa selaha, to arm. 
Selehisha hu- = Suluhisha, to make 
to be at peace, to mediate be- 
Selimu liu- or Sillim hu-^ to capitu- 
Sema ku-, to say, to talk, to speak. 

Sema sana, speak out. 
Sernadari, a bedstead, specially of 

the Indian pattern. 
Semhicse, much less. 
Semea ku-, to say about. 
Kusemea 'puani, to talk through 
the nose. 
Semeji = SJiemegi. 
Sena, a kind of rice, 
Sengenya ku-. to make secret signs of 
contempt about some one who is 
Senturi, a musical box. [present. 
Sera, a rampart. 

Serkali or Serikali, the court, the 
Mtu wa serikali, a man in go- 
vernment employ. 
Sermala, a carpenter. 
Serujif an Arab saddle. 
Sesemi, blackwood. 
Seta ku; to crush. 
Setaseta ku-, to crush up, to break 

into fragments. 
Seti, the seven in cards. 
Setirika, &c. See Stirika, &o» 
Settini, sixty. 
Settiri, an iron (?). 
Settiri ku-, or Setiri, or Sitiri, to 
cover, to conceal, to hide, to atone 
Seuze, much less, much more. Also 

Seyedia, lordly, belonging to the 

Seyedina (Ar.), our lord, your ma- 

Sezo, an adze. 

Shaahani, the eighth month of the 

Arab year. 
Shaba, copper, brass. 
Sliahaha, aim. 

Kutvcaa shabaha, to take aim. 
Shabaha, like. 

Nyama shabaha mbvoay an animal 
like a dog. 
Shahbu, alum. 
Shabuka, a snare. 
Shadda, a tassel. See Kanzu. 
Shah, a chess king. 
Shaha, the heart of the cocoa-nut 

Shahada, the Mohammedan confes- 
sion of faith. Also Ushahada. 
Shahamu, fat. 
Shahawa (obscene), semen. 
Shahidi, plur. mashahidi, a witness, 

a martyr. 
Shaibu (Ar.), an old person. 

Shaibu lajuzi, exceedingly old. 
Shairi, a line of poetry. 

plur. mashairi, verses, a poem. 
Shaka, a bush. 

Shaka, plur. mashaka, a doubt. 

Kuingia na shake ya kulia, to sob. 
Shali, a shawl. 
Sham, Syria, Damascus. 

Fetha ya Sham, German dollars. 
Sharnba, plur. mashamba, a planta- 
tion, a farm, a piece of land in 

the country. 
Shambulia ku-, to attack. 
Shamua ku-, to sneeze. Also Shu- 

Shanga, a town near Melinda, long 
Shanga. [since ruined. 

Mwana shanga, a northerly wiud, 
not so strong or persistent as 
the regular kaskazi. 




Shangaa hu- or Sangaa 7:u-, to be 
astonished, to stand and stare, to 
stop short. 

SJiangaza ku-^ to astound, to as- 

Shangazi,-pl\\T. mashangazi, an annt. 

Shangilia hu-, to make rejoicings 
for, to go to meet with music and 
shouting, to be glad about. 

Shangwi, triumph, shouting and 
joy, an ornament of gold worn by- 
women between the shoulders. 

iS/tant, a startling, unexpected event. 

Shanuu, plur. mashanuu, a comb, a 
large coarse wooden comb. 

Sha7-hu, a moustache. 

Shari, evil, the opposite of Heri. 

Sharia = Sheria. 

Sharihi leu-, to share, to be partners 

Sharikia ku-, to share with, to be in 
partnership with. 

Sharikiana ku-, to be partners, to 
share together. 

Sharti, or Sharuti, or Shuruti, or 
Shuti, a contract, of obligation, 
of necessity, must. Also, the 
downhaul of a dhow-sail, a 
Eufanya sharti, to bind oneself. 

Sliatoruma, shawl for the waist. 

Shauko, love, exceeding fondness, 
strong desire, will. 

SJiauri, plur. mashauri, advice, 
counsel, plan. 
Kufanya shauri, to consult to- 
Kupa shauri, to advise. 

Skawi = Tawi. 

SliawisM ku-, to persuade, to coax 

Shayiri, barley. 

Shehena, cargo. 

[ SJieitani, Satan, the devil, a devil, 
excessively clever. 

Shela, a black veil. 

SJielabela, as it stands, in a lot, with 
all defects. 

Shelele ku-, to mn a seam. 

Shelle, plur. mashelle, a shell. 

Shema (Ar.), bees-wax. 

Sliemali (Ar.), the left, the north 
(because to the left of a person 
looking east) ; the Persian Gulf, 
Arabs (because to the north of 
Muscat) ; mist (because it comes 
on in the Persian Gulf with a 
northerly wind). 

SJiemhea, a kind of curved knife. 

Shemegi, a brother or sister-in- 

Sliena (Ar.), orchilla weed. 

Slieria, law. 

Sheriz, glue. 

Shetani, plur. mashetani — Sheitani. 

Shetri, the poop of a dhow. 

Sliiba kU', to have had enough to 
eat, to be full, to be satisfied. 

Sldhiri or Sliibri, a span. 

Shibisha ku-, to fill with food, to 
satisfy with food. 

Shidda, difficulty, distress. 

Shika ku; to lay hold of, to hold 
fast, to keep, to determine. 
Kushika njia, to take one's way. 

to set out. 
Shika lako, mind your own busi- 
Sliika ras He, steer for that point 

Shikamana ku-, to cleave together. 

Shikana ku-, to clasp, to grapple, tc 
stick together. 

Shikio, a rudder, a thing to lay hold 
of. See Sikio. 

Slnkiza ku-, to prop up. 

Shilamu, the stem leading to the 




mouthpiece in a native pipe. 

See Kiko. 
Shimo, plur. masMmo, a pit, an ex- 
cavation, a large hole. 
SMna, plur. masldna, a stump, a 

trunk, a main root. 
Shinda ku-, to overcome, to conquer, 
to stay, to continue at. 

Maji yashinda, it is half full of 

Amekwenda shinda, he is gone 
out for the day. 

Akasliinda kazi, and he went on 
at his work. 
Shindana ku-, to dispute, strive 

with, race. 
Shindania ku-, to bet, to oppose, to 

object to. 
Sldndano, plur. mashindano, a race. 

See Sindano. 
Shindika ku-, or Sindika, to shut, to 
put to, to press in a mill. 

Kushindika mafuta ya nazi, to 
grind cocoa-nuts into oil. 
Shindikia ku-, to show any one out, 

to escort a person on his way. 

See Sindikiza. 
SMndilia ku- to press, to load a gun. 
SJiindo, a shock. 
Shingari, a consort, a dhow sailing 

ill company with another. 
Shingari ku-, to sail in company (of 

Sliingo, plur. mashingo, the neck. 
SMuikizo or Sinikizo, a press. 
Shirazi, Shiraz, from Shiraz. Per- 
sian work is generally called 

STdshwa ku-, to be weaned. 
Shitumu ku-, to insult. See Shu- 

Shoqa, a friend ; used only by wo- j 

men in speaking of or to one an-' 

other. In Zanzibar they rarely 
employ any other word. At 
Lamoo shoga means a catamite. 

SJiogi, panniers, a large matting bag 
with the opening across the 
middle, so as to form two bags 
when laid across a donkey's back. 

Shoi = Shogi. 

Shoka, plur. mashoka, an axe. 
Shoka la hapa, an adze. 
Shoka la tiss, an axe (Mer.). 
Shoka la pwa, an adze (Mer.). 

Sliola, an ear of corn, a head of 

Shona ku-, to sew. [grass. 

Shonea ku-, to mend for, to sew for, 
with, &c. 

Shonuka ku-, to become unsewn. 


Kwetida shote, to go with a rush. 


Wa kushoto, left. 

Ana shoto, he is left-handed. 

Shtaki ku-, to prosecute, to charge, 
to accuse. 

SJitua ku-, to startle, to tickle. See 

Shtuka ku-, to be startled, to start. 

Shua ku-, to launch. Pass, kushu- 

Shuha, the elders of a town. 

Shuhaka, plur. mashuhaka, a recess 
in a wall. 

Shudu, what is left when the oil has 
been ground out of semsem seed. 

Shughuli, business, affairs, occupa- 
tion, engagement. 

Shughulika ku-, to be occupied, to 
be worried. 

Shughulisha ku-, to occupy, to dis- 
tract attention, to interrupt. 

Shuhuda, testimony. 

Shuhudia ku-, to bear witness about, 
for, or against. 




SJiuliudu Jiu; to bear witness. 


Shuhuti ya Jiutolea chant, a small 
piece of wood used by shoe- 
makers in cutting strips of 
coloured leather. 

Shujaa, plur. mashujaa, a hero, a 
brave man. 

Shuha, a sheet. 

ShuJca hu; to descend, go down, 
come down, be let down, to land 
from a ship. 

Sliuke, the flower of Indian corn. 

Shukrani, gratitude. 

Sliuku liu-, to suspect. 

ShiiTiuru, thanks. 

Shuhuru ku-, to thank. This word 
is very rarely used in Zanzibar, 
except in relation to God ; and 
Jcushukuru Muungu means almost 
always, to take comfort, to leave 
off mourning, or to become re- 

Shuliiva ku-, to be launched. 

Shumua ku-, to sneeze. 

Shumvi, salt [Pemba], See Chumvi. 

Shunga ku-, to drive away, to scare. 

Shungi, a crest, long hair (?). 

Shungi mbili, a way of diessing 
the hair in two masses. 

Shupatu, plur. masliupatu, a narrow 
strip of matting. The broader are 
sewn together to make floor mats, 
the narrower are interlaced to 
make the native couch or bed- 

Shupaza, spades (in cards). 

Shura, saltpetre. 

Shuruti = Sharti, of necessity. 

Shurutiza ku-, to compel, to force. 
Alisliurutizica ndani, he was 
pushed in. 

Shu.<1ia ku-, to let down, to make to 

descend, to land goods from a 
Kushusha pu'inzi, to breathe out, 
an expiration. 
Shuti or Shuuti = Sharti, of neces- 
Shutumiica ku-, to be reviled, [csity. 
Shutumu ku-, to revile. 
Shicali or Shwari, a calm. 
Si, not. 

Si vema, not welL 
Si uza, sell not. 
Si. is or are not. 

Mimi si sultani, I am not a sultan ; 

or, Am I not a sultan ? 
Si yeye, it is not he or him. 
Si-, the opposite of ndi-, expressing, 
This is not it. Is not this it ? 
Simi, Sisisi, 

Siwe, Sinyi, 

Stye, Sio, sivyo, sii/o, 

Sio, siyo, silo, Sizo, simo. 
Sicho, sipo, siko. 
Si-, sign of the first person negative. 
Sikuhali, I do not consent. 
Sikukubali, I did not consent. 
Sitakubali, I shall not consent. 
In the present tense the final 
letter of verbs in -a becomes -i. 
Sioni, I do not see. 
-si- inserted between the personal 
prefix and the verb, is the sign 
of the negative imperative or 
subjunctive, the final letter of 
verbs in -a becoming an -e. 
Nisione, that I may not see, let 
me not see, or without my 
-si-, sign of the negative in ex- 
pressing relation. 
Asio, he who is or was not, or 
who will not be. Also Asiye 
■ sipio-, sign of the tense expressing 
not being. 

2 c 2 




Asipoona, he not seeing, if he I 
does not see, though he does 
not see, without his seeing, 
when he sees not. 
Sia ku-, to give a sentence, to pro- 
nounce as with authority, to de- 
Siafu, a large reddish brown ant, 
that travels in great numbers 
and bites fiercely. 
Siagi, cream, butter. 
Sibu Jcu-, to get, to succeed. See 

Si/a, praise, character, character- 
Sifara, a kind of rice. 
Sifu hu-, to praise. Pass, kusifiu-a. 
Kujisifu, to magnify oneself, to 

KusijVmno, to overpraise, to 
Sifule (a term of reproach), a med- 
dlesome fool. 
Sifuru, a cypher, a figure of nought. 
Sigizia hu-, to tack (in needlework). 
Sihi ku-i to entreat. 
Sijafu, the cuff, the hem. See 

Sijambo, I am well. The invariable 
answer to hu jamho ? how are 
Si jamho punde, I am a little 
• better. 
Sikamo or Sikamoo, for Nashika 
iiiguu, the salutation of a slave 
to a master. 
Siki, vinegar. 

Sikia ku-, to hear, to obey, to under- 
Sikilia ku-^ to listen to, to attend to. 
Sikiliana ku-, to be heard, to be 

Sikiliza ku-, to listen, to listen to. 

Sikilizana ku-, to hear one another. 

Sikio or Shikio, plur. masikio, the 

Sikitika ku-, to be sorry. 

Sikitikia ku-, to be sorry for. to pity. 

Sikitiko, plur. masikitiko, sorrow, 

Sikitisha ku-, to make sorry. 

Sikiza ku-, to make to hear, under- 
stand, &c. 

Sikizana ku-, to be mutually intel- 
ligible, to make one another liear. 

Siku, a day of twenty-four hours, 
from sunset to sunset, days. 
Siku kuu, a great day, a feast. 
The two great feasts are the 
three days at the end of the 
Kamathan, when every one 
makes presents, and three days 
after the tenth of Thil hajj or 
Mfunguo wa tatu, when every 
one ought to slaughter some 
animal, and feast the poor. 
Siku a mwaka (see Mwongo, 
Kigunzi), iheNairuz, about the 
23rd of August, the beginning 
of the Swahili and nautical 
year. The old custom is for 
every one, but especially the 
women, to bathe in the sea 
in the night or morning : then 
they cook a great mess of grain 
and pulse, which is eaten about 
noon by all who like to come. 
The fires are all extinguished 
and lighted again by rubbing 
two pieces of wood together. 
Formerly no inquiry was made 
as to any murder or violence 
committed on this day, and old 
quarrels used regularly to be 
fought out upon it. 
Siku zote, alwavs. 




Silihi ku; to improve, to reform. 

Silihisha ku-, to make to improve, 
to reform. 

Silimu ku-, to become a Moham- 

Siiuama ku-, to stand up, to come 
to a stand, to stop, to be erect, 
to stand in, to cost. 

Simamia ku-, to stand by, to over- 
look workmen, to cost to. 

Simamisha ku-, to make to stand. 

Simanga ku-, to crow over, boast 

Simanzi, grief, heaviness. 

Simha, a lion, lions. 

Simha uranga, a well-known man- 
grove swamp at the mouth of 
the Lufiji. 

Simbati, a kind of wood brought 
from near Cape Delgado. 

Sime, a short straight sword used 
on the mainland. 

Simika ku-, to be erect, to be set 
up, to stand (often used in an 
obscene sense). 

Simikia ku-. 

Kusimikia mlango, to set up and 
build in a door. 

Simikisha ku-, to set up. 

Similla, Simille, Simileni, probably 

for Bismillah, the common cry 

in Zanzibar, meaning, make 

way, out of the way. 

Similla punda, make way for a 

Similla uhau, make way for a 
plank. I 

Simo, I am not in it, am not con- i 
cerned, have nothing to do with 
it. I 


Simo Mi si njema, this event is 
not good. 

Imeingia simo mpya, something 
new has turned up. 
Simu, the electric telegraph. 
Sindano, a needle (or shindano). 
Sindano, a kind of rice. 
Sindi, a long-tailed weasel. 
Sindikia ku-, to crush. 
Sindikiza ku-, to accompany part of 

the way. 
Sindua ku-, to open, to set open. 
Singa, hair of an animal. 

Nyele za singa, straight hair, 
European hair. 
Singa ku-, to scent, to put scent. 
Singizia ku-, to slander, to spread 

false reports about. 
Sini, China. 
Sini, no matter. 
Sini-a, plur. masinia, a circular tray 

used to carry and set out food 

upon, generally of copper tinned. 
Sinikiza ku-, to press. 
Sinzia ku-, to doze, to nod, to flicker. 
-sipo; sign of the tense signifying 

the case of the thing mentioned 

not being. 
Siri, secrecy. 

Mamho ya siri, secret affairs, 

Kica siri, secretly. 
Sisi, we, us. Sometimes pronounced 
swiswi, suisui, or sisici. 

Sisi sole, all of us. 

Sisi wote, both of us. 
Sisimia ku-, to sigh (?). 
Sisimizi, ants (?). 
Sisitiza ku- (M.), to charge strictly, 

to charge to keep secret. 
Sita, six. 

Ya sita, sixth. 
Sita ku-^ to halt, to go lame (A.), to 

Sitalia, the deck. 




Sitashara, sixteen. 
Sitaivi JiU; to flourish. 

Ngoma ipi iviesitawi, which dance 
is going best ? 
Sitawisha hu-, to make to flourish. 
Siti, whistle (of a steamer or 
Sitti, my lady, lady. [engine). 

Sittina, our lady. Applied by the 
Arabs to St. Mary. 
Sivimoja, different. 
Sivijo, it is not thus. See Si-. 
Siwa, an ivory horn only used on 

great occasions. 
^Siivezi, lam not well. See Weza ku-. 
Siyo, that is not it, no. See Si-. 
Siyu or Siu, Siwi, the chief town 

of the district near Lamoo, the 

chief seat of old Swahili learning. 
Soda, lunacy. 
Sodo, a woman's napkin. 
Sofe, wool. 

Soge, Sogi, Soi, = Shogi. 
Sogea hu-, to approach affectionately, 

to come near to. 
Sogeza ku-, to lift to the lips and 

kiss, to bring near to. 
Sogezea ku-, to put ready for, to 

bring for use. 
Svho, plur. masoko, a market, a 

Kicenda sokoni, to go marketing. 
Sokota ku-, to twist, to plait, to spin. 
Soma ku-, to read, to perform de- 
Soma, plur. masoma, a kind of dance. 
Sombela ku-, to work oneself along 

on one's hands and seat without 

using the legs. 
SomesTia ku-, to teach to read, to 

lead devotions. 
Somo, plur. masomo, something read, 

used as a title of friendship, a 


Sonda ku-, to suck out. 

Sondo, swelled (?) glands. 

Songa ku-, to strangle, to squeeze, 

to stir together. 
Song anasong ana ku-, to press against 

one another like sheep in a flock. 
Songea ku-, to push through, to 

shoulder your way through a 
Sonjoa ku-, to wring. [crowd. 

Sony a ku- = Kufyonya. 
Somali, trousers. 
Sosoneka ku-, to be hurt or ache, so 

as to writhe with pain. 
Sosonesha ku-, to make to writhe 

with pain. 
Sole, all ; agreeing with sisi, we or 
us. bee -ote. 

Tu sole, we are together. 

Twende sole, let us go together. 
Soza ku; to beach a boat or vessel. 
Ssaji or Safi, pure, clean. 
Staajahu ku-, to wonder much, to be 

greatly astonished. 
Staamani ku-, to have confidence, 

to rest trustfully. 
Stdhahu ku-, to be pleased, to prefer. 
Stahamili or Stahimili, patiently. 
StaJii ku-, to honour, to have respect 

Stahiba ku- (?), to prefer. See 

Stahiki ku-, to resemble, to be of 

one sort with. 
Stahili ku-, to deserve, to be woi thy 
of, to be proper, to be right and 

Aatahili, serves him right. 
Staliimili ku-, to bear, to endure, 

>Sfa?;a6a^/it, earnest, f;i stoning penny. 
Stamhuli, Constantinople. 
Starehe ku-, to sit still, to be at rest, 
to remain quiet. 




Starehe .' Don't disturb yourself I 
don't get up ! 

Sterehisha Jiu-, to give rest to, to 
refresh. Also Stareliisha. 

StiriJta ku-, to be covered, to be con- 

Stusha hu', to startle, to sprain, to 
put out of joint. 

Subana, small pieces of meat roasted 
on two parallel sticks. 

Suhana, a thimble. 

Su'dri, patience. 

Suhiri, aloes. 

Siihiri ku; to wait. 

Suhu ku; to cast in a mould. 

Suhu ku- or Sibu ku-, to happen to. 

Suhui, morning. 

Suhulkheiri, good morning. 

Suhuri, patience. 

Suhutu ku- = Thuhutu ku-, 

Suduku ku-, to ascertain, to know 
the truth. 

Suf, wool. 

Suffi, a devotee, a hermit. 

Snffuf, a great variety or number. 

Sufi, woollen. 

Snfuria, copper. 

Sufuria, plur. sufuria or masufuria, 
a metal pot. 
Sufuria ya chuma, an iron pot. 

Sugu, a mark, a callous place. Also, 
obstinate, insensate. 

Sugua kxi-, to rub, to scrub, to 
brush, to scour. 

Suheli, south. 

Sui, an irrepressible, unconquer- 
able man. 

Sujudia ku-, to prostrate oneself to, 
to adore. 

Sujudu ku; to prostrate oneself, to 
bow down. 

Suka ku-, to plait, to clean. 

Sukari, sugar. 

Sukari guru, half-marle sugar. 

Sukasuka ku, to shake, to agitate. 

Suke, plur. masuke (or shuke), an 
ear of corn, a head of mtama, &c. 

Sukua ku-, to slacken, to loose. 

Sukuma ku-, to push, to urge. 

Sukumi, a steersman, quarter- 

Sukumiza ku-, to put upon another 
person, to say it is his business, 
to tlirow ofl' from oneself, to push 
away in anger, to throw (a thing) 
at a person who wants it. Also, 
to avert (by sacrifice, &c.). 

Sukutua ku-, to rinse out the mouth, 
to wash one's mouth. 

Sulibi ku; to crucify. 

Sulihisha ku-, to crucify. 

SuUhi ku-, to become, to be fitting 

Sulika ku-, to turn about, become 

Sulimu ku-, to salute. 

Sultani, plur. masultani, a sultan, 
a chief man. Sultani at Zanzi- 
bar does not mean a king ; it is 
used of the head men of a vil- 

Sultan Rum, the Snltan of Turkey. 

Sulubika ku-, to be strong. 

Suluhu, strength, firmness. 

Suluhisha ku-, to bring to accord, 
to make peace between. 

Suluhu, concord. 

Sululu, a curlew. 

Sumba ku-, to sway away, to twist 
and turn oneself. 

Sumbua ku-, to worry, to annoy, to 
give trouble. 

Sumhuana ku-, to worry one an- 

Sumbtika ku-, to be put to trouble, 
to be harassed, to be annoyed. 



Sumhulia ku-, to speak sharply to. 
Sumbusha ku-, to vex, harass, 

trouble, worry, annoy. 
Sumu, poison. 
Sumugh, gum-arabic. 
Sungura, a rabbit (?), a hare (?). 
Sunni, advisable, recommended, a 

tradition, what is advisable or 

recommended, but not compul- 
Sunohari, deal wood. [sory. 

Sunza ku-, to search for anything 

with a lighted brand at night. 
Supaa ku; to be very hard or dry. 
Supana = Supaa. 
Sura, a likeness, a resemblance, a 

chapter of the Koran. 
Suria, plur. masuria, a concubine, 

a female slave. 
Suriyama, born of a concubine. 
Sururu, an insect that lives in 

cocoa-nut trees. 
Surwali, trousers. See Soruali. 
Sus, Hquorice. 
Suso, a kind of hanging shelf, a 

Susupaa — Supaa. 
Suta ku-, to reproach, to charge a 

man with slander, to slander, to 

seek out a man and ask whether 

he has said such and such things. 
Su'udi, or Suudi njema, salvation, 

Suza ku; to stir up. Also, to 

Suzia ku; to turn with (?). 
Swafi = Safi. 
Swali, a question. 

T is pronounced as in English. 
There are two t's, in Arabic, one 
much thicker than the Eosflish L 

but only very careful speakers dis- 
tinguish them in Swahili. 

T at the beginning of a word has 
sometimes an explosive sound, as in 
Vaka, dirt. It is probable that this 
represents a suppressed n. 

There is a slight difference in 
sound between the fs of tatu, three, 
and tano, five, the former being the 
smoother, but natives do not seem 
conscious of the difference. 

T in northern Swahili frequently 
becomes ch in the dialect of Zanzi- 

Kuteka, to laugh (M.) kucheJca 
(Zanz.). But /(•ute/.;a, to plunder, 
or to draw water, does not 

Kutinda, to slaughter (M.) hi- 
cMnja (Zanz.). 

There is no sound similar to that 
of the English th in the original 
language of Zanzibar. It occurs in 
some dialects of Swahili in place of 
V or z. There are however in 
Arabic four th^s. 1. Tha, pro- 
nounced like the English th in 
thing. 2. Thai, pronounced like 
the English th in this. 3 and 4. 
Thad and Tha" or Dthau, which 
are scarcely distinguished by the 
Arabs themselves, and have a very 
thick variety of the thai sound. 
Practically the two English th's are 
quite sufficient, and the ear soon 
catches the right method of employ- 
ing them. 

The Indians and many Africans 
pronounce all these as z. Some 
Swahili confuse the various th's with 
z, and employ the thai sound for 
words properly written with a z, as 
wathiri for waziri, a vizir. 




-ta-, the sign of the future tense. 
When the relative or the par- 
ticles denoting time and place 
are inserted in the future, the 
prefix regularly becomes -tal-a-. 
It is possible however to retain 
-ta- to express a more definite 

AtaJcvja, he will come. 
Atahayekuja, who will come. 
Atakapokuja, when he shall 

Atapokuja, when he come, 
or, if he shall come. 
In the first person singular the 
ni-, which is the sign of the 
person, is often dropped. 

Takuja = Nitaknja, I shall 
Ta- at the beginning of Arabic 
verbs is the mark of the fourth 
or fifth conjugations or derived 
Taa, a lamp, especially the small 
open earthen lamps made in Zan- 
Taa, a large kind of flat fish. 
Taa, beneath one's feet. 
Tadbika ku-, to be troubled. 
Taabisha ku-, to trouble, to annoy. 
Taahu, trouble. 

Taadabu ku-, to learn manners. 
Taajabisha ku-, to make to wonder. 

to astonish. 
Taajabu ku-, to wonder, to be as- 
tonished. See Staajahu. 
Taajazi ku-, to tire. 
Taali ku-, to study. 
Taandu, a centipede. 
Taataa ku-, to throw oneself about. 
Tabaka, lining. 
Tahakelo, a snuff-box. 
Tabanja, a pistol (Ar.). 

Tnhdssam ku-, to smile. 
labia, constitution, temper, temper- 
ament, climate. 
Tabibia ku-, to doctor. 
Tabibu, a physician. 
Tabiki ku-, to line, to close to or 
upon, to cling to as a fast friend. 
Tdbikiza, to make to cling. 
Tabiri ku-, to foretell, to prophesy. 
Taburiidu ku-, to refresh. 
Tadariki ku-, to accept the respon- 
sibility of, to guarantee the result 
Tadi, violence, hurry. 
Kwenda kwa tadi, to rush, to go 
Tadi ku-, to fight with. 
I Tafakari ku-, to consider, ponder, 
! think. 

I Tafdthal or Tafailiali, please, I beg 
j of you. 

; Tafiti ku-, to seek out matters 
i secretly, to be over-inquisitive. 
; Tafsiri ku-, to explain, to interpret. 
i Tafsiri, interpretation. 
Tafsiria ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 
Tafu (M.) = CMfu, cheek. 
Tafu, gastrocnemic muscles. 

Tafu ya mkono, the biceps muscle. 
Tafuna ku-, to chew, to nibble. 
Tafuta ku-, to look for, seek, search 

Tafutatafuta ku-, to search all 

Tafutia ku- or Taftia, to seek out 

for some one, to look for. 
Tagaa ku-, to straddle, to walk 

with one's legs far apart. 
ragfe,plur. matage, bow legs, crook- 
Tagliafali ku-, to be off one's guard, 
to forget to take notice. 




Taghaiari hu-, to be changed. 
Taghi ku-, to rebel. 
Tagua, branches, main branches. 
Tahafifu, gent'.y, in good time, 
light, thJQ. 

Nguo taliofifu, thin calico. 
Tahamaha ku-, to look up to see 

what is going on. 
Taharaki ku-, to be troubled, to 

be thrown into confusion. 
Taharakiaha ku-, to put into a state 

of anxiety, to excite, stimulate. 
Taharizi. See Kanzu. 
Taharuki ku-, to be troubled, to be 

anxious, to be thrown into con- 
fusion. Also, Taharaki. 
Tahassa ku-, to go on board a ship 

with a view to sailing. 
Tahatliari ku-, to bew^are, to be on 

one's guard. 
Taliatliarislia ku-, to warn. 
Tahayari ku-, to become ashamed. 
Tahayarisha ku-, to shame, to make 

Tahidi ku-. 

KujitaJddi, to exert oneself, to 
try hard. 
Tahiri ku-, to circumcise. 
Tahsila, farewell, leavj-taking. 
Tai, a large bird of prey, a vulture. 
Taifa, plur. mataifa, a tribe, a 

Taja, hire. 
Taja ku-, to name. 
Taji, a crown. 
Tajiri, plur. matajiri, a merchant, 

a rich man, a capitalist, a prin- 
-taka-. See -ta-. [cipal. 

Taka, dirt. 
Takataka, rubbish, sundries, small 

Taka ku-, to want, to wish for, to 
ask for. 

Kutaka sliauri, to seek advice. 
Takabali ku-, to accept; used of 

God's hearing prayer. 
Takabathi ku-, to carry on freight. 
Takabathisha ku-, to pay freiglit 

Takdddam ku-, to be in advance of, 

to get before. 
Takalika ku-, to be very faint or 

Takarimu, gift, largess. 
Takasa ku-, to clean, to make clean 

and clear. 
Takasika ku-, to become cleansed. 
Takata ku-, to become clean and 

Uwingu umetakata, the sky is 
-takatifu, holy, cleansed. 
Takhari ku-, to stay. 
Taki = Gliicha. 
Takia, plur. matakia, a large 

Tako, plur. matako, the buttock. 
Taksiri, a crime. 
Takura ku-, to scratch, to dig with 

claws or fingers. 
Talaka, divorce. 
Taldssim or Taladmu, plur. matala- 

simu, a talisman, a charm, a 

figure divided into squares and 

marked with magic words and 

Tali ku- or Ta'ali ku-, to study. 
TaWc = Tarik. 
Taliza ku-, to smooth ofi", to smooth 

up, plaster, &c. 
Tama, out and out, final. 
Tama ku- (M.) = Rama ku-, to re- 
Tama ku-, to sit, crouch (Yao.). 
Kusliika tama, to lean the head 




on the hand, reckoned unlucky 
in Zanzibar. 
Tamaa, longing, avarice, greedi- 
Kuhata tamaa, to despair. 

Tamdlahi ku-, to be master of. 
KujitamdIaM mwenyewe, to be 
one's own master. 

Tamani ku-, to long for, to lust 

Tamanika ku-, to be liked, to be an 
object of liking. 

Tamha ku-, to swagger. 

tarnhaa ku-, to creep, to crawl. 

Tamhi, vermicelli. 

Tamho, a tall man. 

Tarahoa, testicles. 

Tamhua ku-, to recognize. 

Tamhulia ku-, to understand. 

TarnhuUkana ku-, to be recogniz- 

TambulisJia ku-, to make to recog- 
nize, to explain. 

Tamhuu, betel leaf chewed with 
areca nut, lime and tobacco. 

Tamhuza ku-, to put a new point or 
edge, to weld on fresh iron or 

Tamisha ku- (M.) = Hamisha ku-. 

TaWaka ku-, to pronounce. 

Tamu, sweetness, flavour, taste. 

•taniu, sweet, pleasant. It makes 
tamu with nouns like nyumba. 

Tamuka ku- = Ta'mka ku-. 

Tamvua, ends or corners of turban 
cloth, &c. 

Tana ku-, to divide, to slit, to comb, 
to part. 

Tanatana ku-, to divide up into 
little bits. 

Tana, a bunchlet of bananas, &c. 
Bananas and plantains grow \ 
spirally in a large biinr^h, not con- 

tinuously, but in little grt)ups: 
each group is a tana. 
Tanahahi ku-, to make up one's 

mind, to know what to do. 
Tanafusi ku-, to draw breath. 
Tanda ku-, to spread, to be spread 
out, to be overcast, to put rope.s 
to a native bedstead. 
Kujitanda, to stretch oneself 
Tandama ku- (?), to surround. 
Tandaicaa ku-, to recline, to loll at 

one's ease. 
Tandaza ku-, to make flat. 
Tandika ku-, to spread, to lay out, 

to saddle. 
Tandu, long slashes made on their 

faces by Makuas and others. 
Tandua ku-, to unsaddle, to take off 

Tanga, plur. matanga or mojitanga, 
a sail. The sails of mitepe and 
madau are made of matting. 
Tanga mbili, the seasons of 

changeable winds. 
Matanga kati, wind abeam. 
KiiJcaa matanga, to sit at home 
in sign of mourning, to mourn. 
Tangaa ku-, to come to be known. 
Tangamana ku-, to adjoin. 
Tangamuka ku-, to be cheerful. 
Tangamusha ku-, to cheer up. 
Tanganya, &c. (M.) = Changanya, 

&c., to mix, to shuffle cards. 
Tangatanga ku-, to go backwards 

and forwards, to wave. 
Tangawizi, ginger. 
Tangaza ku-, to spread news, to cir- 
culate intelligence. 
Tange, the trees and rubbish cleared 

off" a new plantation. 
Tangisha ku-, to make evident. 
Tango, plur. matango, a sort of 




2:onrd eaten raw, resembling in 

taste a cucumber. 
Tangu, since, from. 

Tangu lini^ Since when? How 
long ago ? 
Tangua Zcm-, to annul, to abolish, to 
separate, untwist, unplait, with- 
draw a promise, &c. 

Kutangua ndoa, to annul a mar- 
riage, to divorce. 
Tangiika 7cu-, to be annulled. 
Tangukana ku-, to separate. 
Tangulia 7cu-, to precede, to go be- 
fore, to go first. 

Nimetangulia hultuamhia, I told 
you beforehand. 
Tangulifu advanced. 
Tani, Othman. 

Kiva tani, backward, on his back. 
Tano or Tanu, five. 

Ya tano, fifth. 
-tano^ five. 
Tantanhelwa, a great bother, a 

Tanua ku, to expand, to spread out, 

to fend off a boat. 
Tanuka ku-, to he on one's back and 

spread oneself out, to sprawl. 
Tanuru or Tanuu, a clamp for burn- 
ing lime, an oven. 
Tanzi, plur. matanzi, a noose. 
Tanzia, news of a death. 
Tao, plur. matao, an arch, an 

arched opening, a bay. 
Tapa ku-, to shiver. 

Kujitapa, to magnify oneself, to 
make 51 great man of oneself. 
Tapatapa ku-, to jump about like a 

fish when taken out of the water, 

to shiver, to tremble. 
Tapanya ku-, to scatter, to throw ! 

about. i 

Tapanyatapanya ku-, to dissipate. 

to waste. 
Tapika ku-, to vomit. 
Topisha ku-, to make to vomit. 
Tapisho, plur. matapisho, an emetic. 
Tapo, plur. matapo, a detachment, 

a division, a part of an army 

larger than kikozi. 
Tarahe, side piece of a window, 

door of planks. 
Tarafu, on the part of. 

Tarafu yoke, on his part. 
Taraja ku-, to hope. 
Taratliia ku-, to persuade in a 

friendly way. 
Taratihu, carefully, gently, orderly. 
Taratibu, orderliness, an order or 

Taraza, an edging, a narrow silken 

border usually woven on to tur- 
ban and loin-cloths in Zanzibar. 
Tarazake, business on a small scale. 
Tarazaki ku-, to trade in a small 

Tarik, a date, year, &c., the clew- 
line or bunt-line of a dhow-sail. 

Kitahic cka tarik, a chronicle. 
Tarimho = Mtaimho, an iron bar. 
Tarizi ku-, to weave 
Tartibu = Taratibu. 
Tasa, a brass basin. 
Tasa, a game of touch. 
Tasa, a barren animal. 
Tasaivari ku-, to do with certainty, 
to be fully able. 

Eatasawari, it is certain that he 
does not do it. 
Tasbihi, Mohammedan beads. 
Tasfida, good manners. 
Tashwishi, doubt. 
Tasihili, quickness, quickly. 
Taslimu, ready cash. 
Tassa = Tasa. 




Tata. See Matata. 

Kwenda tatatata, to toddle. 
Tataga ku-, to go above or over, to 

cross a stream on a tree. 
Tatana 1cu-, to be in a tangle, to be 

Tatanisha ku-, to tangle, to puzzle. 
Tatanya ku-, to unravel, disen- 
tangle, solve a riddle. 
Tatazana ku-, to be tangled. 
Tathhiri, a merchant. 
Tatia ku-, to wind, to tangle, to 

Tatiza ku-, to wind. 
tatu, three. 

Ya tatu, third. 
Tatua ku-, to tear. 
Tatuka ku-, to be torn. 
Taumkaku- = Ta'mka ku-. 
Tauni, plague, cholera. 
Tausi, peacock. 
Tauu (A.), the cheek. 
Tawa, plur. matawa, a frying-pan. 
Tawa, plur. taiva, a louse. 
Tawa ku-, to live secluded (Yao.), to 

Tawafa, a candle, candles. 
Tawakali ku-, to trust in God and 

take courage. 
Tawakdwakatha, many. 
Tawala ku-, to govern, to rule. 
Tawanya ku-, to scatter. 
Tawanyika ku-, to become scattered. 
Tawashi, a eunuch. 
Tawassuf, temperance. 
Taioaza ku-, to make to rule. 
Tawaza ku-, to wash the feet, to 

perform the ablutions. 
Tawi, plur. matavn^ a branch, a 

bough, a bunch, an ear of millet, 
Taya, jaw, jawbone. 
Taya ku-, to reproach. 
Tayari, ready. 

Tayi, obedient. 

Tatjo, plur. matayo, a reproach, re- 
Tazama ku-, to look. 
Tazamia ku-, to look out for. 
Tazwi, forgery. 
Teende la viguu, Barbadoes leg, 

elephantiasis (?). 
Tefua ku-, to reason, to search, to 

throw about. 
Tega ku-, to set a trap or snare, to 

snare. See Kitendaidli. 
Tegea ku-, to be lame. 
Tegemea ku-, to lean upon, to be 

propped up. 
Tegemeza ku-, to support. 
Tego, a virulent kind of syphilis 

supposed to be the effect of a 

Tegu, plur. mategu, a tape-worm. 
Tegua ku-, to take a pot ofif the fire, 

to remove a spell. 
Teka ku- (M.) = Clieka ku-. 
Teka ku-, to plunder, to take as 
spoil, to draw water. 

Kuteka 'mji, to plunder a town. 

Kuteka ng'ombe, to carry off an ox. 

Kuteka maji, to draw water from 
a well. 
Teke, plur. mateke, a kick. 

Kupiga teke, to kick. 
Tekelea ku-, to prove true, to come to. 
Tekeleza ku-, to perform a promise, 

restore a pledge. 
Tekenya ku-, to tickle in the ribs. 
Teketea ku-, to be consumed, to be 

burnt away. 
Teketeke, the soft, something soft. 
Teketeza ku-, to consume, to cause 

to be burnt down. 
Tekewa ku-, to become bewildered. 
Tekeza ku-, to run ashore, to coma 

to an end, to die. 



T E T 

Tehia Tcu-, to prize up, to toss, to 

throw up out of a noie. 
Tele, plenty, abunrlantly, abundant. 
Tele, gold lace or braid. 
Telea ku-, to come down, descend, 

land from. 
Teleka ku-, to put a pot on the fire. 
Telemua ku-, to pull down, to cause 

to slip down. 
Telemuka ku- or Telemka ku-, to 

go down a steep place, to go 

quickly down in spite of one's 

self, to slither down. 
Tdemuko, the bed of a river. 
^Teleza ku-, to slip. 
Tema ku-, to slash as with a sword. 
Tema ku-. 

Kutema mate, to spit. 
T'emhe, a hen full grown but which 

has not yet laid. 
Teriibea ku-, to walk about, to take 


Moyo icangu umefembea, 
thoughts are wandering. 
Temhelea ku-, to walk about. 
Temheza ku-, to offer for sale by 

auction, to hawk about. 
Tembo, palm wine, wine. 
Temho, an elephant. 
Te'mka = Ta'mka. 
Temsi, filigree work. 
Tena, afterwards, again, further. 
Tenda ku-, to do, to apply oneself to, 
to act. 
Kutenda zema or vema, to behave 
Tenda kani, a pole across a dhow to 

fasten the sheet to. 
Tendawala, a kind of bird. 
Tende, a date, dates. 

Tenda halwa or halua, Arabs 
from the Persian Gulf, who 
steal slaves by tempting them 

into their houses with datea 
and sweetstuff. 
Tendea ku-, to do to, to behave to, 

to treat. 
Tendegu, plur. matendegu, the legs 

of a bedstead. 
Tendeka ku-, to be done, to be 

Tenga, a sun-fish. 
Tenga ku-, to separate, to remove. 

Kujitenga, to get out of the waj*. 
Tengea ku-, to be ready and in 

Duka limetengea, the shop is all 
ready and open. 
Tengeka ku-, to be put on one side. 
Tengelea and Tengeleza = Tengeneza 

and Tengenea. 
Tengenea ku-, to be comfortable, to 

be as it should be. 
Tengeneza ku-, to finish off, to put 

to rights, to touch up. 
Tengezeka ku-, to be established, 

made right. 
Tengua ku-, to put aside. 
Tepukua ku-, to cut away young 

Tepukuzi, plur. Matepukuzi, shoots 

from the root of a tree. 
Terema ku-, to be at ease. 
Tesa ku-, to afiiict. 

Kuteswa, to suffer, to be afflicted. 
Teso, plur. mateso, afflictions, adver- 
Teta ku-, to oppose, to strive against, 

to be adverse to, to go to law 

with, to mention disparagingly. 
Tetea ku-, to cackle like a hen. 
Tetea ku- (M.) = Chechea ku-, to 

walk lame. 
Tete ya kwanga, rubeola. 
Tetema ku-, to tremble, to quiver. 
Tetemea = Chechemea. 




Tetemeka hu-, to tremble, to shake, 

to shiver, to quake (as the earth;, 

to chatter (of the teeth). 
Teteri, a small kind of dove. 
Tetcza hu-, to rattle. Also, to lead 

a sick person by the hand. 
Teua ku; to choose, select, pick 

out = Cliagua ku-. 
Teuka ku-, to dislocate, to sprain. 
-teule, choice, chosen. 
Tezama and Tezamia = Tazama and 

Tezi, a fibrous tumour, goitre. 
Thahihu, an offering, a sacrifice. 
'Hi obit, plur. mathahit, firm, brave, 
Thahabu, gold. [steadfast. 

Thahiri, evident, plain. 
Thaldri ku-, to make plain, to 

Thaifu, weak, infirm, bad. 
Thalatha, three. Also Thelaiha, &c. 
ThalatJiatashara, thirteen. 
Thalathini, tliirty. 
Thalimu, a fraudulent person, a 

TJialimu ku-, to wrong, to defraud. 
Tlialili, very low, very poor. 
Thamana (th in this), a surety. 
Thamani {th in thing), a price. 

Ya thamani, of price, valuable. 
TJiamhi, sin. 
TJidmin, surety. 
Thamini ku, to become surety. 
Thamiri, conscience, thought. 
Tliani ku-, to think, to suppose. 
TJiania ku-, to think of a person, to 

suppose him, to suspect. 
TJiarau, scorn. 
Tharau ku-, to scorn. 
Tlidruha, (Ar. a stroke), a storm, 
(in arithmetic) multiplication. 

Tlidruha moja, at one stroke, 

Tliathu, a kind of jay brought down 

from Unyauyembe. 
Tliaicahu, a reward ; especially re- 
wards from God. 
Thelatha, &c. See Tlialatha, &c. 
Tltelimu ku-, to oppress. 
Thelth, a donkey's canter. 
Theluth, a third. 
Themanini, eighty. 
Themanini, a linen fabric. 
Tliemantashara, eighteen. 
Themanya, eight. 
Themuni, an eighth. 
Tlienashara, twelve. 
TJieneen, two. 

Thihaka, ridicule, derision. 
Thihaki ku-, to ridicule, to make 

game of. 
Tldhirtsha ku-, to make clear, to 

Thii ku-, to be in distress. 
Thiiki ku-, to be put to straits. 
Tliili ku-, to abase. 
TJiiraa, a measure of about half a 
yard, from the point of the 
elbow to the tips of the fingers. 

Thiraa konde, from the point of 
the elbow to the knuckles of 
the clenched fist. 
Thoofika ku-, to be made weak, to 

become weak. 
Thoofisha ku-, to weaken, to make 

Thoumu, garlic. 
Tliuhutisha ku-, to give courage to, 

to make certain, to convince, to 

Thubutu, ku-, to dare, to have 
courage for, to be proved. 

Sithuhutu, I dare not. 
Tliuku ku-, to taste. 
Tliukuru ku-, to invoke. 
I ThuUi, didtrtss, misery. 




Tfiulumu, wrong. 

Thulumu ku-, to do wrong, to per- 
Thuluru, a kind of sandpiper. 
Thuluth, a third. Also Theluth. 
Thumu liu-, to slander. 
Thurea, a chandelier. 
Tliuru hu-, to harm. 
Haithuruy no harm, it does not 
Tia hu-, to put, to put into. 

Kutia nanga, to anchor. 

Kutia cJiuoni, to put to school. 
Tiara, a boy's kite. 
Tiba, a term of endearment. 
Tibilca hu-, to be cured. 
Tihu ku-, to cure. 
Tibu, a kind of scent. 
Tibua ku-, to stir up and knock 

Tifua hu-, to cause to rise like dust 

or a mist. 
Tifuha hu; to rise in a cloud. 
Til hu-, to obey. 
Tiisha ku-, to make to obey, to 

Tika ku-, or twika, to put a burden 

on a man's head for him. 
Tiki, just like, exactly as. 
Tikia ku-, to reply. See Itikia. 
Tikisa ku-, to shake. 
Tikiti, plur. matikiti, a sort of water 

Tikitika ku-, to be shaken. 
Tikitiki, utterly and entirely, to the 

last mite. Also, (M.) into little 

Tikiza ku-, to have patience with. 
Tilia ku-, to put to, for, &c. 
Tilifika ku-, to waste, to grow less. 
Tilifisha hu-, to diminish, to make 

to dwindle away. 
Tiliju ku-, to ruin, to waste. 

Tililia hu-, to darn. 

Timazi, a stone hung by a line, used 

as a plummet by masons. 
Timbi, bracelets. 
Timbuza hu-, to begin to show itself, 

like the sun in rising. 
Timia hu-, to be complete. 
Timilia hu-, to become complete. 
-timilifu, complete, perfect. 
Timiliza hu-, to make complete. 
Timiza hu-, to complete, to make 

Time, a woman's name. 
Timvi, an ill-omened child. 
Tinda hu- (M.) = Chinja hu-, to 

cut, to cut the throat, to slaughter, 
Tindiha ku- (A.), to fall short. 
Tindikia ku-, to cease to. 

Imenitindikia, I am out of it, I 
have no more. 
Tindikiana ku-, to be separated, to 

be severed, as friends or relatious 

at a distance from one anotlier. 
Tiwgre, a game consisting in imitating 

all the motions of a leader. 
Tini, a fig, figs. 
Tint (M.) = Chini, down. 
Tipitipi, a brown bird, a mocking 

Tipua ku-, to scoop out, to dig out, 

to dip out. 
Tiririka ku-, to glide, to trickle. 
Tis'a = Tissia, nine. 
Tisaini, ninety. 
Tisatashara, nineteen. 
Tisha hu-, to frighten, alarm, make 

Tissia, nine. 

Tita hu; to tie up together. 
Tita, plm*. madta, a faggot, a bundle 

of firewood. 
Titi, the nipple. 
Tiiia ku-, to shake, to sink in. 




Also (?) of the sea, when deep 
and rough, to boil. 
Titika hu', to carry a bundle of 

sticks, &c. 
Titima Jcu-, to roar and roll like 

Titia-anga, chicken-pox. See Kiti- 

Tiwo (?), paralysis. 
'to, a suffix, denoting goodness or 
propriety, rarely used in Zan- 
Euiceica, to put ; 

Kuwekato, lo put properly. 
Manuka, smells ; 
Manukato, scents. 
TfM ku; to put out, to take away, 
give, expel, to deliver, to except, 
to choose out. 
Kutoa meno, to grin, to show the 
teeth, to snarl. 
Toazi, plur. matoazi, cymbals. 
Toha, repentance. 
Tohoa ku; to break through, to 

break a hole in a wall. 
Tohice, a simpleton, ignoramus. 
Tofaa, plur. matofaa, a fruit shaped 
like a codling with rosy-coloured 
streaks, = Tomondo. See Mto- 
Tofali, plur. matofali, a brick. 
Tofauti, difference, dispute. 
Nimeingia tofauti kica kuv:a wee 
umeniibia fetha ynngu, I have 
a quarrel with you for stealing 
my money. 
Tofua ku-, to hurt or put out an 

Tofuka ku-, to have an eye hurt or 

put out. 
Toga kur, to pierce the ears. 
Togica, un fermented beer. 
Tolinra, circumcision. 

Tohara ku-, to purify by ablutions, 

to perform the Mohammedan 

Toi, a kind of wild goat. 
Toja ku-, to slash, cut gashes, as a 

means of bleeding, &c. 
Tojo, a cut made for ornament, &c. 
Toka or Tokea, from, since. 
Toka ku-, to go or come out or away 
from, to be acquitted, to go 

Kutoka damn, to bleed. 

Kutoka Tiari, to sweat. 
Tokana ku-, to go forth from one 

another, to divorce, to be set free. 
Tokea, from, since. See Toka. 
Tokea hapo, in old time, from old 

Tokea ku-, to come out to, or from, 

to appear. 
Tokeza ku-, to ooze out, to project. 
Tokomea ku-, to get out of one's 
Tokoni, the pelvis. [sight. 

Tokono (A.), the hips. 
Tokora ku-, to pick one's teeth. 
Tokosa ku-, to boil, to cook by 

Tokoseka ku-, to be well boiled, to 

be done. 
Tokota ku-, to become boiled, to be 

cooked by boiling. 
Tolea ku-, to put out for, to offer to. 

Kutolewa, to have put out for 
one, or to be put out, to be 
Toma, orchitis, hydrocele. 
Tomasa ku-,to poke with the fingers, 

to feel, used of examining a 

living creature, as Bonyesha, of 

inanimate objects. 
Tomha ku-, t© have sexual connec- 
tion with. 
Tomho, a quail. 

2 D 




Tomea ku- (RI.) = Chomea ku-. 
Tomea ku-, to point by pla&tering 

over and putting small stones in 

to make the work firm. 
Tomesha ku-, to set on (a dog, &c.). 
Tomo, dross of iron, &c. 
Toinise = Tomo. 
Tomondo, a hippopotamus. 
Toiaondo, plur. matomondo = Tofaa. 
Tana ku-, to drop. 
Toiia ku-. 

Kutona hina, to lay and bind on 
a plaster of henna until the 
part is dyed red. 

Kutona godoro, to sew through a 
mattress here and there to con- 
fine the stuffing. 
Tandoo, a small brown nut con- 
taining oil. 
Toiiesha ku-, to strike against, to 

touch a sore place, to make a sore 

Toae, plur. matone, a drop. 
Toneza ku-, to cause to drop. 
Tonga ku- (M.) = Chonga ku-, to 

Tongea ku- = Chongea. 
Tongosimba, a small bird black 

with white neck ; it makes a 

great noise in flying. 
Tongoza ku-, to seduce. 
Tope, mud, plur. matope, much mud. 
Tojjea ku-, to sink in mire, to be 

Topetope, a custard apple. 
Topeza ku-, to be too heavy for one. 
Topoa ku-, to take out, to break a 

spell, to clear for cultivation. 
Tom, plur. matora, a small spear. 
Toniti, the law of Moses, the Pen- 
'Fwoka ku-, to rim away from a 

master, from home, &c. 

Torosha ku-, to abduct, to induce ti 

run away. 
Tosa ku-, to cause to sink, to drown 

Eutosa macho, to spoil the eyes. 
Tosa, plur. matosa, fruit just be- 
ginning to ripen, all but ripe. 
Tosha ku; to suffice, to be enough 

for, to cause to come out. 
Toshea ku-, to be astonished, to be 

Tosheleza ku-, to suffice. 
Toshewa ku-, to be astonished. 
Tola ku; to sink. 
Totea ku- (]M.) = Chochea ku-. 
Toteza macho ku-, to spoil the eyes. 
Totoma ku-, to be lost, to wander. 
Totora ku-, to pick one's teeth. Also, 

Tooya = Chooya. 
Towea ku-, to eat as a relish or 

Toiceka ku-, to vanish. At Lamoo 

tliis word is used for to die. 
Towelea ku-, to eat by mouthfuls. 
Towesha ku-, to ruin, to put out of 

the way. 
Toweza ku-, to pour gravy, &c., over 

the rice. 
Tozi, plur. matozi (M.), a tear. 
Trufu, trump (in cards). 
Tu, only, nothing but this, only 

just. The -u of tu is very short ; 

it always follows the word or 

phrase which it qualifies. 
Tu, we are or were. 
Tu or Tw; the sign of the first 

person plural, we. 
-tu- or -tw-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person plural, ms, 
TvM ku-, to put down, to put down 
loads, to rest, to halt, to encamp, 
to set (of the sun). 

Jua likitua, at sunset. 




Tua ku; to grind by pushing a 

stone backwards and forwards. 
Tuama ku-, to settle, to clear itself. 
Tuana ku-, to settle. 
Tubia ku-, to repent of. 
Tabu ku-, to repent. 
Tufanu, a storm, a tempest. 
Tufe, a ball. 
Tuhumu ku-, to accuse of, to lay to 

his charge, to suspect. 
Tui (M.) = Cliui, a leopard. 
Tui, the oily juice squeezed out of 

the scraped cocoa-nut. 
Tuiliza ku-, to prolong. 
Tuja ku- (M.) = Chuja ku-, to strain. 
Tuka, posts of a verandah or long 

Tukana ku-, to use bad language 

to, to abuse, to address with in- 
sulting or indecent expressions. 
Tukano, plur. matukano, bad words, 

insulting or filthy language. 
Tukia ku-, &c. (M.) = Chukiaku-,&c. 
Tukia ku-, to happen. 
Tukio, plur. matukio, a thing which 

happens, an accident. 
Tukiza ku-, to project. 
Tukua ku; &c. (M.) = Chukua 
-tukufu, glorious, great. [ku-, &c. 
Takuka ku-, to become exalted, to 

grow great. 
Tukum ku-, to move, to shake. 
Tukuta ku-, to move about restlessly, 

to shake nervously. 
Tukutiza ku- (obscene). 
Tukuza ku; to exalt, to make great. 
Tulia ku-, to become quiet, to settle 

down, to amend from a riotous 

Tulia, don't make a noise. 
Tulia ku-, to grind with. See Tua. 

Jiice la kutulia, a stone to grind 

Tulika ku; to be serene and tranquil. 
Tulilia kur, to settle down lor or in 
regard to. 

YamekutuUUa f have you under- 
stood me ? 

Yamejiitulilia, I have. 
Tuliliana ku-, to come to an agree- 
TuUza ku-, to calm, to still. 
Tulizia ku-, to calm for. 

Kuti'lizia roho, to calm, to console. 
Tuma ku; to t mploy, to send about 

some business. 
Tuma ku- (M.) = Chuma ku-, to 
Tumaa ku-, to hope. [profit. 

Tumai ku- = Tumaa. 

Roho yatumai, I hope. 
Tumaini ku-, to be confident, to 

Tumainisha ku-, to make confident, 

to make to hope. 
Tumania ku-, to hope in, confide in. 
Tumba, a long rice-bag. 
Tumbako, tobacco, 

Kuvuta tumbako, to smoke. 

Tumbako ya kunuica or kunusa^ 
Tumbasi, an abscess. [snuff. 

Tumbili, a small kind of light- 
coloured monkey. 
Tumbo, plur. matumbo, gut, belly, 
viscera, womb. 

Tumbo la kuenenda, diarrhoea. 

Tumbo la kuharadamu, dysentery. 
Tumbua ku-, to disembowel, cut 

open, pick a hole in, open (an 

Tumbuiza ku-, to soothe, to sing to, 

to sing by turns. 
Tumbuka ku-, to burst, to be burst, 

&c. See Tumbua. 
Tumbukia ku-, to fall into. 

Ametumbukia, kisimani, he hag 
got into a scrape. 

2 p 2 




TumbuMza hu-, to throw into, to 

cause to fall into, to get a person 

into a scrape. 
Turnbulia hu-. 

KutumhuUa macJio, to stare at. 
Tumbuu, a staple. 
Tumbuza hu-, to disembowel, to 

penetrate, to get through. 
Tume, a messenger. 
Tumia hu-, to employ, to spend, to 

Tumiha hu-y to be employed, to 

Tumihia hu-, to be employed by, to 

serve, to obey. 
Tumu, taste, tasting. 
TiimUy the month Eamathnn. 
Tuna hu-, &c. (M.) = Chuva hu, &c. 
Tuna hu-, to swell, to get cross. 
Tunda, plur. matunda, a fruit. 
Tundama hu-, to gather, to settle at 

the bottom. 
Tundiha hu-, to hang up, to be 

Tundu, plur. fundu or matundu, a 
hole, a cage, a nest. 

Tundu ya pua, a nostril. 
Tunduaa hu-, to stand stockstill in 

wonder at, &c. 
Tunga, a round open basket. 
Tunga hu-, to suppurate. 
Tunga hu-, to put together in order, 

to string beads, to make verses. 
Tungama hu-, to clot, to congeal. 
Tungamana hu-, to be steady. 
Tungia hu-, to thread a needle. 
Timgua hu-, to let down, to pull 

down, to hook down. 
Tunguha hu-, to be pulled or let 

Tungiha hu-, to depend upon, to 

hang from. 
Tungu (M.) = Chungu, ants. 

Tunguja, a common weed, a species 

of solanum. 
Tunguliahu- (M.) = Chunguliahu-^ 

to peep. 
Tuniha hu- (M.), to lose the skin, to 

be flayed. 
Tunu, a rarity, a choice gift, a 

Tunuha hu-, to love excessively, to 

long for. 
Tunuhia hu, to make a present to. 
Tunza, plur. matunza, care. 
Tunza hu-, to take care of, to look 

after, to make gifts to. 
Tupa, a file. 

Tupa, plur. matupa (M.), a bottle. 
Tujm hu-, to throw, to throw away. 

Kutupa nathari, or macho, to cast 
a glance, to cast the eyes. 

Kutuxja mhono, to break off friend- 
Tupia hu-, to throw at, to pelt with. 
Tupiza hu-, to pass its proper mea- 
sure or time. 
-tupu, bare, empty. It makes tupu 

with nouns like nyumba. See 

Tupua hu-, to root out, to pull up. 
Turuhani, tare, allowance for pack- 
age, &c., in weighing. 
Turuma. See Maiuruma. 
Turupuha hu-, to slip out of one's 

Tushiih, ascriptions of praise, a 

rosary, the beads used by Mo- 

liammedans in praying. Sea 

Tusha hu-, to lower, to make mean 

or low. 
Tushi, plur. moius^M, abuse, bad 

language. See Matusu. 
Tuswira, a pictura 
Tula, plur. matuta, a heap of earth. 




a raised bed for planting sweet 
Tutu! Leave it alone ! Don't touch! 

Used to little children. 
Tutuka hu-, or Tutu'mlta or Tutu- 
sika, to rise in little swellings, to 
come out in a rash. 
Tutuma ku-, to make a noise of 

bubbling, to boil up. 
Tuiumua ku-. 
Kujitutumua, to gather oneself 
up for an effort. 
Tuza ku-i or Tuuza ku-, to weep (of 
a wound). 
Eutnza damn (M.), to run down 
with blood, to bleed exces- 
Tuza ku- = Tunza ku-. 
Kujituza, to make oneself mean 
or low. 
Tuz-anya ku-, to come to an agree- 
ment (A.). 

-tw- = -tU: 

Twa ku (M.) = Chwa ku-. 
Twaa ku-, to take. 

Kuticau nyara, to take as spoil. 
Twalia ku-, to take from. 
Twaliwa ku-, to be deprived of, to 

have had taken from one. Used 

also in the sense of, to be taken. 
Twana ku- or Tuana ku-, to settle. 
Ticana ku- = Twazana. 
Twanga ku-, to clean corn from the 

husk by pounding it in a wooden 

Twangia ku-, to clean corn for, 

with, etc. 
Twazana ku-, to resemble in face, 

to be like, 
Tweka ku-, to hoist, to raise, to 

take up. 
Twesha ku-, to go by night to see 

any one. 

Tiveta hu-, to pant, to strive for 

Ticeza ku-, to despise, to hold in 

Twiga, a giraffe, a camelopard. 
Ticika ku-, to put a load on a man's 

head. Also Tika. 


TJ is pronounced like oo in food. 

TJ before a vowel takes a conso- 
nantal sound, and may be written 
w. This change is not so marked 
before a u as before the other vowels. 
Sometimes both w's keep their vowel 
sound. TJ before o is frequently 
dropped : 

Moyo = Muoyo. 

The syllable mu- is seldom so 
pronounced in Zanzibar; it becomes 
mw- or 'm, or a simple m. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged, as, 

Ufalme or TJfaume, a kingdom. 

Mlango or Micango, a door. 

Nouns in u- or w- generally lose 
their u- in the plural, most of them 
substituting n- or ny- for it, but 
dissyllable nouns keep the u- and 
prefix ny-. See N. 

The insertion of a -«- before the 
final -a of a verb reverses its mean- 

Kufunga, to fasten. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. 

There is a suppressed I between 
the u and the a (as always in 
Swahili between two consecutive 
vowels), which appears in the ap- 
plied forms. 

Kufungulia, to unfasten for. 

The pasaiye of the applied forms 




of verbs in -ua is used also as the 
passive of the simple form. 

Kufunguliwa,to be unfa:;tened, or 
to have unfastened for one. 

Kuua, to kill, is irregular, and 
makes its passive by adding -wa, 
hiuaway to be killed. 

U (Ar.), and. 

U, thou art, it is, of nouns in m-, 
and of those which make their 
plural in mi-. 

U- or W-, the sign of the second 
person singular. 

U- or wj-, the personal prefix of the 
third person singular denoting a 
substantive in w-, or one which 
makes its plural in mi-. 

-U-, or -W-, the objective prefix de- 
noting a substantive in w-, or one 
that makes its plural in mi-. 

U- as a substantive prefix is used 
to form abstract nouns, and also 
to form the names of countries, 

7:a, the Nyika country ; 
Ugala, the Galla country ; 
Dzungu, the country of Eu- 
TJa ku; to kill. 

Passive, kuuawa, to be killed. 
Ua, plur. maua, a flower. 
Ua, plur. nyua, a yard, an enclosure, 
a fence. 
Ua wa mahua, an enclosure fenced 

with mtama stalks. 
Ca ica maJcutiy&n enclosure fenced 
with plaited cocoa-nut leaves. 
Uanda, a court, a yard. 
Uanda = Wanda, 
Uanja = Uanda. 
Uapo, plur. nijapo, an oath. 
Uawa ku', to be killed. 

Uayo, plur. nyayo, the sole of the 

foot, a footprint. 
Ubahwa, pap, a soft food for chil- 

Ubafu or Uhavu, plur. mbavu, a rib. 
Mbavuni, in or at its side. 

Uhani, incense, galbanum. 

Ubatili, nullity. 

Ubau, plur. mbau, a plank. 

Ubawa, plur. mbawa,Q, wiug feather. 

Kufanya ubazazi, to make a bar- 

Ubeleko, a cloth worn by women, a 
customary present to the bride's 
mother on the occasion of a 

UbisTii, a joke. 

UbuyvL, the inside of the calabash 

Uchafu or Uchavu, filthiness. 

Uchagaa = Utagaa. 

Uchala, a raised stage to put corn 
&c. upon. 

Uchawi, witchcraft, black magic. 
Kufanya uchawi, to practise 

Uchi, nakedness. 

Uchipuka, plur. chipuTca, a shoot, a 
blade of grass. 

UchocJwro, a passage, opening be- 

Uchovu, tediousness. 

Uchu, a longing. 

Uchukuti, the leafstalk of the cocoa- 
nut leaf. 

Uchukuzi, carriage, cost of carry- 

Uchukwi, a kind of rice. 

Uchumi = Utumi. 

Uchungu, bitterness, pain, poison. 

Uchungu, bitter. See -chungu. 
Dawa uchungu, bitter medicine. 




Vdaha, babbling, telling secrets. 
Udevu, plur. ndevu, one hair of the 

Udogo, smallnesa, youth. 
Udongo, clay, a kind of earth used 

to mix with the lime and sand in 

making mortar. 
Ufa ku-, to become cracked. 
Ufa, plur. nyiifa, a crack. 

Kutia ufa, to crack. 
Ufagio, plur. fagio, a brush, a broom, 

a bundle of the leaves of a palm 

used to sweep with. 
Vfahamu, memory. 
Ufajiri = Alfajiri. 
?7/aZmeorZ7/aM?ne,kingdom, royalty. 
Ufidiwa, a ransom. 
Ufisadif vice. 
Ufishi, vice. 
Ujito, plur. Jito, a thin stick, sticks 

such ae those which are used as 

laths to tie the maliuti thatch to. 
Ufizi, plur. fizi, the gums. 
fy/M, death, the state of being dead. 
Ufufulio or Ufufuo, resurrection, 

Ufuhara^ destitution. 
Ufukwe, absolute destitution. 
Ufumhi, valley, bottom. 
Ufunga, stone bench, = Kiharaza. 
Ufungu, relatives. 
Ufunguo, plur. funguo, a key. 
Ufuo, sandy beach. 
Ufuta, semsem. 
Ufuthuli, ofBciousness. 
Vga, an open space in a town wliere 

a house has been pulled down, or 

where a dance could be held. 
Ugali, porridge. 

Uganga, white magic, medicine. 
Ughaibu, the little packet of betel 

leaf, areca nut, lime, and tobacco 

made up for chewing. j 

Ugo, enclosure, close. 

Ugomvi, a quarrel, quarrelsomeness. 

Ugonjica, sickness, a sickness. 

Ugrani, a general collection of debts. 
I Ugica ku-, to fall sick, to groan. 

Ugtimu, hardness, ditficulty. 

Uguza ku; to nurse, to take care of 

Ugice, string. [a sick person. 

Uhardbu, mischief. 

Uharara, warmth. 

Uharibivu, destruction, destructive- 

Uhtaji, want, thing wanting. 

Uhuru, freedom. 

l7i?/i6o, plur. 7iyimho,a. song, a ballad. 

Uirari (in arithmetic), proportion, 
division of profits. See Worari. 

Ui'zi, theft, thieving, 

Ujahili, boldness. 

Ujalifu, fulness. 

Ujana^ youth. 

Ujari, tiller-ropea. 

Ujenzi, building. 

Uji, gruel. 

Ujima, help of neighbours, assist- 
ance in work. 

Ujinga, rawness, dulness, ignorance. 

Ujio, coming. 

Ujira, hire, reward. 

Ujumhe, chiefship, headship. 

Ujuvi, knowingness, officiousness, 
pretended knowledge. 

Ujusi, defilement, whatever is re- 
moved by ablutions. 

Ukaango, plur. kaango, an earthen 
pot for cooking with oil or fat. 

Ukafu toa maj% a bubble on 

Ukali, fierceness, sharpness. 

Kufanya ukali, to scold. 
Ukambaa, plur. kambaa (M.), cord 




Ukamilifu, perfectness, perfection. 

TJTianda, a strap. 

JJkao, stay, stopping. 

Ukarimu, generosity, liberality. 

XTkawa, delay. 

Ukaya, a long piece of blue calico, 
often ornamented with spangles, 
worn by slaves and poor women 
in Zanzibar over tbeir heads: 
it has two long ends, reaching 
nearly to the ground. 

Vhelele, plur. kelele, a cry, a noise. 
Akapigiwa ukelele, and a ory was 
made at him. 

Uicemi, a call (Mer.). 
Nipigie ukemi^ give me a call. 

Ukengele, a sort of knife made in 

TJketo, depth. 

Ukingo, the brink, a screen, an en- 
closure made with cloths. 

Ukiri, plur. kiri, a strip of fine 
matting about an inch broad, out 
of which mikeka are made. 

TJkhca, desolation, solitude where 
people once were. 

TJko or fltt/co, there. 

Ukoa, plur. k'oa, a plate of metal, 
one of the rings on the scabbard 
of a sword, &c. 

Ukoga, the tartar and dirt on the 

Ukohozi, phthisis. 

Ukoka, grass cut for fodder. 

Ukoko, the rice on the top of the 
pot, which is often dry and 
scorched through the custom of 
pouring away the water when the 
rice is done and heaping live 
embers on the lid of the pot. 
Ukoko (A.), a cough. 
JJkologefu, decay* 
Ukoma, leprosy. 

Ukomha, a scraper, a curved knife 
for hollowing out mortars, &c. 

Ukomholewa, a ransom. 

Ukomhozi or Ukomhoo, a ransom 

Ukonde (wa tende), a (date) stone. 

Ukangice, oldness, extreme old age. 

Ukonyezo, plur. konyezo, a sign made 
by lifting the eyebrow. 

Ukoo, nastine^s, uncleanness (?). 

Ukoo, ancestry, pedigree, family 
origin and connections. 

Ukope, plur. kove, a hair from the 

Ukosi, the nape of the neck. 

Ukuhali, acceptance. 

Ukuhwa, greatness, bigness. 

Ukucha, plur. kucha, a nail, a claw, 
a boo/. 

Ukufi, plur. hnfi, a handful,, what 
will lie upon the hand. 

Ukumbi, an apartment at the en- 
trance, a hall, a porch. The 
ukumbi is within a stone house 
and outside a mud house. 

Ulcumbulia, recollection. 

Ukumhusho, memorial, a reminder. 

JJkumhuu, plur. kumhuu, a girdle 
made of a narrow cloth, a turban 
cloth twisted tightly into a sort 
of rope such as the turbans of 
the Hindis are made of. 

JJlcundufu, pleasingness, comm©- 
diousuess, liberality. 

ZHcungu, mould, mouldiness. 
Kufanya nkungu, to get mouldy. 

JJliungu, the first liglit of dawn. 

Ukuni, plur. kuni, a piece of fire- 

Ukurasa, plur. kurasa, a leaf of a 

book, a sheet of paper. 
Ukuta, plur. kuta, a stone wall. 
TJkuti, plur. kuti, a leaflet of the 
cocoa-nut tree. 




Ukuu, greatness, size. 

Ukwaju, a tamarind. 

C/^u-ase/ii, necessity, having nothing. 

UJcwasi, wealth, riches. 

TJhvcato, plur. hwato, a hoof. 

CTaZo, a tree or trees cut down so 

as to fall across a river and make 

a bridge over it 
TJlaji^ gluttony. 

TJlambiyambi, a very young dafu. 
Ulanisi, a foul-mouthed person. 
TJlxiya or ^VilalJa^ home ; applied 

especially to the home of Euro- 
peans, Europe. 
Ulayiti, European, inferior calico. 

Kamha ulayiti, hempen rope. 
Ule, that, yonder. 
XTI^di, a dhow boy, a cabin boy. 
Ulegevu, relaxation, the state of 

being slack. 
Ulia Jcu-, to kill for, with, &c. 

Tumulie mhali, let us kill him 
out of the way. 
Ulili, a couch or bedstead (Kianz- 

Ulimbo, birdlime, gum, resin. 
Ulimhwende, dandyism. 
TJlimi, plur. ndimi, the tongue, a 

tenon, the heel of a mast. 
Ulimwengu, the world, the universe, 
a man's own world or circle of 
duties and pleasures. 

Kuwako ulimwenguni, to be alive. 
Ulingo, a raised platform to scare 
Ulio, which is. [birds from. 

Ulitimu, the last three cards of the 

Uliza ku-, to ask, to inquire of a 

Kumuliza hali, to ask how he 

Siicezi kuuUzica uicciigo,! cannot 
tell a lie. 

Ulizia ku-, to make inquiries on 

behalf of. 
JJIongo, falsehood. See Uwongo. 
TJma, plur. nyuma, a spit, a large 
fork, an awl. 

Umaica kuokea nyama, a gridiron. 
Uma ku-, to bite, to sting, to hurt, 

to give pain to, to ache. 
Umaheli, ingenuity. 
TJmalidadi, dandyism. 
Umande, dew, morning air, mist, 

the west wind. 
Umasikini, poverty. 
Umati, a multitude, people, 
TJmati Isa, Christians. 
Umati Musa, Jews. 
Umati Muhammad, Mohammedans. 
Umha ku-, to create, to shape. 
Umba ku-, to bale out a boat For 

Umhaumha ku-, to sway about like 

a drunken man. 
Umbo, plur. maumho, form, outward 
likeness, appearance, character, 

Najiona umbo la kuwa kiziici, I 
feel getting deaf. 
Umhu, plur. maumhu, a sister. 
Umbua ku-, to allege a defect, to 

Umhwa, or better Mbwa, a dog. 
-uiTie (or -lume), male, strong. • It 
makes ndum£ with nouns like 

Mkono ica kuume, the right hand. 
Umeme, lightning. 
Umia ku-, to give pain to. 
Umika ku-, to cup. 
Umio, the oesophagus. 
Umito, heaviness, feeling heavy. 
Umiza ku-, to hurt 
Umka ku-, to swell, to rise when 





UmTcu (?) Icu-t to call. 
Umo or Humo, there inside. 
Umoja, oneness. 
Umri, age. 

JJmri wake apataje f How old 
is he? 
Umua ku-, to take honey from the 

Una, you have, thou hast. 

Una nini9 What is the matter 
with you ? 
Unazozitaka, which you are asking 

Unda ku-, to build ships or boats. 
Undu, the comb of a cock. 
Unene, stoutness, thickness. 
Unenyekeo, humility, abasement, 

Unqa, flour, powder. 

Unga wa ndere, a magic poison, 
Unga ku-, to unite, to splice, to join. 
Ungama, a place near Melinda, 

swallowed up by the sea. 
Ungama ku-, to acknowledge, to 

confess of one's own accord. 
Ungamana ku-, to bring together, 

Ungamo, a yellow dye used for 

dyeing matting, 
Unganaku-, to unite, to join together. 
Unae-, the sign of the second person 
sing, conditional. 

Ungedumu, you would continue. 

Ungekuwa, you would be. 
Ungi, much, plenty. 
Ungo, the hymen (?). 

Kuvunja ungo, to be deflowered, 
to begin to menstruate. 
Urigo, plur. maungo, a round flat 

basket used in sifting. 
Ungua ku-,to be scorched or scalded. 
Unguja, Zanzibar. 
Vngulia ku-, to scorch or scald. 

Unguza ku-, to scorch or scald, to 

Ungwana, the state of being a free 

and civilized man, civilization. 
-ungwana, civilized, as opposed to 
-shenzi; free, as opposed to 

Kiungicana, of a civilized kind. 
Unuele, or Unwele, or Unyele, plur. 

7iyele, a hair. 
Unyago. See Kimjago. 

Kuchezea unyago, to teach wo- 
Unyasi, reed, grass. 
Unyayo, plur. nyayo, the sole of the 

foot, a footprint. 
Unyele. See Unuele. 

Kupiga unyende, to cry with a 
feeble thin voice. 
Unyika, the Nyika country. 
Unyoa, plur. nyoa, a feather. 
Unyofu, straightness, uprightness. 
Unyogovu. idleness. 
Unyonge, vileness, meanness. 

Kupiga unyungu, to strut about, 
to show oneself off. 
Uiiyushi, plur. nyushi, a hair from 

the eyebrow. 
Uo, plur. mnuo, a sheath. 
Uoga, or Woga, fear, 
Uovu, rottenness, badness, corrup- 
tion, malice, evil. 
Uozi, marriage. 
Upaa, baldness. 

Upaa wa kitwa, crown of the 
head, baldness. 
Upaja, plur. paja, the thigh. 
Upaji, liberality. 
Upamha, plur. pamba, a bill, a small 

Upana, width, breadth. 




Upande, plur. pande, a side, part. 
Ujjande wa Mvita, near or about 

TJpande wa cJiini, the under side, 

the lee side. 
Upande wa juu, the upper side, 

the weather side. 
XJpande ica gosMni, the side where 
the tack of the sail is fastened, 
the weather side, 
dpanga, a cock's comb. 
Upanga, plur. panga, a sword. 
Upanga wa felegi, a long straight 
two-edged sword carried by the 
Upanga wa imani, a short sword 

with a kind of cross hilt. 
Kuweka upanga, to set up a 
sword on its edge. 
Upao, plur. pao, one of the small 
sticks used as laths to tie the 
tiiatch to. 
Upapi, the outer beading of a door 

Upataji, value. 
Upato, a round plate of copper 

beaten as a musical instrument. 
Upawa, plur. jjaica, a flat ladle made 
out of a cocoa-nut shell, used 
for serving out curry, gravy, &-c. 
An upawa differs from a Itata in 
being very much flatter and 
shallower ; more than two- 
thirds of the shell are cut away 
to make an upaica ; scarcely a 
quarter is cut off in making a 
Upekeclio, the piece of wood used 

to make fire by rubbing. 
Upeketevu, destruction, harm, quar- 
Upele, plur. pele, a large pimple. 
Pele, the itch. 

Upemho, curved end, hook, a stick 

to hook down fruit with. 
Upendaji, the habit of liking. 
Upendavyo, as you please. 
Upendelto, favour. 
Upenzi, love, affection, liking. 
Upen, plur. peo (M.), a sweeping 

Upeo, the extremest point visible, 

the extreme limit, something 

which cannot be surpassed. 
Upepeo, plur. pepeo, a fan. 
UpepOy plur. pepo, a wind, cold. 

See Pepo. The plural is used to 

denote much wind. 
Upesi, quickly, lightly. 
Upia = Upya, newness. 
Upindi, plur. pindi, a bow. 

Upindi wa mvua, the rainbow 
Upindo, a fold, a hem. 
Upo, a water-dipper for a boat or 

Upofu, blindness. 
Upogo, a squint. 
Upogoupogo, zigzag. 
Upole, gentleness, meekness. 
Upondo, plur. pondo, a pole used to 

propel canoes and small vessels. 
Upongoe, plur. pongoe, the leaf stem 

of a palm tree. 
Upooza, paralysis. 
Upote, string, bowstring. 
Upotevu, waste, desti uctiveness, 

Upumbafu, folly. 
Upunga, plur. punga, a tlower or 

embryo nut of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Upungiifu, defect, defectiveness. 
Upupu, cow-itch. 

Upuzi, nonsense, chatter, silly talk. 
Upweke, singleness, independence. 
Upya, newness. 
Urathi, contentment. 




TJrefu, length. 

Uremho, ornament, applied espe- 
cially to the black lines painted 
on their faces by the women of 
Zanzibar by way of ornament. 

Urithi, inheritance. 

Urango = TJiwngo. 

Urotha, invoice. 

Uru, diamonds (in cards). 

Usafy shavings and chips. 

Usaha^ matter, pus. 

Useini, talk, conversation. 

TJshadi, plur. nyushadi, verses. 

Ushahidi, or Ushuhuda, testimony. 

Ushambilio, haste, suddenly. 

Ushanga, plur. shanga, a bead. 

Usharika, partnership, sharing. 

Ushaufu, deceit. 

Usherati, dissipation. Also Asherati. 

Ushi, a string-course. 

Ushujaa, heroism, great courage. 

Ushukura, thanks. 

TJshungUy a vegetable poison, used 
to poison arrows. 

Ushupafu, perversity, crookedness. 

Ushuru, tax, duty, customs. 

Usia few-, to leave directions or 
orders, by will, &c. See Wana. 

Usikizi, hearing, attention, under- 

Usiku, night. The plur. siku is used 
to denote days of 24 hours. Four 
whole nights must be rendered 
siku nne usiku kucha. Four days 
and nights, siku nne mchana na 

Usimanga, mockery. 

Usimeme, firmness. 

Usinga, plur. singa, a (straight, not 
woolly) hair. See Singa. 

Usingizi, plur. singizi, sleep. See 

Usiri, delay. 

TJsiwa, on the high seas. 

TJso, plur. nyuso, face, countenance. 

Ussuhui, for Assubui, in the morning, 

the morning. 
Usubi, a sandfly, a midge. 
Usufi, silk cotton from the msitfi 

Usukani, plur. sukani, a rudder. 
UsuUani, sultanship. 
Usumha, see Makumhi. 
Uta, plur. nyuta or mata, a bow, 
TJta. [bow and arrows. 

Majuta ya uta, semsem oil. 
Utaa, a raised stage to put corn, 

&c. on. 
Utabibu, medical science, being a 

Utagaa, a branch of a tree. 
Utaji, a veil. 
Utajiri, wealth. 
Utakacho, what you wish. 
TJtakatifu, holiness, purity. 
TJtako (Mer.), keel of a dhow. 
Utambaa, plur. tambaa, a bandage, 

a rag. 
TJtambi, plur. tambi, a lamp-wick, a 

piece of stuff for a turban. 
TJtambo {wa sufuria, &c.), a swing- 
ing handle like tliat of a pail. 
Utamvua, end or corner of a turban, 

of a cloth, &c. 
Utandu (A.) = Ukoko. 
Utandui hymen. 
Utani, a kindred race, the belonging 

to a kindred tribe, familiarity. 
Utanzu, plur. tanzu, a branch. 
Utashi, desire. 
Utasi, tonguetieduess. 

Kupiga utawi, to drink grog to- 
Ute iva yayi, the white of an egg» 




Utelezi, slipperiness. 

Utemhe, the chewed refuse of betel 
leaf, &c. 

Utenzi, a poem, especially a reli- 
gious poem. 

Uteo, plur. teo (M.), a silting bas- 

Utepe, plur. tepe, a tape, a band, a 
fillet, a stripe. 

Utepetefu, languor. 

Ufesi, strife. 

Uthabiti, bravery, firmncps. 

Uthaifu, ■weakness, infirmity. 

Uthani, weight. 

Uthi hu; to harass, trouble. 

Uthia, bother, noise, uproar. 

Uthia TiU; to harass. 

Uthibaji, cheat, deceit, stratagem. 

TJtliika hu-, to be harassed. 

UtJdlifu, calamity, great trouble. 

TJthuru Jcu-, to excuse. 


TJti wa maungo, the backbone. 

TJtiko, the roof-ridge of a thatched 

Utiriri, a provoking trick. 

Utofu, dull, without amusement. 

Utofu, thinness, weakness. 

Utolco, mucus from the vagina. 


Uto wa riTjama, fat cooked out of 
meat, dripping. 

Utanwa, thick white sap. 

Utondwi, small dhows trading about 
Zanzibar, coasters. 

Utosi, the top of the head. 

Utoto, childhood. 

Utufu, fatigue. 

TJtuJiufu, greatness, exaltation, 

Utvley wretchedness, weakness, un- 

Utulivu, quietness, patience. 

Utumhavu, thickness, swelling, 

Utumhuizo, a soothing thing, verses 

sung during a dance. 
Utume, sending people about. 
Utumi, use, usage. 
TJtumo, business, place of business. 
Utuimva, slavery, employment, en- 

Kiitia ufumwani, to enslave. 
TJtnngu (M.) = Uchungu. 

Utungu, is used in the dialect of 
Zanzibar only for the pains of 
childbirth, Utungu ica uzazi. 
Utupa, a species of euphorbia used 

as a fish poison. 
Utupu, naked (vulgar). 

Mtu utupu, a naked man. 

Mtu mtiipu, a mere man. 
Uuaji, murderousness. 
Uudi, aloes wood. 
Uuza hu. See Uza hu-, 
Uvi, a door [Tumbatu], 
Uvivu, idleness, sloth. 
TJvuguvugu, lukewarmness. 

Maji yana uvuguvugu, the water 
is lukewarm. 
UvuU, shade. 

Uvumha, incense, galbanum. 
TJvundo, a smell of corruption. 
Uvurujika, tendency to crumble, a 

being spoilt and decayed. 
Uvurungu, hollowness. 

Jiwe la uvurungu, a hollow stone. 
TJvyazi, birth. 
TJwanda, a plain. 
Uwanga, arrowroot. 
TJtcanga, a sweet dish made of 

wheat, flour, sugar, and ghee. 
Uwanja, a courtyard, an enclosure. 
Uicashi, masonry. 
JJwati, a vesicular eruption on the 



U W A 


Uicaziri, the vizirship, 
TJweli, sickness, disease. 

TJweli wa viungo, rheumatism. 
Uwezo, power, ability. 
Kwpiga uwinda^ to pass the ends 
of the loin-cloth between the 
legs and tuck them in, as is 
done loosely by the Banyans, 
and tiglitly by men at work. 
Uicingu, plur. mhingu, heaven, sky. 
The plural is the form more com- 
monly used. 
Uwivu, jealousy. 
Vwongo, falsehood. 
Manenoye yameliuica uicongo, he 
has become a teller of lies. 
Uyajuapo, if you know them. 
Uyoga, a mushroom. 
Uyuzi, ingenuity. 
Uyuzi ku-, to ascertain. 
Uza ku-, to ask, to ask questions. 
Uza ku- or Za ku-, to sell. 
The u in kuuza, or rather kuza, 
to sell, is very short and insig- 
nificant : it is possibly only a 
partial retention of the ku-, 
which bears the accent and is 
retained entire in the usual 
tenses. The u- in kuuza, to 
ask, is much more important, 
as is shown clearly in tlie ap- 
plied forms. 

Kuuliza, to ask of a person ; 

pres. perf. ameuliza. 
Kuliza, to sell to a person ; 
pres. perf. ameliza. 
Uzanya ku-, to be ordinarily sold, 

to be for sale. 
TJzazi, birth. 
Uzee, old age. 
Uzembe, indifference, apathy, slow- 

Vzi, plur. nyuzi, thread, string, a 

TJziki, poverty. 

TJzima, health, heartiness, complete- 
ness, life. 

TJzingizi. ^ee Zingizi opudi Unngizi. 

Uzinguo, disenchantment, as from 
the power of the evil eye. 

Uzini or Uzinzi, adultery, fornica- 

Uzio, plur. nyuzio, a hedge made in 
the sea to catch fish. 

TJzulia ku-, to depose. 

TJzulu ku-, to depose, to remove from 
an office. 
Kujiuzulu, to resign, to give up a 
place or ofiBce, to abdicate. 

TJzuri, beauty, fineness, ornament. 
Kufanya uzuri, to adorn oneself. 

Uzuslii, raising from the bottom, as 
in fisliing for pearls. 

JJzuzu, rawness, greenness (of a 

V is pronounced as in English. 
V,f, and b, are sometimes a little 

difficult to distinguish accurately in 
the dialect of Zanzibar. This is 
probably owing to the want of a v 
in Arabic. 

V and vy change in some dialects 
into Z-, in others into th-. 

Micivi, a thief, becomes mitizi at 
Lamoo, and micitlii at Patta. 
Vaa ku-, to put on, to dress in. 
The past tenses are used in the 

sense of, to wear. 
Amevaa, he wears. 
Alivaa, he wore. 
Valia ku-. 




Mshipi tea Ituvalia nrjiio, a girdle 
to gird up one's clothes with. 

Vao, plur. mavao, dress. 

Varanga, interrupting and bother- 
ing talk. 

Vazi, plur. mavazi, a dress, a gar- 

Vemttf well, very well. 

Vema or Vyema, good. See -ema. 

Ti- or Vy-, the plural prefix of sub- 
stantives (and of adjectives and 
pronouns agreeing with them) 
which make their singular in hi- 
or ch-. 

Vi- or Vy-, sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs governed 
by nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Vi- or Vy- prefixed to adjectives 
often gives them an adverbial 

-vi-, the objective prefix represent- 
ing nouns in vi- or vy-. 
Via Jiu-, to stop short of perfection, ' 

to be stunted in its growth, to | 

remain only half cooked for want 

of fire, &c., &c. 
Viaa ku- = Vyaa Jcu-. 
Viatu (plural of Kiatu), shoes, san- 

Viatu vya Kizungu, European 

Viatu vya ngozi, leather sandals. 

Viatu vya mti, wooden ciogs. 
Viazi (plur. of Kiazi), sweet pota- 

Viazi vya Kizungu, potatoes. 

Viazi vikuu, yams. 
Viberiti (plur. of Kiberiti), matches, 

Vidani, collars of gold, &c. 
Viembe or Vyembe, arrows. 
Vifaa, necessaiies, useful things. 
Vigwe, braid, reins. 

Vijiueno, little words, prattle. 

Viha ku-, to clothe, to dress. 

Vile, those yonder. 

Vilevile, just those things, like 
things, in like manner. 

Vilia ku-, to stop and stagnate, as 
the blood does in a bruise. 

Vilio, a stagnation, a stoppage. 
Mavilio ya damu, bruises, effusion 
of blood. 

Vimba ku-, to swell, to thatch. 

Vimbisha ku-, to overfeed a person. 

Vimbhoa ku-, to be overstuffed, to 
overeat oneself. 

Vimo, all of one size. 

Vinga vya moto, firebrands, sing, 
Kinga cha moto. 

Vingi, many. See -ingi. 

Vingine, others. See -ngine. 

Vinjari ku-, to cruise about, to go 
looking out for something, to 

Vinyavinya ku-, to press and crush 
food for children and sick people. 

Viuyi. See Mweityi. 

Vinyu = Mvinyo. 

Vioga ku- (M.), to tread. 

Viombo = Vyombo. 

Viote or Vyote, all. See -ote. 

Vipande vya kupimia, nautical in- 
struments, sextants, &c. 

Vipele (plur. of Kipele), small 
pimples, a rash. 
Vipele vya harara, prickly heat. 

Viringa ku-, to become round. 
Iiueviringa, it is round. 

Viringana ku-, to become spherical. 

Visha ku-, to give cluthes to. 

Vita, war. 

Vitanga vya mizam, scales, scale- 

Vitindi vya shaba, bra-ss wire. 

Vitwa vltioa, topsy-turvy. 




Vivia liu-, to smoulder. 

Vivi Mvi, common, just there, just 

so, anyhow. 
-vivu, idle, dull, slow. 

Kisu ni kivivu, the knife is blunt 
Vivyo, thus, in the way mentioned. 
Vivyoliivyo, in like manner. 
Viwbnhi (plur. of Kimmhi), wave- 
lets, a ripple. 
Viza few-, to stunt, to prevent its 

attaining perfection, to interrupt, 

to stop or hinder in work. 
Vizia ku-, to watch, to spoil one's 

work for one, to hinder one from 

Vizuri, fine, finely. See -zuri. 
Vua ku-f to take off clothes. 
Vua ku-j to save, to deliver, to take 

Vua ku-y to fi-h, to catch fish. 
Vuuta ku- or Vwata ku-, to prets with 

the teeth, to hold in the mouth. 
Vuaza ku-, to wound by striking or 

running into unawares, tu cut. 
Vugaza ku-, to put to (a door). 
Vugo, a horn played upon by beat- 
Vuja ku-, to leak, to let water, [ing. 
Vujia ku-, to ooze out. 
VuJca ku-, to cross, to go over, to 

pass a river, to be saved. 
Vuke, steam, vapour, sweat. 
Vukiska ku-, to take across, to ferry 

Vukiza ku-, to cause to fume, to 

give off vapour. 
Vukieta ku-, to blow bellows. 
Vukuto, sweat. 

Dudu vule, an insect living in 
wood, a carpenter bee (?). 
Vuli, shade. 

Mkono wa kuvuli, the right hand. 

Vulia ku-, to catch fish for, or 

Vuma ku-, to blow as the wind, to 

buzz like a bee. 
Vu7na ku-, to lose (in card-playing). 
Vumbi, plur. mavumbi, dust, flue, 

muddiness in water. 
Vumbika ku-, to put in under some- 
thing, to stick into the embers, to 

cover with a heap of leaves, &c. 
Vumhikia ku-, to put seeds or plants 

in the ground before rain, to get 

them into the ground. 
Vumbilia ku-. 

Kuvumhilia vita, to get into a 
Vumhu, plur. mavumhu, lumps in 

flour, &c. 
Vumhua ku-, to find after a search, 

to discover. 
Vumi, a noise as of blowing or 

bellowing, often made with a 

Vumilia ku-, to endure, to tolerate, 

to bear. 
Vumisha ku-, to win (in card-play- 

Vuna ku-, to reap. 
Vuna ku-. 

Kujivuna, to swell up, to be 
puffed up. 
Vunda, &c. = Vunja, &c. 
Vunda ku-, to rot. 
-vungu, hollow. 

Vunja ku-, to break, to ruin, to 
spoil, to change a piece of 

Kuvunja jungo, to have a final 
feast, as before Ramathan. 
Vunja jungo or chungu, a mantis 

(Mantis roligiosa), so called from 

the superstition that a person 

touching it will break the next 




piece of crockery or glass he 

Vunjia hu-, to break for, with, &c. 
Vunjika hu-, to become broken. 
Vuruga Jcu-, to stir. 
Vurujika ku-, to break up into frag- 
ments, crumble. 
VurumisJia ku-, to throw a stone, &c. 
Vusha hu-, to put across, to ferry 

over, to put into the right way. 
Vuta ku-, to draw, to pull. 

Kuvuta maji, to bale out water. 

Kuvuta makasia, to row. 

Kuvuta tumhakOf to smoke to- 
Vuvia ku-, to blow. 
Vuvumka ku-, to grow up quickly. 
Vuzi, plur. mavuzi, a hair of the 

pubes. Also, (A.) hair in gene- 
Vy- = Vi: 
Vya, of. 
Vyaa ku-, to bear children, or fruit. 

Pass, vyaioa or vyaliwa. 
Vijake or Vyakwe, his, her, its. 
Vyako, thy. 
Vyakula (plur. of Chakuld), things 

to eat, victuals, meals, provisions. 
Vyaliwa ku-, to be born. 
Vyangu, my, of me. See -angu. 
Vyao, their, of them. See -ao. 
Vyetu, our, of us. See -etu. 
Yyenu, your, of you. See -enu. 
-vyo or -vyo-, as. 

Upendavyo, as you please. 

TJnipendavyo, as you love me, for 
my sake. 

Alivyoagiza, as he directed. See 
Vyo, -vyo, -vyo-, which. See -o. 

Vrjo vyote, whatsoever. 
Vyomho (plur. of CJwmho), vessels, 

household utensils, baggage. 


W is pronounced as in English. 

TV is commonly in Swahili a con- 
sonantal u, and in many words w 
or u may be written indifferently. 
There are other cases, as in the 
passive termination -ica, where the 
sound can only be expressed by an 
English w. 

W- = U-, which see. 
W-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by substan- 
tives either singular or plural 
which denote animate beings. 
Wa, of. See -a. 
Wa nini, why. 

Hamisi wa Tani, Tani's Hamisi, 
i.e. Hamisi, the sou of Tani. 
Wa or TJ, the Arabic and. 
Wa ! an Arabic exclamation. 
Wa-, the plural prefix of substan- 
tives in ?n-, '/n-, or mw- which 
denote animate beings. 
Wa-, the plural prefix of adjectives 
and pronouns agreeing with sub- 
stantives which denote animate 
Wa-, the prefix marking the third 
person plural of verbs governed 
by nouns denoting animate be- 
"Where the tense prefix begins 
with an -a- that of the personal 
prefix coalesces with it, so that 
there is no difference between 
the second person singular and 
the third plural. 
-ica- the objective plural prefix 
referring to substantives which 
denote animate beinp-a 
2 E 




Wa kit-, to be, to become (?) : the 
hu- bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual cases. 
The present tense of the substan- 
tive verb is generally rei^re- 
Bented by ni or by the personal 
prefix standing alone. 
The present tense with the rela- 
tive is represented by the syl- 
lable -li: Aliye, he who is. 
The present perfect amehuioa, &c. 
has the sense of, to have be- 
come. Was is represented by 
the past perfect tense alikuwa, 

Kuwa na, to have. 
Simekuwa mwongo ? should I 
not be a liar ? 
Waa ku-, to shine much, like the 

sun or the moon. 
Waa, plur. mawaa, a spot, a blotch, 

a stain. 
Wabba, cholera. 

Waboondei, the people living in the 
low country between the sea and 
the Shambala mountains. 
Wadi, son of. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed's 
Wadi TcU', to complete a term. 
Watu wa " London " wamewadi, 
the (H.M.S.) " London's" com- 
mission has expired. 
Wadia ku-, to be fully come, to be 

quite time for anything. 
Wadinasi for Walad ennas, born 
of people, that is, of decent 
Wadui, enmity, hostility. 
Wafikana ku-, to conspire together. 
Wafiki ku-, to suit, to be suitable 

Waga ku- (Mer.), to kill. 

Wagunya, the Swahili living north 

of Siwi. 
Wahadi, plur. nyahadi (?), for 

Ahadi, a promise. 
Wahid, one. 
Wai ku-, to be in time. 
Wainua, verily. 
Wdjib, rightness, it ought. 
Wajihi ku-, to visit, to see face to 

Wajihiana ku-, to meet face to face, 

to see one another. 
Waka ku-f to blaze, to burn up, to 

Wakati, time, season. 

Wakati huu, now. 
Wake or Wakwe, his, her, or its. 
Wakf. [See -ale. 

Kufanya wakf, to dedicate, to set 
apart for holy uses. 
Wakia, the weight of a silver dollar, 

about an ounce. 
Wakifu ku; to cost. 
Wakijia ku-, to cost to. 
Wakili, an agent, a representative. 
Wako, thy. 
Wakti = Wakati. 

Wakti gani nije ? at what time 
am I to come ? 
Wala, nor, and not. 

Wala — wala — , neither — nor — . 
Where or would be used in 

English after a negative wala is 

used in Swahili. 
Walai or Wallaye, the most com- 
mon Swahili oath. 
Walakini, but, and however. 
Walao, not even. 
Wale, those yonder. 
Wall, cooked grain, especially rice. 

Wali wa mwikuu, what is left 
from some meal overnight to be 
eaten in the morning:. 




Walt, a governor. 

Liwali for Al Wait, the governor, 
is more commonly used in Zan- 
Walio. See Nyalio. 
Walio, they who are. 
Walirmcengu, the people of this 

WalU, a saint. 

Wama ku-, to lie on the face. 
Wamha Jcu-, to lace in the ropes 

upon the frame of a hitanda, to 

fill up. 
Wamhiso, attachment. 
Wana, they have, 

Hawana, they have not. 
Wanda hu-, to get very fat and 

Wanda, plur. nyanda, a finger, a 

Wanga hu- (jMer.), to count, to 

Wanga, one who uses witchcraft 

against another. 
Wanga, arrowroot. Also Uanga. 
Wanga or Wangwa, a cliff. 
Wangine, others, other people. 

Wangine — wangine — , some — 
others — . 
Wangu, my. See -angu. 
Wangua hu-, to scoop up. 
Wangwa, a desert, a bare waste i 

Wangwana or Waungicana, gentry, 

free and civilized men. 

Wanja wa manga, antimony. 
Wano, plur. mawano, the shaft of 

an arrow or harpoon. 
Wao, they. 
Wao, their. See -ao. 
Wapi ? which people ? 
Wapi ? or api 1 where ? 

Commonly joined with the per- 
sonal sign of the nuun. 
Yu wapi or Yuho icapi ? where is 

Zi wapi or Ziho wapi ? where are 
[they] ? 

Wapilia hu-, to be laden with scent, 
highly perfumed. 

Wapo, a gift. 

Waradi, or Waredi, or Waridi, a 
I Waraha, plur. nyaraha, a letter. 

Waria, a clever dhow-builder, a 
clever man at any business. 

Warr, a yard (measure) . 

Wasa, plur. nyasa, small sticks to 
fill up between larger ones in a 
wall or roof. 

Wasa hu-, to contradict. 

Washa hu-, to light, to set fire to. 
Kuwasha moto, to light up a fire. 

WasTiarati, great dissipation, licen- 

Washenzi, wild people, uncivilized 

Wasi, rebellion. Also JJasi. 

Wasia, sentence, will, declared 
opinion. Also Wosia. 

Wasia hu-, to bequeath, to make a 

Wasili hu-, to arrive, to come 
to, to reach. 

Wasili, receipt, credit side of ac- 
count, i.e. the left-hand column. 

Wasilia hu-, to reach a person, es- 
pecially of letters. 

Wasilisha hu-, to cause to reach. 

Wasio, who are not, 

Wasio = Wasia and Wosia. 

Wastani, middling, in the middle 

Waswas, doubt. 

Wathahisha hu-, to solve. 

Wathihi. narrow. 

2 E 2 




Watia TiU', to sit upon e^g^- 

Watu, fenugreek. 

Watu (plur. of Mtu\ people. 

-a watu, other people's. 
Wavu, plur. nyavu, a net to catch 

gazelles, &c. 
Wawili, two, two persons. 

Wote wawili, both. 
Waya, an earthen dish to bake 

cakes on. 
Wayawaya Tcu-, to sway like a bough 

loaded with fruit, to swagger, to 

be bent down and burdened. 
Wayo, plur. nyayo, sole of the foot, 

footprint. Also Uayo. 

Waza ku-, to think, consider, refledt. 

Wazao, progeny , offspring, posterity. 

^wazif open, clear, manifest. It 

makes wazi with nouns like 


Kitwa hhcazi, bareheaded. 

Panalia wazi, it sounds hollow. 

Waziwazi, manifest. 

Ana wazimu, he is mad. 
Waziri, plur. mawaziri, a vizier, a 

secretary of state, a chief officer. 
Wazo, plur. mawazo, thoughts. 
-we, his, hers, its, for wahe. 
-we, thee, for wewe. 
Wea ku; to become the property of. 
Weha Jcu; to place, to lay, to put 
away, to keep, to delay. 

Nyumha Jiainiwehi, I have no rest 
in the house, I cannot remain 
in the house. 
Wekea hu-, to put away for. 

Kuwehea amana, to entrust to. 

Kuwehea wahf, to dedicate. 

Kutia weko, to weld. 
Welcua TiU-, to break up, to remove. 
Weleho, a cloth worn by women. 

Well, sickness. 

Well wa macho, ophthalmia. 
Welti, saintly, a saint. 
Wema, goodness. 
Wemhe, plur. nyemhe (?), a razor. 
Wenga Tcu-, to cause to break out 

into sores. 
Wengi, many. See -ingi. 
Wengo, the spleen. 
Wenu, your. See -enu. 
Wenzangu, my companions = Wa- 

enzi wangu. 
Werevu, cunning, shrewdness. 
Weu, a place cleared for planting. 
Weupe, whiteness, clearness, light. 
Weupe, white. See -eupe. 
Wevi or Wezi, thieves. See Mwivi. 
Wewe, thou, thee. 
Weweselca ku-, to talk and murmur 

in one's sleep. Also Weweteka. 
Weye, you ! it is you. 
Weza ku-, to be able, to be a match 
for, to liave power over, to be 
equal to. 

Siwezi, I cannot, or, I am sick. 

Nalikuwa siwezi, I was ill. 

Sikuweza, I was not able. 

Amehawezi, he has fallen sick. 
-weza. See mweza. 
Wezekana ku-, to be possible. 
Wezesha ku-, to enable. 
-wi, bad (old Swahili and Nyam- 
Wia kw, to be to. [wezi). 

Niioie rathi, don't be offended 
with me. 

2. to have in one's debt. 
Kuwiwa, to be indebted. 
Wibo, Ibo. 

Wifi, husband's sister. 
Wika ku-, to crow like a cock. 
Wilaija = Ulaya, home, Europe 
-wili, two. It makes mMli with 

nouns like nyumba. 




Wimhi, plur. maicimhi, a wave. 

Mawinibi, surf. 
Wimhi, a very small kind of grain. 
Winda Tcu- or Winga ku-, to chase, 

to hunt. 
Wingi = Ungi, plenty, a great 

quantity, much. 
Wingu, plur. mawingu, a cloud. 
Wino, ink. 
Wishwa^ chaff, the husks of rice, the 

flour sifted off along with the 

WitirUf odd, not even. 
Witwa (= Kwihca ?), the being 

Wiva Jiu- = Iva ku-, 
-wivu, jealous. 
-wivu = -hivu, ripe. 
Wiwa ku-, to owe, to be indebted 


Mayayi mawiza^ eggs with 
chickens formed in them, hard 
Wo, -wo, -W0-, which, who, whom. 

Wo wote, whatsoever, whosoever. 
-wo, thy, = Wako. 
Wogofya, plur. nyogofya, a threat. 
Wokovu, deliverance, salvation. 
Wongo, falsehood. Also JJwongo. 
Wonyesho, showing, display. 
Worari, rateable division, sharing. 

Ar. Wora, to cast pebbles. 
Wosia, injunction, sentence, charge, 

wise saying. Also Wasia. 
Wote, all, both. 

Twende wote, let us both go. 

Wote wawili, both. 
Wovisi, cool. 
Woweka ku-, to soakt 

Fis pronounced as in English. 

Y is in Swahili a consonantal i, 
and it is often indifferent whether it 
be written i or y. The use of y 
is however important to distinguish 
such words as kimia, a cast-net, 
and Idmya, silence. 

The insertion of a ?/ sound before 
the final -a of a verb has in many 
cases the effect of giving it a causa- 
tive meaning. See P. 

KupoTia, to get well. 
Kuponya, to cure. 

Kuogopa, to fear. 
Kuogofya, to frightea 

7 = 1. 

T-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by singular 
substantives of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, by plural substantives in 
mi-, or by plural substantives in 

Ya, of. See -a. [ma-. 

Ya kitovu, in the naveL 
Ya kwamha, that. 
Yaninif Why? 

Ya-, sign of the third person plural 
prefixed to verbs governed by a 
plural substantive in ma-. 

-ya-, objective prefix denoting 
plural nouns in ma-. 

Yaa ku-, to sow seeds. 

Ydbis, or Yahisi, dry, solid. 

Yai = Yayi. 

Yaika ku-, to melt. 

Yake or Yakwe, his, hers, its. See 

Yakini, certainly, certainty, it is' 

Yakinia ku-, to determine, to set 
one's mind upon. 



Yakinisha hu-, to make certain. 
Yako, thy, your. See -alco. 
Yakowapi, where are they? 
Yakuti, emerald (?). 
Yale, those yonder. 
Yaliomo, which are within. 
Yamho — Janibo. 
Yamini, an oath. 
Yamkini, possibly, possibility. 

Kwa yamkim, possibly. 
Yamkini ku- (?), to be possible. 

Haiyamkini, it is not possible. 
Yamur, deer. 
Yange. See -nge-. 

Yangedumu, they would remain. 
Yangu, my, of me. See -angu. 
Yani = Ya nini ? for what ? why ? 
Yao, their, of them. See -ao. 
Yasi, a yellow powder brought from 

India, and used as a cosmetic. 
Yatima, an orphan. 
Yavuyavu, lights, lungs. 
Yaya, a nurse, an ayah. 
Yayi, plur. mayayi, an eg^. 

Yayi ya pumhu, testicles. 
Ye! = Je! Hullo! Well! What 

Ye, -ye, or -ye-, sign of the relative, 
referring to animate beings, 
who, which, whom. 

Ye yote, whosoever. 

Yeekwayee, common-place people. 
-ye, his, hers, or its, = Yake. 
Yee or Yeye, he or she, him or her. 
Yei, a child's good-bye, " ta-ta." 
Yemkini = Yamkini. 
Yenu, your, of you. See -enu, 
Yenyi, having. See -enyi. 
Yefu, our, of us. See -etu. 
Yeyuka ku-, to melt, to deliquesce. 
Yeyusha ku-^ to cause to melt, to 

Yinyi = Yenyi. 

-yo, thy, = Yako. 
Yo, -yo, -yo; sign of the relative, 
Yo yote, whatsoever. 
Yoe = Yowe. 
Yonga ku-, to sway. 
Yote, all. See -ote. 

Kwa yote, altogether, wholly. 
Yoice, a cry for help. 

Eupiga yowe, to cry for help. 
Ytc, he or she is. 

Yu-, sign of the third person sin- 
gular, referring to an animate 
being. It is used chiefly before 
monosyllabic verbs and in the 
Mombas dialect. 
Yuaja, he comes. 
Yuko, yumo, &c., he is there, 
within, &c. 
Yule, yonder person, that person. 
Yuma ku-, to sway in the wind. 
Yuna, he has. 

Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Yuza hu-f to declare, to make clear. 


Z is pronounced as in zany, the 
German s. Zin some dialects takes 
the place of v or vy in that of Zan- 

Z is used by people who cannot 
pronounce th, for the Arabic thai, 
thod, and dtha. See T. 

Z- or zi; the sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs which 
are governed by plural substan- 
tives of the class which does not 
change to form the plural, or of 
that which makes its singular 
in U-. 

Z-, the prefix proper to pronouns 

Z A 



governed by plural nouns of the 
class wliich does not change to 
forin the plural, or of that which 
makes its singular in u. 

Za, of. See -a. 

Za Jcu: See Uza Tcu-, to sell. 

Zaa Jcu; to bear, to breed, to beget, 
to bear fruit. 

Zdbadi, civet. 

Zahibu, plur, mazabibu (?), grapes, 

Zahidi hu-, to take civet from the 

Zahuni Jcu-, to buy. 

Zahuri, the psalter, a psalm. 

Zafarani or Zafrani, saffron, a wo- 
man's name. 

Zagaa hu-, to shine, to glisten. 

Zaidi or Zayidi, more. 

Zalca, tithes. 

Zalce or ZaJtwe, his, hers, its. See 

ZaTco, thy, your. See -ako. 

Zakula (A.) = Vyahula, victuals. 

Zalia ku-, to bear to. 

Zalisha Jiu-, to beget, cause to bear. 

Zaliwa Tcu-, to be born. 

Zama ku-, to sink, to dive. 

Zamaniy times, long ago. 

Zamani za kale, old times, long 

ago, anciently. 
Zamani za Shanga, when Shanga 

Zamani Mzi, nowadays. 
Zamani zetu, our times. 

Zamharau, a kind of fruit, in ap- 
pearance not unlike a large dam- 
ZamisJia ku-, to make to sink. 
Zamu, a turn, turns. 

Kica zamu, by turns. 
Zangefuri, cinnabar. 
Zangu, my, of me. See -angu. 

I Zani, adultery. 

Zao, plur. mazao, fruit, produce. 

Zao, their. See -ao. 

Zarambo, a spirit distilled from palm 

Zari, a precious kind of stuff, gold 
thread, gold brocade. 

Zatiti ku-, to set in order, arrange, 
prepare for. 

Zaica ku-, to be born. 

Zawadi, a present, a keepsake, a 

Zaicaridi, a Java sparrow. 

Zayidi, more. 

Zazi (?), afterbirth. 

-ze, his, her, or its, = Zahe. 

-zee, old, aged. 

Zehakh, mercury. 

Zege, a dome. 

Zelabia, a kind of sweetmeat con- 
taining syrup«. 

Zengea ku-, to seek for. 

Zenu, your. See -enu. 

Zenyi. See -enyi. 

Zetu, our, of us. See -etu. 

Zeze, a sort of lute with three 

Zi- = Z: 

-zi-, the objective prefix denoting a 
plural substantive either of that 
class which does not change to 
form the plural or of that which 
makes its singular in u-. 

Ziha ku-, to fill up a hole in a wall. 
&c., to plug up, to stop. 

Zibana ku-, to be stopped up, to stop 
itself up. 

Zibo, plur. mazibo, a plug, a stopper. 

Zibua ku; to unstop, to bore 

Zidi ku-, to increase, to do more 
than before. 
Kuzidi kujna, to know more. 




Zidisha hu-, to make greater, to 

add to. 
Zifuri, a cipher, a figure of nouglit. 
Zika ku-, to bury, to inter. 
Zikerezwazo, turnery, turned goods. 

See Kereza. 
Kanzu ya ziki, worked with 
white cotton round the neck 
instead of silk. See Kanzu. 
Zikika ku-, to be impoverished. 
Zikwi, plur. vikwi(y\.), a thousand. 
Zile, those yonder. 
-zima, sound, whole, healthy, com- 
Zima ku-, to extinguish, to put out. 

Kuzima roJio, to faint. 
Zimia ku-, to put out. 
Zimika ku-, to go out, to be extin- 
Zimiliza ku-^ to rub out. 
Zimu. See WazirAu, 'Mzimu, Ku- 

zimu, Zimici. 
Zimua ku-, to cool hot water by 

adding cold to it. 
Zimwi, plur. mazimici, an ogre, 
a ghoul, an evil being which 
devours men, &c. 
Nazi ina zimwi, i.e. the cocoa-nut 
has grown without anytliing 
inside the shell. 
Zina ku-, to commit adultery. See 

Zindika ku-, to hold an opening 

ceremony in, to open for use. 
Zindiko, an opening ceremony. 
Zinduka ku-, to wake up suddenly 
from a doze with a nod and a 
Zindukana ku-, to wake up sud- 
Zi7iga ku-, to commit adultery (?). 
Zinga ku-, to roll up. 

Zingizi, sleep, great sleep. Also 
Zingizi la ku'mkomesha mzazi, a 
sleep which is supposed to put 
an end to all further child- 
Zingulia ku-, to relieve from the 

evil eye. 
Zini ku-, to commit adultery or for- 
Zira ku-, to hate (jM.). 
Ziriki (M.) = Riziki. 
-zito, heavy, difficult, severe, sad, 
clumsy, thick. 
Asali nzito, thick syrup. 

Hana zituo, he never rests. 
Zhoa, plur. maziwa, a lake, a pond, 

the breasts. 
Zizi, plur. mazizi, a cow-yard, a 

cattle-fold, a stable, palisading. 
Zizi hizi, just these, common. 
Zizima ku-, to become very calm, 

very still, or very cold. 
Zizimia ku-, to sink to the bottom. 
Zo, -zo, -Z0-, sign of the relative, 
Zo zote, whatsoever. 
-zo, thy, = Zako. 
Zoa ku-, to gather into little heaps, 

to sweep together. 
Zoea ku-, to become accustomed, to 

become used to. 
Zoeza ku-, to accustom to, to make 
used to. 
Kujizoeza, to practise. 
Zomari, a kind of clarionet, a pipe. 
Zomea ku-, to groan at. 
Zongazonga ku-, to wind. 
Zote, all. See -ote. 
Zua ku-, to pierce, to bore through, 
to innovate, to invent. 
Nimemzua, I have sucked him 


z uz 


dry, I have got all the informa- 
tion I can from him. 
Zuia Jiu-, to hold in, to restrain, to 

Kuzuia pumzi, to stifle. 
Zuilia ku-, to hold for, to keep off, 

to hold in its place. 
Zulia Jcu-^ to emerge, to rise. 
Zuli, perjury. 
Zulia, a carpet. 
Zulia Tcu; to invent to, to make a 

false excuse to, to say falsely that 

one has such and such a message. 
Zulisha ku-y to make crazy, to 

Zulu ku-, to be crazy. 
Zumarid, an emerald. 
Zumbili, consolation. 
Zumhua ku-, to find. 

Kuzumhua paa (A.), to take off 
Zumhukana ku, t» be to be found. 

Zumgu^tnza ku-, to amuse, converse 
Eujizumgu'mza, to converse, to 
amuse oneself. 

Zunguka ku-, to go round, to sur- 
round, to wind round, to revolve, 
to wander. 

Zungukazunguka ku-, to stroll about. 

Zungusha ku-, to make to go round, 
to turn. 

Zuri ku; to lie, to swear falsely. 

-zuri, fine, beautiful, handsome. 

Zuru ku-, to visit. 

Kwenda kuzuru, to go to visit. 
Kuzuru kahuri, to visit a grave. 

Zurungi = Huthurungi, the brown 
material of which kanzus are 

Zuzua ku-, to puzzle a stranger, or 
a greenhorn. 

Zuzuka ku-, to be puzzled or be- 
wildered, not to know what to do. 


( 425 ) 

Apph-vdix I. 

Specimen of Kinyume, as written out by Johari, a native of the 
Bwahili coast a little south of Zanzibar. The Swahili is iu the Merima 






An ox. 



A goat. 



A donkey. 



A camel. 



A house. 



A sleeping mat. 



A bedstead. 



A door. 



Buildings (?). 



Red earth. 



A ladder. 



A staircase. 






That will do. 



A woman. 












I lend. 



I will not give you. 



I will give you. 



I shall withhold from you. 






A leg. 



A club. 



I pray you. 




TX I. 


Njara inaniuma 

Ranja mainaniu 

I ache with hunger. 






The neck. 

Si hweli 


It is not true. 



A master workman. 



Not thus. 






A pen. 






Dish up. 

Twende zetu 


Let us be oflf. 



I am not going. 






You will go. 




Samawati (Ar.) 



Aruthi (Ar.) 








A free man. 



A slave. 



I dislike it 



A table. 



A box. 



A chest. 



A book. 



A Koran. 

C 427 ) 

Appendix II. 

Specimens of Swahili correspondence in prose and verse, containing : 
— 1. Two Swahili letters, the one on giving, the other on receiving a 
small present. The forms of address, &c., are those used ia all letters, 
vs^hatever their subject may be. 2. Two specimens of verses sent as 
letters, the first to excuse breaking an appointment, the second sent 
from Pemba by a Mombas man to his friends at home, who upbraided 
him for not returning. This form of writing is a very favourite oue. 

Ula jenab il mobeb rafiki yangu, bwana wangu, bwana mkubwa, 
D. S., salamu sana, ama baada ya salamu, nalilvuwa siwezi siku 
nyingi, lakini sasa sijambo kidogo, ama baadahu, nimekuletea kitoweo 
kidogo tafathali upokee, nao k'uku saba'a, wa salamu, wa katabahu 
rafiki yako H. bin A. 

To the honourable the beloved, my friend, my master, the great sir, 
D, S., many compliments, but after compliments, I was unwell for many 
days, but now I am a little recovered, and after this, I have sent you a 
little kitoweo [i.e. something to be eaten with the rice or grain, which 
forms the bulk of all meals], and I beg your acceptance, they are seven 
fowls and compliments, and he who wrote this is H. son of A, 

Ilia jenab, il moheb, il akram, in nasih, D, S., il Mwingrezi, insha* 
Allah salaam aleik wa rehmet Allah wa barakatahu; wa baada, 
nakuarifu hali zangu njema wa i^ama nawe kathalik ya afia, wa 
zayidi amana yako ulioniletea imefika kwangu, ahsanta, Mwenyiezi 
Muungu atakujazi kheiri ukae ukitukumbuka, nasi nyoyo zetu zinaku- 

428 APPENDIX 11. 

kumbuka sana, tunapenda uje 'nti ya Unguja, wewe na bibi, naye aje 
tumwangalie, naye aje atazame 'ntiya Unguja, nasi kuUa siku tukilala 
tukia'mka tunakuombea Muungu uje 'nti ya Unguja, tuonane kwa 
afia na nguvu, nasi twapenda macho yetu yakuone wewe assubui na 
jioni, na usipokuja we we, usitusahau kwa nyaraka allah allah. 
Nisalimie bibi mke wako salamu sana. Nasi tunakutamani, kama 
tungalikuwa ndege tungaliruka tulcija tukaonane nawe mara moja 
tukiisLa tukarudi. Nyumbani kwangu mke wangu salamu sana. M. 
bin A. akusalimu sana, wa katababu M. wadi S. 26 mwezi wa mfunguo 

To the honourable, the beloved, the noble, the sincere D. S., the 
Englishman, please God, peace be with you and the mercy of God and 
His blessing ; and afterwards, I inform you that my health is good, and 
may you be the same as to health, and further, your pledge which you 
sent me has reached me, I thank you. Almighty God will satisfy you 
with good that you may continue to remember us, and as for us, our 
hearts think much of you ; we wish you to come to the land of Zanzibar, 
you and the mistress, and let her come that we may behold her, and 
let her come that she may look upon the land of Zanzibar ; and we 
every day when we sleep and when we wake pray for you to God that 
you come to the land of Zanzibar, that we may meet in health and 
strength, and we, we wish that our eyes should see you morning and 
evening, and if you come not yourself, forget us not by letters, we 
adjure you. Salute for me the mistress your wife with many compli- 
ments. And we are longing for you, and if we had been birds we 
would have come flying to see you once and then return. At home my 
wife sends many compliments. M. son of A. salutes you much, and 
he who wrote this is M. the son of S. 26 of the month Jemad al 


Kala es sha'iri. The Verse says. 

Risala enda kwa hima Go, message, quickly 

Kwa Edward Istira To Edward Steere, 

Umpe yangu salama Give him health, 

Pamwe na kumkhubira, Together with telling him, 

Siwezi yangu jisima I am ill in my body, 

Ningekwenda tesira I would have gone readily 

Kumtazama padira To see the Padre, 

Pamwe na Edward Stira. Toirether with Edward Steere. 


Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 

Ilimu ya Injili The doctrine of the Gospel— 

Yuaijua habara He knows how its news 

Pia yote kufasili. To explain,— all of it. 

Ni muhebbi akhyara He is a choice friend, 

Kwetu sisi afthali. Especially in our house ; 

Edi ni mtu wa kweli. He is a man of truth. 

Kabbi, nipe tesira. O Lord, give me prosperity. 

Hatukiati kisiwa kwa uvambume na upembe 

Tukaifuasa hawa kulewalewa na ombe 
Ni mpunga na maziwa na kulla siku ni ngombe 

Twalalia kwa jivumbe, lipangine kwa rihani. 

We shall not leave the island for tale-bearing and plotting, 
And follow the fancy to be tossed on the sea. 

Here are rice, and milk, and every day an ox ; 

We sleep among perfumes, and strings of sweet basil. 

Swahili letters are always written with a string of Arabic compli- 
ments at the beginning, and Arabic words are freely introducfd 
throughout. In letter-writing huarifu is used for to inform, and 
Jiuwasilia (not kufikia) for to reach, as in the phrase your letter has 
reached me — waraka ucako vmeniwasilia. Swahili verses are written in 
an obsolete dialect full of Arabic words and foreign words generally, 
called Kingozi. It has not yet been studied by any European. Among 
its more remarkable peculiarities is the use of a present perfect made 
by a change in the termination of the Verb, similar to those in use in 
the Yao and in other languages of the Interior. Thus a poet may 
write mhwene for nimeona, and nikomile for nimekoma. Some speci- 
mens of this dialect will be found in the poetry at the end of the 
" Swahili Tales." 

2 T 

( 431 ) 

Appendix III. 

Part of a Swahili tale with the prefixes marked and explained. It 
is printed first as in the main it would be written by a native ; next 
the compound forms are marked by hyphens and explained ; and last 
comes an English translation. 

Yule kijana akafuta upanga wake, akanena, mimi nitaingia humo I. 

The tale, of which this is a part, is called the Badithi ya Waridi, II, 
na Ureda, na Jindi, na Sinebar. The portion of it here printed begins 
with a verb in the Jca tense, because it is carrying on a narration 
already commenced. The first words of the story are — AUonddkea mtu 
tajiri. After this first verb in the U tense the rest are formed with ka, 
unless they are constructed with a relative or particle of time or place, 
which cannot be joined with Tea but only with li. 

Yule, that; demonstrative (p. 115) referring to a singular sub- 
stantive of the first class, MJana being regarded as the name of a 
person. Ki-jana, a young man or woman, here a man. A-ka-futa, 
and he drew ; a-, sign of third person sing., appropriate to a noun 
of the first class or to any word denoting a living being; -ka-, 
sign of the narrative past tense ; -futa, draw. U-panga, a sword ; 
a sing, substantive of the sixth class. W-ake, his; possessive 
pronoun, third person sing.; w-, prefix proper to a pronoun agree- 
ing with a sing, substantive of the sixth class. A-ka-nena, and 
he said ; a- and -ka-, as before ; -nena, speak or say out. Mimi, I. Ni- 
ta-ingia, 1 wiU go in ; ni-, sign of the first person sing. ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense; -ingia, go into, enter, ^wmo, inhere; a demonstrative 

The youth drew his sword, and said, " I will go into this pit, whether III. 

2 F 2 , 


I. shimoni, nikafe ao nikapone. Akaingia, akamwona mfoto amefungwa, 
naye mwanamume. Akamwambia, nifungue nikupe khabari ya 
humo shimoni. Akamfungua, akaona vichwa vingi vya watu. Aka- 

II. proper to the -ni case, when it denotes being, &c., within. Shimo-ni, 
into the pit; sMmo-^a, singular nouu of the fifth class; -nt, sign of 
the locative case. Ni-ka-fe, and let me die ; ni-^ sign of first person 
sing. ; -ka- and (p. 141) ; -/e, subjunctive form of /a, die. Ao, or. Ni- 
ha-pone, and let me live ; ni- and -Jca-, as before ; -pone, subjunctive 
form of pona, be saved. A-Jca-ingia, and he went in ; third sing., 
narrative past of ingta, go in. A-ha-mio-ona, and saw him ; a-ka-, and 
he did ; -mw-, objective prefix proper to a substantive of the first class 
(mtoto) ; -ona, see. M-toto, child ; sing, substantive of the first class. 
A-me-fungwa, bound ; a-, sign of third person sing., governed by a 
substantive of the first class (mtoto) ; -me-, sign of the present perfect, 
which is here used as a sort of past participle : -fungwa, passive of 
funga, hind. Na-ye, and he (p. 103). Mw-ana-m-ume, a male; mw-^ 
sing, prefix of a noun of the first class ; m- (for mw-), prefix agreeing 
with a substantive of the first class ; -ume, male ; the whole word, 
mwanamume, is used for a man, or any human being of the male sex. 
A-ka-mw-amhia, and he said to him ; a-ka-, third sing, narrative past ; 
-mw-, subjective prefix denoting a person (kijana) ; -amhia, say to. Ni- 
ftingus, unbind me ; ni-, objective prefix, first person ; -fungue, impera- 
tive sing, of fungua, unbind. I^i-ku-pe, that I may give you; ni-, 
subjective prefix first person ; -ku-, objective prefix, second person ; -pe, 
subjunctive of pa, give to. Khabari, news ; sing, substantive of the 
third class. Y-a, of; y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of 
the third class (khabari). Humo, here in ; a demonstrative agreeing 
with the -ni case when denoting icithin. Shimo-ni, in the pit ; -ni, sign 
of the locative case. A-ka-m-fungua, and he loosed him ; a-, ka-, third 
sing, narrative past ; -m-, objective prefix referring to a substantive of 
the first class (mtoto); -fungua, unbind. A-ka-ona, and he saw, third 
sing., narrative past. Vi-chiva, heads or skulls ; vi-, sign of a plural 
substantive of the fourth class ; vichwa is in more elegant Swahili vitwa. 
V-ingi, many ; v- or vi-, adjectival plural prefix, marking agreement 
with a plural substantive of the fourth class (vichwa) ; -ingi or -ngi, 
many. Vy-a, of; vy-, marking the agreement with a plural noun of 

III. I die or live." And he went in and saw a boy, and he was bound. And 
[the boy] said, " Unbind me, that I may tell you about what there is in 
this pit." And he unbound him, and saw many human skulls. And he 


mwuliza, habari gani hii? Akamwambia, nana nyoka humo, kazi I. 
yake kula watu, na mimi angalinila, lakini amenifanya mtoto wake, 
miaka mingi nimetoka kwetu. Akamwuliza, sasa yuko wapi nyoka? 

tlie fourth class (vichwa). Wa-tu, people ; tea-, plural prefix first class. II- 
A-Jca-mw-uliza, and he asked him; a-, ha-^ third sing, narrative past ; 
-mw-, objective prefix referring to a person (mtoto) ; -uliza, ask or ask 
of. Habari or hhabari, news, sing, substantive third class. Gani, 
what sort ? Hii, this ; demonstrative denoting a sing, substantive of 
the thii'd class (habari). A-ka-mw-ambia, and he said to him; this 
word is of constant occurrence, it means that one person told or said to 
another ; there is no mark of sex or means of distinguishing which 
person of several mentioned before was the speaker, these points must 
be gathered from the context. M-na, there is inside ; m-na is part of 
the verb Jiuica na, to be with or to have, used as it often is to denote 
mere being (p. 153); it answers to the English there is; there may be 
represented by hu-, pa-, or m- ; the last is used where the place suggested 
is within something, it refers here to shimoni, in the pit. Ny-oka, a 
snake, a sing, substantive in the form of the third class, denoting an 
animate being, Humo, there within, referring to shimoni. Kazi, work 
or employment, sing, substantive, third class. T-ake, his ; y-, prefix 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third class ; -ake, possessive 
pronoun, third person sing. Eu-la, to eat; ku-, sign of the infinitive ; 
-la, eat. Wa-iu, people; wa-, plural prefix first class. Na, and. 
Mimi, I or me. A-ngali-ni-la, he would have eaten me ; a , third sino-., 
agreeing with the name of an animal (nyoka) ; -ngali-, sign of the 
past conditional tense; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the first 
person ; -la, eat ; the tense prefix -ngali- cannot bear any accent, the 
word is therefore pronounced angalinila. Lakini, but. A-me-ni-fanya, 
he has made me ; a-, referring to nyoka ; -me-, sign of present perfect ; 
ni-, objective prefix, first person; -fanya, make. M-toto, child; m-, 
sing, prefix, fiji'st class. W-ake, his; w-, prefix agreeing with sing, 
substantive of the first class (mtoto), Mi-aka, years ; plural substan- 
tive of the second class (sing, mwaka) ; mi-, plural prefix. Mingi, 
many ; m- or mi-, prefix, denoting agreement with a plural substantive 
of the second class (miaka). Ni-me-toka, I have left; ni-, first person 
subjective ; -me-, present perfect ; -toka, go out of. Ew-etu, home ; 

asked, " What is this ? " And he said, " There is a snake in it, that eats IIL 
men, and would have eaten me, but that it took me for its own son. It 
is many years since I left home." And he asked, " Where is the snake 


r. Akamwambia, twende, nikakuonye mahala amelala. Akamwambia, 
twende. Walipofika, yule kijana akamkata kichwa kimoja, akatoa cha 
pili, akamkata, hatta vikatimu saba. Wakarudi, wakaenda zao. 

II, liw-^ prefix agreeing with a substantive (perhaps nyumha) in the case 
in -ni ; -etu (our). A-ha-mw-uliza, and he asked hini ; a-, third sing. 
(Jcijana) ; -ha-, narrative past ; -mw-, third sing, objective (mtoto) ; 
-uliza, ask. Sasa, now. Yu-ho, he is ; yu-, sign of third person 
sing., referring to a substantive of the second class (nyoka) ; -ko, 
denoting existence in space (p. 154). Wa'pi, where ? Ny-oha, snake ; 
sing, substantive. A-Tca-mw-ambia, and he said to him. (See above.) 
Tw-ende, let us go ; tw-, sign of the first person plural ; -ende, 
subjunctive of enda, go. Ni-7ca-lcu-onye, and let me show you ; ni-, 
sign of first person sing.; -Tea-, and (p. 211); -ku-, objective second 
person sing. ; -onye, -subjunctive of onya, show. MahaJa, the place, 
the place where. A-me-lala, he is asleep; a-, third sing, animate 
(nyoTca); -me-, present perfect; -lala, lie down to sleep, to go to sleep. 
A-ha-mw-ambia. (See above.) Tw-ende, let us go ; tw-, first person 
plur. ; -ende, subjunctive of enda, go. Wa-li-'po-fika, when they 
arrived; wa-, sign of third person plural agreeing with substantives 
denoting persons (hijana and mtoto) ; -U- or -ali-, sign of the past 
perfect, or of past time generally when joined with a particle of 
relation ; -'po-, sign of time when ; -filca, arrive. Yule, that ; demon- 
strative denoting a person (Idjana). Ki-jana, youth ; sing, substantive 
fourth class, but denoting a person, and therefore joined as here 
with pronouns and verbs in forms proper to the first class. A-Jca- 
m-Tiata, he cut him ; a-, tliird sing, of a person (Idjana) ; -ha-, narra- 
tive past ; -m-, objective prefix, referring to the name of an animal 
(nyoha) (see p. 112); -Jcata, cut or cut off. Ki-chwa, head, sing, sub- 
stantive fourth class. Ki-moja, one ; M-, prefix denoting agreement 
with a sing, substantive of the fourth class (kichwa or kitwa) ; -nioja, 
one. A-ha-toa, and he put forth ; a-, third sing., referring to a sub- 
stantive denoting an aaiimal (nyoka) ; -ka-, narrative past ; -toa, put 
forth. Cha pili, a second (p. 92) ; ch-, referring to a sing, substantive 
of the fourth class (kichwa). A-ka-m-kata, and he cut him. (See above.) 
Hatta, until. Vi-ka-timu, they were complete; vi-, third plural refer- 

Ill, now ? " He said, " Let us go and let me show you where it is sleeping." 
He said, " Let us go." When they got there the youth cut off one of its 
heads ; it put forth a second, and he cut it off. until he had cut off 
seven. And they returned, and went on their way. 


Akamwambia sasa twende zetu kwetu, lakini tukifika kwetu I. 
weneude wewe kwanza kwa baba yangu, ukamwambie kana mtoto 
wako nikikuletea utauipa nini ? Akikwambia, nitakupa mali yangu 

ring to nouus of the fourth class, here to vichwa, heads, plural of kichwa : II. 
-/:a-, narrative past; -timUyhe complete. Saha, seven. Wa-ka-rudi, 
and they returned ; ica-, third plural referring to persons (Idjana 
and mtoto) ; -A;a-, narrative pa:jt ; -rudi, return. Wa-ka-enda z-ao, and 
they went away ; wa-, third plural (kijana and mtoto) ; -ka-, narrative 
past ; -enda, go ; z-ao, their (ways) ; z-, a prefix denoting agreement 
with a plural noun of the third or sixth, or in the dialect of Lamoo 
of the fourth class ; -ao, their. Possibly zao agrees with njia, ways. 
{See p. 112.) 

A-ka-mic-ambia, and he said to him. Sasa, now. Tw-ende z-etu. 
let us go away ; tw-, sign of first person plural ; -ende, subjunctive of 
enda, go; z-, sign of agreement with a plural noun of the tliird or the 
sixth class ; -etu, our. {See above.) Kw-etu, home ; hw-, sign of agree- 
ment with the case in -ni- ; -etu, our. Lakini, but. Tu-ki-fika, when 
we arrive ; tu-, sign of the first person plural ; -ki-, sign of the partici- 
pial tense (p. 136) ; -fika, arrive. Kw-etu, home. W-enende, go ; w-, 
sign of the s-cond person singular ; -enende, subjunctive of enenda, go, 
or go on. Wewe, thou. Kwanza, first ; originally the infinitive of the 
verb anza, begin; kwanza, to begin, beginning, and therefore first. 
Ka-a, to a person, or to his house. Baba, father. Y-angu, my ; y-, 
sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the third class, used here 
c :)lIoquially with one denoting a person (baba); -angu, my (p. 109). U- 
ka-mw-ambie, and say to him ; u-, sign of the second person singular ; 
'ka-, and; -mw-, objective sign referring to a noun denoting a person 
(Itaba)] -ambie, subjunctive of ambia, tell. Kana, if. M-toto, child. 
W-ako, thy ; w-, sign of agreement with a singular substantive of the 
first class (mtoto). Ni-ki-ku-letea, if I bring to you ; ni-, sign of the 
first person singular ; -ki-, sign of the participial tense (p. 136) ; 
-ku; objective prefix referring to the second person singular; -letea, 
bring to. U-ta-ni-pa, you will give me ; u-, sign of second person sing. ; 
-ta-, sign of the future tense ; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the 
first person singular; -pa, give to. Nini, what? A-ki-kio-amhia, ii 
he tells you; a-, sign of the third person singular referring to a 

And [the boy] said, " Now let us go to my home ; but when we are III. 
getting near to it do you go first to my father and say to him, ' If I brin^^ 
your sou to you, what will you give me ? ' If he says to you, ' I will ^[ye 


I. nussu kwa nussu, usikubali, mwambie nataka kofia yako uliyo ukivaa 
ujanani mwako. Atakupa kofia ya thahabu, usikubali, ela akupe 

II. person Qbdba) ; -Iti-, sign of the participial tense ; -hw-, objective prefix 
referring to the second person singular; -amhia, say to. Ni-ta-lcu-pa, 
I will give you ; ni-, sign of the first person sing. ; -ta-, sign of the 
future tense; -ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person 
singular ; -pa, give to. Mali, possessions ; treated sometimes as a noun 
of the third class, sometimes as a plural noun of the fifth class. 
Y-angu, my ; y-, sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the 
third or with a plural noun of the fifth class. Nussu, half. Kwa, 
by. Nussu, half. JJ-si-hubali, do not accept ; u-, sign of second person 
singular; -si-, sign of negative subjunctive (p. 147); -kuhali, sub- 
junctive of Jcubali, accept. Mw-ambie, tell him; mw-, objective 
prefix referring to a person (baba) ; -ambie, imperative of ambia, 
tell; mw- is known to be the objective third person, and not the 
subjective second plural, by the form of the word ambia ; being an 
applied form it must have the object expressed. N-a-taJca, I want ; w-, 
sign of the first person singular ; -a-, sign of the present tense ; -talca, 
want. Kofia, cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. Y-aJco, thy ; 
y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. 
U-li-yo, which you, or which you are, or were ; u-, sign of the second 
person sing. : -U-, used for the substantive verb ; -yo, relative sign 
referring to a singular substantive of the third class (kofia). U-ki- 
vaa, putting on ; w-, sign of the second person singular ; -ki-, sign of 
the participial tense ; -vaa, put on. U-jand-ni, in youth ; u-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -ni-, sign of the locative case. 
Mw-ako, thy; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning of in. A-ta-ku-pa, he will give you ; 
a-, sign of third person sing, of a person ; -ta-, sign of the future ; -ku-, 
objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; -pa, give to. 
Kofia, cap; sing, substantive of the third class. Y-a, of; y-, sign of 
Agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. Thahabu, 
gold ; substantive of the third class. U-si-kubali, do not accept ; u-, 
sign of the second person sing. ; -si-, sign of the negative subjunctive; 
-kuhali, subjunctive of kubali, accept. Ela, except. A-ku-pe, let him 
give you ; a-, sign of the third person sing., referring to a person ; 

III. you half of all I have,' do not accept that, but say, ' I want the cap which 
you used to wear in your youth.' He will give you a cap of gold ; do 
not accept it, unless he give you a cap quite worn out, take that. And 


kofia mbovu kabisa, hiyo pokea. Na mama yangu mwambie nataka I. 
taa uliyo ukiwasha ujanani mwako. Atakupa taa nyingi za thahabu, 
usikubali, ela akupe taa mbovumbovu ya chuma, hiyo pokea. 

-^M-, objective prefix, referring to the second person sing. ; -pe, sub- II. 
junctive of _pa, give to. Kofia, sing, substantive third class. M-hovu. 
rotten ; w-, being n- converted into m- by standing before -h (p. 85), 
sign of an agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (kofia). 
Kahisa, utterly. Hiyo, this one; demonstrative denoting a thing 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (kofia). Pokea, receive : imperative sing, of pokea, receive. 
Na, and. Mama, mother : sing, substantive in the form of the third 
class denoting a person. Y-angu, my ; y-, sign of an agreement with 
a sing, substantive of the third class, here used colloquially. Miv-amhie, 
tell her ; mw, objective prefix referring to a person ; -arnbie, imperative 
sing, of amhia, tell. N-a-taka, I want ; n-, sign of first person sing. ; 
-a-, sign of present tense ; -taka, want. Taa, sing, substantive third 
class. U-li-yo, which you, which you were or are ; -u, sign of the 
second person sing. : -li-, used for the substantive verb (p. 151) ; -?/o, 
relative particle referring to a slug, substantive of the third clu-ss 
(tao). U-ki-icasha, lighting; u-, sign of second person sing.; -ki-, 
sign of the participial tense ; -washa, light. TJ-jand-ni, in youth ; u-, 
sign of a sing, substantive of tlie sixth class ; -ni, sign of the locative 
case. Mic-ako, thy ; mic-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning in. A-ta- kti-pa, she will give you ; 
a-, sign of third person sing., referring to a person ; -ta-, sign of the 
future tense ; -ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
■pa, give to. Taa, lamps ; plural substantive of the third class (shown 
to be plural by tlie context). Ny-ingi, many ; ny-, sign of agreement 
with a plural substantive of the third class (taa). Z-a, of ; z-, sign of 
agreement with a plural noun of the third class. Thaliahu, gold. 
U-si-kuhali, do not accept ; second person sing, negative subjunctive of 
kuhali. Ela, except. A-ku-pe, let her give you ; a-, sign of third 
person sing., referring to mama; -ku-, objective prefix referring to 
second person sing. ; -pe, subjunctive of pa, give to. Taa, sing, 
substantive third class. M-hovu-m-hovu, all spoilt ; m- (for n- before 
-&), sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (taa) ; 

iay to my mother, ' I want the lamp you used to burn in your youth.' \\i 
She will give you many lamps of gold ; do not accept them, unless she 
give you an old worn iron lamp, take that." 


Wakaenda zao hatta walipofika karibu ya mji, yule kijana aka- 
mwambia, mimi 'takaa hapa, na wewe enende mjini kwetu, ukafanye 
shuruti na baba yaugu kamma hiyo niliokwambia. Akaenenda. 
Alipofika akaona mjiui watu hawaneni, wana msiba mkuu, akauliza, 

II. the adjective is doubled to show thoroughness. F-a, of; t/-, sign ot 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. Ch-uma, iron ; 
a sing, substantive of the fourth class ; it is used in the singular of iron 
as a metal, and in both slug, and plur. with the meaning of a piece or 
pieces of iron. Hiyo, this one ; demonstrative referring to something 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (tad). Pokea, receive ; imperative sing, of pohea. 

Wa-Tia-enda z-ao, and they went their way. (See above). Hatta, until. 
Wa-li-'po-fiM, when they arrived. (See above). Karibu ya, near to- 
M-ji, town ; m-, sign of a sing, substantive of the second class. Yule, 
that. (See above). Ki-jana, youth. (See above). A-ka-mw-ambia, said to 
him. (See above). Mimi, I. 'Ta-kaa, will stay ; ta-, sign of the future, 
the prefix of the first person sing, being elided before it ; the sign of no 
other person can be so elided. Hapa, here. Na, and. Wewe, thou. 
Enende, imperative sing, of enenda, go, go on. M-ji-ni, to the town ; 
m-, sign of a sing, substantive second class ; -ni, sign of the locative 
case. Kw-etu, our ; kw-, sign of an agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case. U-ka-fanye, and make ; u-, sign of second person sing. ; 
-ka-, and ; -fanye, subjunctive of fanya, make. Shuruti, a covenant ; 
sing, substantive third class. Na, with. Baba, father. Y-angu, 
my. (See above, and p. 112). Kamma, as. Hiyo, that; demonstrative 
referring to something mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, 
substantive of the third class (shuruti). Ni-U-o-kw-ambia, which I 
told you ; ni-, sign of the first person sing. ; -li-, sign of the past tense 
which must be used with a relative ; -o- (for yd), relative particle 
referring to shuruti (p. 117) ; -kw-, objective prefix referring to the 
second person sing. A-ka-enenda, and he went on. A-li-po-fika, when 
he arrived. A-ka-ona, he saw. M-ji-ni, in the town ; m-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the second class; -ni, sign of the locative case. 
Wa-tu, people ; wa-, sign of a plural noun of the first class. Hawa- 
neni, they speak not ; hawa-, sign of the third person plural negative 

III. And they went on till they arrived near the town, when the boy said. 
" I will stay here, and you go on into the town, to our house, and make 
the agreement with my father as I told you." And he went on ana 
arrived in the city, where he saw the people not talking [but] in great 


msiba huu wa nini ? Wakamwambia, mtoto vra Sultani amepote siku I. 
nyingi. Akauliza, nyumba ya Sultani ni ipi, nipelekeni. Wakampe- 
leka watu. Alipofika akamwuliza baba yake, una nini ? Akamwa- 
mbia, mtoto wangu amepotea. Akamwambia, nikikuletea utanipa 

agreeing with a plural noiin of the first class (watu) ; -neni, negative II. 
present form of nena, speak. Wa-na, they have ; third person plur. 
present of kuwa na, to have, governed by watu. Msiba, grief; m-, 
sign of a sing, noun of the second class. M-huu, great; m-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the second class (msiba). 
A-ha-uliza, and he asked. Msiba, grief. Huu, this ; demonstrative 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the second class (msiba). W-a, 
of ; w; sign of agremeent with a sing, substantive of the second class 
(msiba). Nini, what? Wa-ka-miv-ambia, and they said to him. 
M-toto, the child. W-a^ of ; w-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the first class (mtoto). Sultani, the sultan ; a sing, sub- 
stantive of the fifth class, but when viewed as denoting a person 
constructed with adjectives and pronouns as of the first. A-me-potea, 
is lost ; third sing, present perfect of kupotea, to become lost ; he has 
become lost, i.e., be is lost. Siku, days ; plural substantive of the 
third class. Ny-ingi, many ; ny-, sign of agreement with a plural 
substantive of the third class (siku). A-ka-uliza, and he asked. 
Ny-umba, house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class. Y-a, of; 
y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class 
(nijumba). Sultani, sultan. Ni, is (p. 152). I-pi, which? i-, sign 
of reference to a sing, substantive of the third class (nyumba). Ni- 
pelekeni, take me ; ni-, objective prefix referring to the first person 
sing. ; pelekeni, plural imperative of peleka, take. Wa-ka-m-peleka, 
and they took him. Wa-tu, people. A-li-po-fika, when he arrived. 
A-ka-mw-uliza, he asked him ; observe here and elsewhere the use of 
the ka tense to carry on the narration, even where there would be no 
connective employed in English. Baba, father. Y-ake, his. (See 
above). U-na nini, what is the matter with you ? u-na, second person 
sing, of the present tense of ku-wa na, to have; nini'? what? A-ka- 
mw-ambia, and he said to him. M-toto, child. W-angu, my. A-me- 

mourning, and he asked, " What is this mourning for ? " They told him, III. 
" The Sultan's son has been a long time lost." He asked, " Which is the 
Sultan's house? Take me there." And the people took him there. When 
he reached it he asked the boy's father, " What troubles you ? " He said, 
" My son is lost." And he said to him, " If I bring him to you what will 


nini ? Akamwambia, nitakupa mali yangu nussu kwa nussu. Aka- 
mwambia, maraliaba. Akaenda akamtwaa, akaja naye. Alipomwona 
babaye na mamaye, ikawa furaba kubwa mjini. Wakapenda sana 
yule kijana kama mtoto wao. 

Hatta alipotaka kwenda zake, yule kijana akamwambia, enende 
kamwage baba na mama, mwambie akupe kofia na mama akupe taa. 

II. potea, is lost. (See p. 132.) A-ha-mw-ambia, and he said to him. Ni-7:i- 
Tiu-letea, if I bring to you. {See above). U-ta-ni-pa, you will give me. 
(See above). Nini, what ? A-Jca-mw-ambia, and he said to him. Ni- 
ta-ku-pa, I will give you. Mali, goods. (See above). Y-angu^ my. (See 
above.) Nussu, half. Kwa, by. Nussu, half. A-Jca-mw-ambia, and he 
said to him. Maraliaba, very good. A-ka-enda, and he went. A-ka- 
m-twaa, and took him. A-ka-ja, and came. Na-ye, with him. A-li- 
po-mw-ona, when he saw him. Baba-ye, his father ; -ye, enclitic form 
of the possessive pronoun proper to the third person ; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class, used here with 
one denoting a person (p. 111). Na, and. Mama-ye, his mother ; -ye. 
(See above). I-ka-wa, it was ; i-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the third class (furalia). Furaha, joy ; sing, substantive 
third class. Kubwa, great ; agreeing with /wra/ia; as n-, which would 
be the regular sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third 
class, cannot stand before k, it is omitted altogether (p. 85). M-ji- 
ni, in the town ; m-, sign of sing, substantive second class ; -ni, sign 
of the locative case. Wa-ka-penda, and they (the father and mother) 
loved. Sana, much. Yule, that. Ki-jana, youth. Kama, like. 
Mtoto, child. W-ao, their. 

Hatta, at last. A-li-po-taka, when he wanted. Kw-enda z-ake, to go 
away. (See above and p. 112). Yule, that. Ki-jana, youth. A-ka-mw- 
ambia, he said to him. Enende, go ; sing, imperative of enenda, go. 
Ka-mw-age, and take leave of him ; ka-, and ; -mw-, objective prefix 
referring to a person ; if mw had been the subjective second plur. the 
ka would have followed it ; m-ka-age = and do ye take leave ; -age, 

I [J you give me ? " He said, " I will give you half of all I have." He said, 
" I am content." And he went and took the boy and brought him. 
When his father and mother saw him, there was great joy throughout 
the town. And they loved that youth as though he had been their 
own son. 

Wlien at last he wished to go away, the boy said to him, *'Go and 
take leave of my father and mother ; tell him tc give you the cap and 


APPENDIX in. 441 

Akaenda, akawaambia, wakampa kofia nyingi, akakataa akamwambia, I. 
nataka hiyo mbovn, wakampa, na mamaye akampa taa. Akawauliza, 
kofia bii maana yake nini ? Wakamwarabia, mtu akivaa, haonekani 
na mtu. Akavaa asionekane akafurabi sana. Akauliza, taa bii 
tnaana yake nini ? W akamwambia, uki^Ya3ba batta bapa watatoka 

imperative sing, of aga, take leave of. Baha, father. Na, and. II. 
Mama, motber. Mic-ambie, tell him ; mio-, objective prefix referring 
to a person ; -amhie, imperative sing, of amhia, tell. A-ku-pe, that be 
may give you. Kojia, cap. Na, and. Mama, mother. A-ku-pe, that 
she may give you. Taa, lamp. A-ka-enda, and he went. A-ka-ica- 
ambia, and he told them (the father and motber). Wa-ka-m-pa, and 
tbey gave him. Kofia, caps. Nij-ingi, many, A-ka-kataa, and he 
refused. A-ka-mxc-amhia, and he said to him. N-a-taka, I want. 
Siijo, this one, (^See above.} M-bovu, rotten. (See above). Wa-ka-m-pa, 
and tbey gave him. Na, and. Mama-ye, his motber. (See above, 
under babaye). A-ka-m-pa, she gave him. Taa, lamp. A-ka-ica-uliza, 
and he asked tbem. Kofia, cap. Sii, this ; demonstrative referring 
to a sing, substantive of the third class (kofia). Maana, meaning, 
purpose ; sing, substantive third class. Y-ake, its ; y-^ sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (maana). Nini, 
what ? Wa-ka-mic-ambia, and tbey said to him. M-tu, person, any 
one (p. 16) ; m-, sign of sing, substantive of first class. A-ki-vaa, if 
he puts on. Ha-onekani, he is not to be seen ; ha-, negative prefix of 
the third person sing, referring to a person ; onekani, negative present 
form of onekana. Na, by. M-tu, any one (p. 16). A-ka-vaa, and he 
put on. A-si-onekane, that he might not be seen : a-, prefix of third 
person sing, referring to a person (kijana); -si-, sign of negative 
subjunctive; -onekane, subjunctive form oi onekana. A-ka-furahi,Sknd 
be rejoiced. Sana, much. A-ka-uliza, and he asked. Taa, lamp. 
Hii, this. Maana, purpose. Y-ake, its. Nini, what? Wa-ka-mw- 
ambia, and tbey told him. U-ki-irasha, if you light. Hatta, as far as. 
Hapa, here. Wa-ta-toka, they will come out ; wa-, sign of third person 

my mother to give you the lamp." He went and told them, and tbey III. 
gave him many caps, but he refused and said, *' I want tbat worn-out 
one ; " and tbey gave it to him, and the boy's motber gave him tbe 
lamp. Then he asked, " What is the object of this cap ? " And they told 
him, " When a man puts it on, no one can see him." He put it on so as 
to become invisible, and was very gb^d. '• And be asked, What is tbe 
object of this lamp ? " And tbey toM him, " If vou light it as fur as this. 


I. watu wawili wakutilie thahabu nyumbani mwako usiku kucha, na 
ukiwasha hatta hapa watatoka watu wawili wakupige kwa vigo- 
ngo usiku kucha. Akanena, maraliaba. Akafurahi sana, akaenda 

II. plur. referring to a plural substantive of the first class (watu). Wa-tu, 
people. Wa-wili, two ; wa-, sign of agreement with a plur. substantive 
of the first class (watu). Wa-ku-tilie, that they may put for you ; wa- 
sign of third person plur. referring to a plur. substantive of the first 
class (watu) ; -ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
-tilie, subjunctive form of tilia, put for. Thahabu, gold. Ny-umhd-ni, 
in house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class; -ni, sign of 
locative case. Mw-aho, thy ; mw-, sign of agreement with a noun in 
the locative case denoting within. Usiku, night. Ku-cha, dawning or 
sun-rising ; used after usiku, it means all niglit until the morning 
comes. Na, and. U^i-washa, if you light. Hatta, as far as. Hapa, 
here. Wa-ta-toka, they will come out. Wa-tu, people. Wa-wili, two. 
Wa-ku-pige, that they may beat you ; -pige, subjunctive form of piga. 
Kwa, with. Vi-gongo, cudgels; vi-, sign of a plural substantive of 
the fourth class; ki-gongo is a diminutive (p. 19) of gongo, a staflF. 
Usiku, night. Ku-cha, till morning. A-ka-nena, and he said. 
Marahaba, thank you. A-ka-furahi, and he rejoiced. Sana, much. 
A-ka-enda z-ake, and he went away. 

III. two men will come out and bring you gold into your house all night 
long ; but if you light it as far as this, two men will come out and beat 
you with cudgels all night long." And he thanked them, and rejoiced 
very much, and went his way. 

( i43 ) 

Appendix IV. 


The first fifty-four were collected towards a book of conversations, 
which was begun with the help of our lamented friend, Mrs. G. E. 
Drayton; the rest, which are arranged in alpliabetical order, were 
noted from time to time, either as likely to be useful in conversation, 
or as illustrating some special rule or idiom. 

1. How many fowls have you there ? 

Unao Jc'uJcu nrjapif 

2. What do you want for them ? 

Kiad gani unakuza (At how much do you sell) ? 

3. Have you any eggs ? 

Unayo mayayi ? 

4. I will not give more than a pice apiece for the eggs. 

Nitakupa pesa moja tu kununua yayi, sitatoa zayidi (I will 
give you one pice only to buy an Qgg, I will not give more). 

5. I don't understand you, say it again. 

Sema mora ya pili, sikusikia. 

6. Let me hear it again. 

Sema mara ya pili, nipate kusilda (Say it a second time, 
that I may get to understand). 

7. Fetch me a basin for the eggs. 

Letee hakuli nitie mayayi. 

8. Bring the basin with the eggs in it. 

Letee hakuli lenyi mayayi. 

9. I don't want any to-day, come to-morrow. 

Leo sitaki, njoo kesho. 
10. Are lemons cheap now ? 

Malimao rahisi sasa ? 

444 APPENDIX ir. 

11. I won't buy them, they are too dear. 

Sitaki Jcununua, ni glialL 

12. What do you want ? 

Wataka nini ? 

13. I don't know what you want. 

Sijui ulitakalo. 

14. Where do you come from ? 

Watoka wapi ? 

15. Don't wait ; I will send an answer immediately. 

Enenda zako, usinrjoje, majihu yatakuja sasa Mvi (Go your 
way ; do not wait for an answer, it will come immediately). 

16. Is your master at home ? 

Bwana yupo i » 

17. Master is not at home ; he is gone out. 

Bwana hako {ox liayukd) nyumhani ; ametoka. 

18. Where are you going? 

Unakwenda wapi f 

19. I have lost my way. 

Nimepotea, njia sijui (I am lost ; the way I don't know). 

20. Will you guide me to the English mission ? 

Nataka unionyeshe mosketini Ingreza ? 

21. Can you understand English ? 

Wewe unajua maneno ya Kiingreza f 

22. I cannot speak Swahili [of Zanzibar]. 

Sijui kusema Kiunguja. 

23. Did the water boil ? 

Maji yameche^mka ? 

24. Does the water boil ? 

3Iaji yanache'mka ? 

25. These plates are not clean. 

Sahani liizi zina taka. 

26. Wipe them carefully. 

Futa vema kwa kiiamhaa. 

27. Sweep this room well. 

Fagia vema katika chumha Mki, 

28. Dust the furniture. 

Pangusa vumhi katika vyombo. 

29. You have cracked that cup. 

Umekitla ufa Mkomhe kile. 
3(1. Throw it away. 

31. Fetch me the vinegar, the pepper, and the salt 

Niletee siki, na pilipili, na cliumvL 


82. Don't make so much noise. 

TJsifanye uthia. 
33. Put a fresh wick in my lamp. 

Tia katika taa yangu utamhi. 
^. Fold up the table-cloth smoothly. 

Kunja verna Mtanibaa cha meza, usiJcivunje (Fol(Ljeell the 
cloth of the table ; spoil it not). 

35. When you have swept the room put on clean clothes. 

Kamma umekwisha hufagia, vaa nguo saji. 

36. Take this to Miss T. 

Chukua, upeleke kica hihi T. 

37. You have put all these books upside down ; turn them. 

Umepindua vyuo hivi vyote, uviweke upande mgine. 

38. Leave that alone ! 

Acha ! 

39. Come here, I want to speak to you. 

Kjoo hapa, 'nna maneno nitakwamhia (I have words I will 
say to you). 

40. Get ready to go for a walk. 

t'anya tayari upate kicenda kutembecu 

41. Are you ready ? 

TJmekuwa tayari^ 

42. Which way shall you like to go ? 

Njia gani utakao kupita 1 

43. How far is it to your shamba ? 

Kadri gani mbali ya shamha lako hatta kufika (How much 
farness of your shamba till getting there) ? 

44. Not very far ; perhaps an hour's walk. 

Si mbali sana, Idbuda ikipata saa moja. 

45. Shall you walk, or ride your donkey, or sail ? 

Utakwenda kwa miguu, ao utapanda pttnda, ao utakvcenda 
kwa mashua? 

46. We will go round the town and home by the bridcre. 

Tutazungiika katika mji, haJafa turudie dar aj a ni (Then let 
us return by the bridge). 

47. Bring me some hot water after breakfast. 

Niletee maji ya moto, nikiisJia kula. 

48. Half a bucket full. 

Nxus ya ndoo. 

49. Turn the mattress over every morning. 

Geuza killa siku godoro, cliinijuu. 
50. Turn it top to bottom. 

Z'pande Jiuu nweke upande ica pili. 

2 G 


51. I am very glad to see you. 

Umependa moyo wangu hukutazama. 

52. What ship is that ? 

Marikebu gani Mi ? 

53. Has she cast anchor yet ? 

Imetia nanga ? 

54. No, she will come nearer the shore. 

Bado, indkuja karibu ya pwani. 

55. A good man does not desert his friends when they fall into 

Mtu mwema hawaachi rafiki zake wakipatika na shidda. 

56. Are you idle ? 

Ati mvipu, ? 

57. At what time shall I come ? 

Wakti gani nije; 

58. Did he stay long ? 

Alikaa sana ? 

59. No, he went away directly. 

nda, alikwenda zake mara. 

60. Does he drink wine ? 

Hunywa divai ? 

61. He does not. 


62. Does this boat leak ? 

Mashua Mi yavuja ? 

63. Do not draw water from the well, the owner forbids it. 

Usiteke maji kisimani, mwenyewe agombeza. 

64. Don't jerk this rope ; if you do it will break. 

Kamha Mi usiikutue, ukikutua itakatika. 

65. Eat as much as you like. 

Kula kadri utakavyo. 

66. Find me a large hen. 

Kanitaftia koo la k^uku. 

67. Follow this road. 

Fuata [or andama'] njia Mi. 

68. I want you to follow me. 

Nataka unifuate [or uniandame]. 

69. Give it only to me and not to them. 

Nipe mimi tu, usiwape wale. 

70. Go and see if the people have collected. 

Kaangalia watu wamekutana. 

71. Go and stop that talking. 

Enenda kakomesha maneno haya. 


72. Stop this outcry. 

Makelele haya yakome (Let these cries cease). 

73. Gro away, whoever you are. 

Enda zako, hadri utakaokuwa. 

74. Guard yourself, I am going to hit you. 

Einga, takupiga. 

75. Has he a large box ? 

Ana kasha ? 

76. He has. 

Analo kasha. 
11. Have you a pipe at home ? 
Eiko kicako kiko ? 

78. He built a bridge across the river. 

Alijenga honth katikati ya mto. 

79. He built a mosque by the river, and endowed it with a shamba 

near ours. 
Alijenga moskiti ng'awho, akawekea tcakf shamha karihu 
shamba letu. 

80. He described Mombas as it was in early times, as it is now, and 

as it will be a hundred years hence. 
Aliandika Mvita ilivyokuvca kicanza, ilivyo sasa, na ituka' 
vyokuwa kica rniaka mia. 

81. He does not believe me though I saw it. 

Hanisadiki ningawa nimeiona. 

82. He had the toothache. 

AUkuica na jino likimwuma. 

83. He has been abroad many years. 

Alikuwa safarini miaka mingi. 

84. He has presence of mind. 

Moyo wake uwapo. 

85. His mind is absent. Hapo ati. 

86. He is a troublesome fellow to deal with. 

Ana taahu kuingiana naye. 

87. He is absorbed in his own thoughts ; even if you speak to him he 

takes no notice. 
Yu katika fikara zakwe ; ujaponena naye hawepo. 

88. He is here. 

Yupo hapa. 

89. He is not here. 

Hapo hapa. 

90. He is yonder. 

Tuko kule. 

2 G 2 


91. He is not there. 

Haico Tiule. 

92. He is not yet dressed. 


93. He left us about ten days ago. 

AUtimcha hadri tja (or kama) siku humi. 

94. He ought to be beaten. 

Aihtaji hupigiva. 

95. He pretends to be satisfied, but do not trust him. 

Ajifanya Imwa ratlii, usimwamini. 

96. He rose up from his chair. 

Aliondoka Tcitini kioaJce. 

97. He runs as fast as he can. 

Anakwenda mhio kama aivezavijo. 

98. He says he will walk on the water ! 

Ati atakwenda mtoni kica miguu! 

99. He that hateth suretyship is sure. 

Mtu asiyekuhdli kuthamini ni katika amani. 

100. He that is not against us is with us. 

Mtu asiyekuwa juu yetu, hassi yee pamoja nasi. 

101. He that is not with us is against us. 

Asiyekuwa pamoja nasi, hassi huyujuu yetu. 

102. He tried to make himself agreeable, and he succeeded. 

Alijipendekeza ndipo akapendeza. 

103. He was changed from a man into a horse. 

Alibadiliwa mtu kuwafrasi. 

104. He was more energetic than his father. 

Huyu alikuwa akiweza zayidi ya haba yoke. 

105. His non-appearance is unaccountable. 

Kutoivekana kwake haitamhulikani. 

106. His self-conceit is no good to him. 

Majivuno yake hayamfai neno. 

107. How are your household {i.e. your wife, daughters, &c.) ? 

TJ hali gani nyumhani ktvako. 

108. How far is it across the island ? 

Kupataje mbali wake hapa hatta pwani ya pili ? 

109. A fast walker would take from sunrise to the middle of the afternoor 

Akiondoka mtu assuhui hatta alasiri, alio hodari kicenda, 

110. How long has he been ill ? 

Tangu lini hawezi ? 

111. How long ago was his illness? 

Tangu lini alikuwa hawezi f 


112. How pleasant ! 


1 13. How glad you must have been to hear that you were to go home. 

Furaha ipi micaliposikia mwende zenu kweiiu. 

114. lam amusing myself with a book. 

Najizumgumza na cliuo. 

115. I am here. Kipo liapa. 
110. I am never without pimples. 

Vipele havinitoha hahisa. 

117. I am sleepy. 

Ninao usingizi. 

118. I cannot hold iu this horse. 

Siivezi huzuia frasi hivju. 

119. I cannot see so far as you can. 

Sioni inhali, hama icaonavyo-wewe. 
120 I don't like his way of tying it. 
Sipendi ginsi afungavyo. 

121. I don't see what you show me. 

Sioni ulionyalo. 

122. I don't see it, though he does. 

Siioni angaica aona. 

123. Take care, though you don't see it. 

Kaangalia, ujapo hukioni. 

124. I feel myself at home. 

Hujiona niho Icicetu. 

125. Make yourself at home. 

Usifanye haya, liapa Jcama J:wal:o (Feel no modesty, here is 
like your home). 
12G. I gave him good advice, though he would not take it. 
Nimemiconya illahini haJiuonyeha. 

127. I had almost left off expecting you. 

Nalilcarihia hukata tamaa ya kuhuona. 

128. I had lost my way, and I came out close to your shamba. 

Nalipotea njia nikatokea shamhaai kicaJco. 

129. I have asked him again and again, but he will not tell me. 

Nimemu'uUza raara kwa mara lakini hanamhii. 

130. I have gained a hundred dollars. 

Nalipata fayida reale mia. 

131. I have made you my mark, if you step over it, look out (a common 

Nimekupigia mfuo wangii kiuka icangalie. 

132. I know where he is. 

Namjvxx malidli alipo. 


133. I pray God not to visit it upon me. 

Naomha Micenyiezi Muungu asinipatiUze. 

134. I saw the flash of the gun, but did not hear the report. 

Nimeona mwanga, lakini sikusikia mzinga kulia. 
13.5. I shall go by sea as far as I can. 

Nitakicenda kwa haJiari, hatta itakaponifikisha. 

136. I shall go for a walk to stretch my legs. 

Nitakwenda temhea kukunjua miguu. 

137. I thought myself a king. 

Nalikuica nikhcaza nimekuwa Sidtani. 

138. I will shut the door that he may not go out. 

Nitafunga mlango asipate kupiia. 

139. If he strikes, you, hit him again. 

Akikupiga, nawe mpiga tena. 
HO. If you had been here he \fould not have been beaten. 
Kama ungalikuwapo hapa, hangalipigwa. 

141. It depends upon his coming. 

Kuna atakapokuja. 

142. It is bad weather. 

Kumekaa vibaya, 



143. It is being hawked about by a salesman. 

Kinatemhezwa kwa dalali. 

144. It is not there, though you say it is. 

Hakipo, ungaioa wasema kipo. 

145. It is time for us to go. 

Imekuwa wakati wa sisi kwenda zetu. 

146. It is quite time for us to go. 

Imewadia wakati wetu wa kwenda zetu. 

147. It was a secret, but it oozed out. 

Yalikuwa hahari ya siri, ikatokeza^ 

148. Let him go. 

Mwacheni enende. 

149. Moslems are forbidden wine. 

Waslimu wameepushwa divai 

1.50. Much self-exaltation ruins a man's position in the world. 

Majivuno yakiwa mengi ya'mvunjia mtu cheo. 

1.51. Nothing I do pleases him. 

Killa nafanyalo halimpendezi (everything which I do 
pleases him not). 
152. Whatever I do he finds fault with me. 

Killa nafanyalo hunitia khatiyani. 


153. Put the water on the fire. 

Kateleka maji. 

154. Sit down. 

Kaa kitako. 

155. Don't get up. 


156. The baobabs are now coming into leaf. 

Siku Jiizi mihuyu inachanua mcijani. 

157. The fields are flourishing. 

Koonde imesitawi, 

158. The music is first-rate. 

Ngoma inafana. 

1 59. The news has spread. 

Khabari zimeenea. ' 

160. Spread the news. 

Zieneza khahari. 

161. The people who went to Bardera are come back. 

Watu ivaliokicenda Baradera, wamekuja zao. 

162. The room wants darkening. 

Chumba chataka kutiwa giza. 

163. The top of this mountain is inaccessible. 

Juu ya mlima Jiuu haupandiki. 

164. They [the trees] are almost all dead. 

Kama kicamba iliokufa yote. 

165. They are badly stowed. 

Mapakizo yao mahaya. 

166. They cut the boat adrift. 

Wakakata kamha ya mashua ikachiikuliwa na maji. 

167. They like giving and receiving presents. 

Hupendelea kupana vitu. 

168. They shut themselves up in the fort. 

Wakajizuia gerezani. 

169. They told me what he had done. 

Walinamhia alivyofanya. 

170. They were fighting, and I passed by and separated them. 

WalUiuwa wakipigana, Jiapita mimi nikawaamua. 

171. This chest must-be taken care of. 

Kasha liili la kutunzica. 

172. This has been worn. 

Nguo hii imevaliwa. 

173. This tree is not so tall as that. 

Mti huu si mrefu kama ule. 


174. Upon your oath ! 

Utaapa ! 

175. Wash me these clothes. 

Nloshee nguo Mzi. 

176. The clothes have been washed. 

Nguo zimeosheJca. 
111. I have washed myself. 

178. Wash me ! Noshe ! 

179. We attacked them and they fell into confusion. 

Twaliwashambulia, wdkafazaika. 

180. We like his company. 

Kikao choke chema (his sitting is good). 

181. What do you earn by the month ? 

Upataje killa mwezi f 

182. What is become of him ? 

Amekuwaje ? 

183. What is this news about Ali ? 

Hahari gani tuzisikiazo za Ali f 

184. What are you talking about ? 

Maneno gani mnenayo ? 
Muktatha gani ? 
Mnenani ? 

185. What will you ferry me over for ? 

Utanivusha kwa kiasi gani ? 

186. When I have seen Mohammed, I mil give you an answer. 

Nikiisha mwona Mohamadi, nitakupa jawabu. 

187. Where is the knife I saw you with yesterday ? 

Kiko wapi kisu nalichokuona nachojanaf 
188 Where is the pain ? 

Mahali gani panapouma f 

189. Where is your pain? 

Wauma wapi ? 

190. Who is in there ? 

Mna nani ? 

191. "Sou cannot teach him anyhow. 

Kadri n'mfunzavyo hajui. 

192. We do not know whether he will not learn, or whether he canntt. 

Hatujui ya hwamha hataki kujif'jAiza ao liana akili za 

193. You have made this thread too tfght 

Uzi liuu mneutia kassi mno. 


194. You ought to love him very much. 

Wastnhili humpenda sana. 

195. Knarnba na kusengenya. To talk of a person behind his back, and 

secretly to make contemptuous signs about liim when 
present. This phrase is often used as a test of a stranger's 
knowledge of Swahili ; what it describes is counted as a 
special sin. 

196. To ask a man his name. 

Oh ! Rafild yangu namhie jina laho (Oh ! my friend, tell 
me your name). Wajua, hicana icee, tumeonana mimi 
naice, jina laho nimelisahau, tafdthal namhie jina laho 
(You know, sir, you and I have met [before], but I have 
forgotten your name, please to tell me your name). 

When you have heard it, say — Inshallah, sitalisahau tena 
(Please God, I shall not forget it again). 

197. A polite question and answer at leave-taking. 

Unayo Jiaja tena ? (Have you any further desire ?) 
Eaja yangu ya huii^lii icewe sana nafuraha (My desire is 
that you may live long and happily). 

( 455 ) 

Appendix V. 


The following account is based on scattered notices in the late Bishop 
Steere's collections, and on some tables furnished to the Kev. P. L. 
Jones -Bateman by a well-informed servant of the Mission in 

1. Money. 
The only copper coin in common use in Zanzibar is the Anglo- 
Indian quarter-anna, or pice, in Swahili pesa, plur. pesa or mapesa ; 
but the robopesa, or quarter-pice (of which, however, three are equal to 
one pice), is also current. 

The silver coins current are the Anglo-Indian rupee and, less com- 
monly, the Austrian dollar. The eight-anna (half-rupee), four-anna 
(quarter-rupee), and two-anna pieces are also met with. 

The relative values of these coins and their equivalent in English 
money fluctuate considerably. For practical purposes, it is suflScient 
to remember that an English sovereign may be generally exchanged 
for 12 rupees, English bank-notes, cheques, drafts, &c., being subject 
to a small discount ; that an Austrian dollar is reckoned as equal to 2 
rupees and 8 pice, and that a rupee is worth usually from 60 to 64 
pice. It follows that, though accounts are usually kept in dollars 
and cents, and 5 dollars reckoned as equal to one pound English, it is 
more exact to consider — 

8. d. 
1 dollar = 37 
1 rupee =18 
1 pice = i 

In larger sums, the scale of legal tender is to reckon— 
47 dollars = 100 rupees 
94 „ = 200 „ 

141 „ = 300 „ 

and so on. 


On the mainland, dollars and pice are taken freely on the coast and 
main lines of traffic, and rupees are met with ; but elsewhere, silver 
dollars only, and such objects of barter as calico, brass-wire^ beads, &c. 

2. Measures of Length. 

There is no exact standard or relationship of measures of length. 
Those in common use are merely taken from parts of the human body, 
viz. : — 

Wanda, plur. nyanda, a finger's breadth. 

Shihiri, a span, the distance between the tips of the outstretched 

thumb and little finger. 
Mdrita, a slightly shorter span, from the tip of the thumb to that 

of the fore-finger. 
Tliiraa or Mkono, a cubit, the distance from the finger-tips to the 
elbow joint. Of this again, there are two varieties : — 
TMraa Tiamili, or full cubit, as just described, and — 
Thiraa honde^ or fist cubit, from the elbow-joint to tho 
Wari, or yard, is one half of the — 

Pima, a man's height, or the distance he can stretch with his 
arms, a fathom. A doti is a measure of similar length. 
The uayo, or length of the foot, Arab Jchatua, is also used occa- 
sionally, and the English foot, futi, regularly by Indian carpenters and 
in other trades. Approximately, the relations of these measures may 
be tabulated thus : — 

1 wanda = 1 inch. 

8 or 10 nyanda = 1 shibiri kamili = 1 quarter-yard. 

2 shibiri = 1 thiraa or mhono = 1 cubit or half-yard. 
2 thiraa = 1 icari = 1 yard 

2 tcari = 1 pima = 1 fathom. 

Distance is loosely estimated by the average length of an hour's walk- 
ing. Dunga, which lies almost exactly halfway across the island of 
Zanzibar, at a distance of perhaps twelve miles, is described as a walk 
of four hours, saa 'nne ; and Kokotoni, at the north end of the island, 
distant perhaps twenty miles from Zanzibar, as a walk of at least 
six hours, saa sita. On the mainland, a day's march is a common but 
vague measure of perhaps twenty miles. 

3. Measures of Weight. 

For gold, silver, silk, scent, and other costly articles, the unit is the 
wahia, or weight of an Austrian silver dollar, almost exactly an ounce. 
For the names of fractional parts of any unit, see " Handbook," p. 93 ; 


but the ^veight of a pice is often used as a convenient though inexact 
measure of small quantities. 

For heavy articles, the usual unit is a rdtel, or rattli, equal to 10 
ivaJcia, and corresponding to one pound. 
16 icaJcia = 1 rdtel. 
3 i'dtel = 1 mani. 
6 rdtel = 1 pishi. 

6 pishi = 1 frasila, about 35 lbs. avoirdupois. 
10 frasila = 1 mzo. 
Hence, 64 frasila or 6| mizo may be regarded as = 1 ton. 

4. Pleasures of Capacity. 

No fixed liquid measure is used by the poorer classes. Shopkeepers 
sell their oil, treacle, &c., by tin-ladlefuls (hikombe), or by the bottle 
(chupa), or by the tin, i.e. the tins in which American oil is imported 
to Zanzibar (tanahi, tini, also dehe). 

Corn (nafaka) or dry measure is, of course, of great importance in a 
country where grain is the staple of food and chief article of commerce. 

The smallest unit is the — 

Kihaha, a measure of perhaps a pint. 

Kihaba cha tele, if the measure is heaped up — the usual pro- 
Kihaha cha mfuto, if cut off flat. 
2 vihaba (yya tele) = 1 Msaga. 
2 visaga = 1 pishi, about half a gallon. 

The pishi connects the measures of capacity and weight, and for 
some of the common dry commodities, such as chiroho and Tcundi, the 
pishi may be regarded as equivalent either in capacity to 4 vihaba, or 
in weight to 6 rattli. 

Grain is sold wholesale by the handa, or sack of grass-matting, or (if 
from India) by the gunia, a wide sack. The gunia often weighs about 
168 lbs. The handa varies, both with the kind of grain and the place 
from which it is imported. For instance, while at Kwale, Mgao, and 
Mvita, towns on the Swahili coast, the Mnda of rice at times contains 
10, 11, or 12 pishi, and the handa of Indian corn 10 pishi, at Pangani, 
Tanga, and Mtang'ata the handa of rice will contain 15, 16, or 17 
pishi, and the handa of Indian corn 13 or 132 P'^^hi. 

Various other terms are in use for different commodities, e.g. poles 
are sold by the Iwrja, or score ; stone for building by the homa, a heap 
which may weigh 4 cwt. to 5 cwt. ; lime by the tanuu (clamp) or hihapo ; 
calico by the jura, 35 yards ; and various other things by the " nizigo " 
or load. 



5. Points of the Compass. 



N. by E. 

Faragadi Matlai 


Nash Matlai. 

N.E. by N. 

Nagr Matlai. 


Luagr Matlai. 

N.E. by E. 

Dayabu Matlai. 


Semak Matlai. 

E. by N. 

Seria Matlai. 



E. by S. 

Sosa aiatlai. 


Tiri Matlai. 

S.E. by E. 

Lakadiri Matlai. 


Lakarabu Matlai. 

S.E. by S. 

Hamareni Matlai. 


Seheli Matlai. 

S. by E. 

Sonoobari Matlai. 



S. by W. 

Sonoobari MagaribL 


Seheli Magaribi. 

S.W. by S. 

Hamareni Magaribi. 


Lakarabu Magaribi. 

S.W. by W. 

Lakadiri MagaribL 


Tiri Magaribi. 

W. by S. 

Sosa Magaribi. 



W. by N. 

Seria Magaribi. 


Semak Magaribi. 

N.W. by W. 

Dayabu MagaribL 


Luagr MagaribL 

N.W. by N. 

Nagr Magaribi. 


Nash MagaribL 

N. by W. 

Faragadi MagaribL 



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